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Global Nationalism Since World War II
De-Colonization Ø Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial empires. • Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial territory gained independence. • New nations of Asia and Africa deeply influenced by Western ideas and achievements. Ø Causes • What are some causes to de-colonization?
India & Her Independence • Amritsar Massacre: • Causes: • British General Dyer had outlawed public meetings • Peaceful crown gathers and British open fire and kill over 350 and wound over a thousand • Britain promised Indians greater self government after the war, but they never fulfilled that promise • Effects: • Indian feelings in the INC changed from pushing for self rule to full independence from Britain
Mohandas Gandhi • • Joined a law firm in S. Africa – faced racial predjustice Fought laws with non-violent resistance – Satyagraha “Soul Force” (his nonviolent passive resistance) • Ahisma – ancient doctrine of non-violence and respect for life • Rejected Caste system inequalities and embraced western thought such as democracy and nationalism as well as Christian thought • Refused to obey unjust laws – civil disobedience • Organized boycotts of British goods – especially textiles and encouraged people to wear home spun cotton clothing (called a dhoti) • Symbol is the spinning wheel
The Salt March • Causes? • Effects: • Followers sold salt on the streets • Countries began writing stories about the brutality administered to the Indians by the British • How do you think Indians were viewed in newspapers around the world? • Non-violence persevered and Britain began to hand over power to the Indians
Muslim vs. Hindu • • Tensions between the two groups • Muslim League – Muhammad Ali Jinnah • Supported a separate Muslim state Tensions lead to Britain partitioning the subcontinent • Pakistan for the Muslims and India for the Hindus • Sikh and Hindu mobs slaughtered Muslims going into Pakistan, Muslims massacred Hindus Gandhi used satyagraha to try and restore peace – Famous hunger strike Jawaharlal Nehru led Congress party in its push for independence Clement Attlee and others in Labour party wished to focus on internal affairs. Lord Louis Mountbatten: appointed to supervise transition of India to independence Gandhi was killed by a Hindu extremists in 1948
De-Colonization - Africa • Egypt • Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952. • 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, the last symbol and substance of Western power in the Middle East. • France, Britain and Israel attacked Egypt, trying to take back control of Suez Canal • U. S. and Soviet Union demanded their withdrawal and the canal remained in Egypt's control • Nasser accepts money from the USSR to build the Aswan High Dam
Algeria • Algerian Crisis (mid 1950 s) • Algeria’s large French population considered Algeria an integral part of France. • A bitter war broke out between France and Algerian nationalists led by the National Liberation Front (FLN). • General De Gaulle, who had returned to power as part of movement to keep Algeria French, accepted principle of Algerian self-determination. • 1962, after more than a century of French rule, Algeria became independent and the European population quickly fled. • Crisis led to fall of the Fourth Republic and beginning of the Fifth Republic
De-Colonization – Sub-Saharan Africa • 1958, De Gaulle offered leaders of French black Africa choice of total break with France or immediate independence within a kind of French commonwealth. • All but one of new states chose association with France. • Cultural imperialism continued • France and Common Market partners saw themselves as continuing their civilizing mission in black Africa. • Desired untapped markets for industrial goods, raw materials, outlets for profitable investment, and good temporary jobs for their engineers and teachers. • New nations of Asia and Africa deeply influenced by Western ideas and achievements.
De-Colonization – Sub-Saharan Africa Ø Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial empires. • Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial territory gained independence. Decolonization proceeded much more smoothly than in northern Africa • British Commonwealth of Nations: beginning in 1957, Britain’s colonies achieved independence with little or no bloodshed; entered a very loose association with Britain. • Exception: Mao society were a Kenyan group of terrorists/freedom fighters who fought to end English control of Kenya. • Jomo Kenyatta will become the first elected president of an independent Kenya
Apartheid in South Africa • Goal – Ensure White economic power • Restricted better paying jobs for whites • Black South Africans had to carry Id badges • Evicted from the best land • The little voting rights that some educated blacks had were taken away • The Sharpeville massacre occurred on 21 March 1960, at the police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in the Transvaal After a day of demonstrations, at which a crowd of black protesters far outnumbered the police, the South African police opened fire on the crowd, killing 69 people.
Apartheid in South Africa • Nationalistic Movements • African churches and newspapers demanded rights • 1912 – Formation of the African National Congress (ANC) • Desmond Tutu • Black Anglican Bishop and civil rights leader • Convinced foreign nations and businesses to limit trade and investment in segregated South Africa • FW de Klerk • • Became president of S. Africa in 1989 Legalized ANC Repealed segregation laws Released Mandela
Apartheid in South Africa • Truth and Reconciliation • The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was set up by the government to deal with the violence and human rights violations that occurred under apartheid • Its task was to discover and reveal past wrongdoing by the government in hope of resolving conflict left over from the past • Anyone who felt that he or she was a victim of its violence was invited to come forward and be heard
De-Colonization – French Indochina Ø Vietnam • Ho Chi Minh of the Vietminh declared the country free • The French abandoned Vietnam after being defeated by the Vietminh • 1954 Geneva: Vietnam divided into communist North and non-communist South • Led to the Vietnam War Ø Cambodia Ø Turns communist under Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge guerillas Ø Began a reign of terror to turn Cambodia into a communist agricultural community Ø People who had high positions in society, wore glasses, had higher than a seventh grade education, had smooth hands were all killed Ø People were forced onto communes and worked tirelessly in the fields (“The Killing Fields”) for 12 -14 hour days for little food Ø In 1979 Vietnam invaded Cambodia to stop border attacks Ø In early 1990 s a settlement was negotiated to end the civil war and UN peacekeeping troops monitored the country
Nationalism in Europe • Russia • Terrorism, expansion or nationalism? • War in Chechnya • 1991 Chechen nationalists declared independence • Yeltsin ordered full scale invasion • 1997 peace agreement reached • Crimea Crisis 2014 • Ukrainian Crisis 2016 - present
European Nationalism Ø Former Eastern Bloc nations sought a break from the USSR which can be seen dating back to the 1960’s in Czechoslovakia and Hungary and continuing until today Ø Chechnya in Russia wishes to gain independence and has used terrorist tactics to achieve this end
European Nationalism: Civil War in Yugoslavia
European Nationalism: Civil War in Yugoslavia • Cause: 1990 President Slobodan Milosevic began giving concrete form to his greater Serbian nationalism; established tighter central control over previously autonomous regions • • • In response Croatia & Slovenia declared independence and each fought Serbia in the process Bosnia declared its independence in March 1992 and the civil war spread there. Bosnian Serbs (about 30% of pop. ) refused to live in a Muslim-dominated state and began military operations assisted by Serbia and the Yugoslav federal army; Sarajevo under attack Ethnic cleansing: Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying of houses, rape, expulsion, and murder. Concentration camps were set up similar to those found in Nazi occupied territories The United Nations (U. N. ) refused to intervene in the conflict in Bosnia, but a campaign spearheaded by its High Commissioner for Refugees provided humanitarian aid to its many displaced, malnourished and injured victims.
Yugoslavia – Srebrenica 1995 • • • By the summer of 1995, three towns in eastern Bosnia--Srebrenica, Zepa and Gorazde--remained under control of the Bosnian government. The U. N. had declared these enclaves "safe havens" in 1993, to be disarmed and protected by international peacekeeping forces. On July 11, however, Bosnian Serb forces advanced on Srebrenica, overwhelming a battalion of Dutch peacekeeping forces stationed there. Serbian forces subsequently separated the Bosnian civilians at Srebrenica, putting the women and girls on buses and sending them to Bosnian-held territory. Men and boys who remained behind were killed immediately or bussed to mass killing sites. Estimates of Bosnians killed by Serb forces at Srebrenica range from around 7, 000 to more than 8, 000.
Yugoslavia – International Response • • • In August 1995, after the Serbs refused to comply with a U. N. ultimatum, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) joined efforts with Bosnian and Croatian forces for three weeks of bombing Bosnian Serb positions and a ground offensive. With Serbia's economy crippled by U. N. trade sanctions and its military forces under assault in Bosnia after three years of warfare, Milosevic agreed to enter negotiations that October. Dayton Accords • The U. S. -sponsored peace talks in Dayton, Ohio in November 1995 (which included Izetbegovic, Milosevic and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman) resulted in the creation of a federalized Bosnia divided between a Croat-Bosniak federation and a Serb republic.
Yugoslavia – International Response • • • In May 1993, the U. N. Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at The Hague, Netherlands. It was the first international tribunal since the Nuremberg Trials in 1945 -46 and the first to prosecute genocide, among other war crimes. Radovan Karadzic and the Bosnian Serb military commander, General Ratko Mladic, were among those indicted by the for genocide and other crimes against humanity. Over the better part of the next two decades, the ICTY charged more than 160 individuals of crimes committed during conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Brought before the tribunal in 2002 on charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, Slobodan Milosevic served as his own defense lawyer; his poor health led to long delays in the trial until he was found dead in his prison cell in 2006. In 2007, the International Court of Justice issued its ruling in a historic civil lawsuit brought by Bosnia against Serbia. Though the court called the massacre at Srebrenica genocide and said that Serbia "could and should" have prevented it and punished those who committed it, it stopped short of declaring Serbia guilty of the genocide itself.
Kosovo Crisis 1999 • • Milosevic attempted to ethnically cleanse Kosovo of Albanian Muslims. particular brought new international attention to the conflict. NATO intervened by bombing Yugoslavia between 24 March and 10 June 1999, aiming to force Milošević to withdraw his forces from Kosovo. • This military action was not authorized by the Security Council of the United Nations and was therefore contrary to the provisions of the United Nations Charter. • However, other law experts disagree, stating "if NATO action is designed to ensure humanitarian relief for the people of Kosovo or merely to help them to repel armed aggression, one could argue that Security Council authorization may not be necessary. " During the conflict, roughly a million ethnic Albanians fled or were forcefully driven from Kosovo. Ultimately by June, Milošević had agreed to a foreign military presence within Kosovo and withdrawal of his troops. Since May 1999, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia has prosecuted crimes committed during the Kosovo War. On 10 June 1999, the UN Security Council passed UN Security Council Resolution 1244 that provided that Kosovo would have autonomy within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and affirmed the territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, which has been legally succeeded by the Republic of Serbia.
European Nationalism – Western Europe Ø British Resistance to the EU in the late 1980’s Ø Joined EU, did not enroll in the European Monetary Union (EMU) and accept the Euro as its currency Ø French Resistance to NATO in the 1960’s Ø Feared American dominance in European politics Ø Terrorist Organizations Ø IRA (Irish Republican Army) terrorized English cities demanding that Northern Ireland be returned to Ireland Ø ETA in the Basque Region of Spain used terrorism in its attempt for independence
European Nationalism – Western Europe Ø Xenophobia Ø “Guest Workers” became a major source of tension among right-wing nationalists Ø Northern African immigrants in France Ø Turkish immigrants in Germany and Austria Ø In France Jean-Marie La Pen the most outspoken opponent of both immigration and French integration into the European Union – FRENCH NATIONAL FRONT Ø In Austria, Jorg Haider led the right-wing Austrian Freedom Party that was staunchly opposed to immigration His party ascension to the ruling coalition government in 2000 resulted in the EU demanding that he step down
Terrorism • • • Is the deliberate use of unpredictable violence especially against civilians to gain revenge or achieve political goals Tactics: • Suicide bombings of trains, busses, planes • Hijackings • Kidnappings Why? • The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political • • conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state or become part of a different state Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups Imposition of a particular form of government Economic deprivation of a population Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army Religious fanaticism Groups Known to Use Terrorism: • • • Al-Qaeda Hamas Hezbollah ETA IRA
Terrorism • Recent European Events • • • 2004 Madrid Train bombings – al-Queda 2004 – Belsan School Crisis, Chechnya (Russia) 2005 London Bus Bombings 2015 – Charlie Hebdo Attacks France 2015 – November Paris Attacks 2016 – Brussels attacks 2016 - Nice Bus Attacks 2016 – Berlin Christmas Market Attack 2017 – UK Parliament Attack
Arab Nationalism • • Arab nationalists loosely united by opposition to colonialism and migration of Jews to Palestine Israel and Palestine • Balfour Declaration in 1917 indicated Britain favored creation of Jewish “national home” in Palestine —opposed by Saudi Arabia & Transjordan • Great Britain announced its withdrawal from Palestine in 1948. • United Nations voted for creation of two states, one Arab and one Jewish • Palestinians vowed to fight on until state of Israel destroyed or until they established own independent Palestinian state; led to several wars and numerous conflicts in late 20 th century
Arab- Israeli Conflict • • David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s first Prime Minister, proclaimed the independence of the new State of Israel on May 14, 1948. First Arab – Israeli War: • • The following day, Arab armies from Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq attacked the new Jewish state. This was the first Arab-Israeli war, called by the victorious Israelis the “War of Independence. ” As a result of the 1948 war, approximately 700, 000 Arabs fled or were displaced and became refugees from the areas over which Israel obtained jurisdiction. As a result of its defensive war, Israel obtained twenty percent more land than the UN partition allotted. Transjordan captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem (the Old City), later annexed them, and officially changed its name to Jordan. Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip. The Arab countries would not enter into a peace agreement with Israel.
Arab- Israeli Conflict – Six Day War / Arab -Israeli War • • • Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Iraq moved their armies to Israel’s borders. Egypt closed the international water way, the Straits of Tiran, to all Israeli shipping, an act of war according to international law. These actions were accompanied by publicly stated intentions by Arab leaders to destroy Israel. After weeks of fruitless diplomacy, Israel launched a preemptive strike against the Arab armies mobilized on its borders, and a six-day war ensued between Israel and Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iraq. As a result of the war, Israel captured the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. Israel offered to return land it captured in exchange for peace treaties and recognition of its right to exist
Arab- Israeli Conflict - The Palestinian Liberation Organization • • is an organization created in 1964 by Nasser of Egypt with the purpose of creating an independent State of Palestine It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by the United Nations and over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974 In 1993, PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and rejected "violence and terrorism"; in response, Israel officially recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people during the 1970 s, the PLO was effectively an umbrella group of eight organizations headquartered in Damascus and Beirut, all devoted to armed resistance to either Zionism or Israeli occupation, using methods which included direct clashing and guerrilla warfare against Israel.
Yassir Arafat • He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and leader of the Fatah political party and former paramilitary group, which he founded in 1959. • Arafat spent much of his life fighting against Israel in the name of Palestinian self-determination. Originally opposed to Israel's existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242.
Arab- Israeli Conflict: Yom Kippur War • • • Egypt and Syria attacked Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year. After initial Arab military successes, the Israelis managed to push back the attack. The US convinced Israel to withdraw from the territories it had entered. For many Israelis, the 1973 war reinforced the strategic importance of the buffer zones gained in 1967. Syrian troops were stopped ten miles from the Israeli town of Tiberias; many Israelis felt that the heartland of Israel could have been overrun without the time it took for the invading forces to move through the West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sinai. After the war, Israel retained the territories captured in 1967, but did not keep any additional land.
Arab- Israeli Conflict: The First Intifada • • • Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank engaged in an uprising, or intifada, against Israeli control of these territories. Palestinians attacked Israelis with improvised weapons and firearms supplied by the PLO, which organized much of the uprising. Suicide attacks against civilians in Israel began at this time. Israel used military force to contain the violence. The Israeli army, trained to fight regular armies, was not well prepared to respond to these kinds of attacks. This conflict continued until the Oslo Accords were signed in 1993.
Arab- Israeli Conflict: Camp David Accords • Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar al. Sadat of Egypt signed agreements in Camp David. The American-sponsored talks paved the way to the peace treaty signed in 1979. • • • As a result of intense diplomatic efforts by the United States, Egypt became the first Arab country to recognize Israel and to enter into a peace treaty with it. Egypt’s President, Anwar Sadat realized that a continuing state of war with Israel was harming the Egyptian economy and the well-being of his people. For its part, Israel returned to Egypt all of the Sinai that had been captured during the 1967 war and removed Jewish families from the homes they had established there. This agreement became a model for Israel’s “land for peace” policy.
Arab- Israeli Conflict: The Oslo Accords • • The Oslo Accords were a set of agreements that began in 1993 when Israel and the PLO signed a Declaration of Principles (DOP). The Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority, which had responsibility for administering the territory under its control. It also called on Israel to gradually withdraw its military presence from the Gaza Strip and a small area around Jericho. It left Israel the right to defend itself and its citizens, including those in the territories. For the first time the PLO formally recognized Israel, renounced violence, and publicly expressed acceptance of peaceful coexistence with Israel. Also, for the first time Israel formally recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people. The Oslo Accords were intended to be an interim agreement that would lead to a permanent settlement with Israel giving up land in return for peace and security. Both Israelis and Palestinians accuse the other of not fulfilling their obligations.
Arab- Israeli Conflict: The Second Intifada • • In September 2000, Israeli General Ariel Sharon visited the Jewish Temple Mount, a site revered by Jews that is also of major importance to Muslims. There was widespread frustration at the lack of progress in the peace process. Many Palestinians claimed that Sharon’s visit was provocative and began to riot. Many Israelis claimed that Sharon's visit was a pretext for violence, not its cause. This visit began the Second Intifada, known to Palestinians as the Al-Aqsa Intifada, named for the Al-Aqsa Mosque which is on the Temple Mount. The conflict caused great bloodshed and suffering on both sides. There is no definitive event marking the end of the Second Intifada. Many people suggest late 2004 or early 2005. Others argue it never stopped.
Arab- Israeli Conflict: Roadmap to Peace • • • The Roadmap for Peace, known as the Roadmap, is a plan for peace that was proposed in 2003 by the “Quartet: ” the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations. It involves reciprocal steps by the Israelis and Palestinians with the ultimate goal of an independent Palestinian state and a secure Israel. The Roadmap is divided into three phases, but has never progressed past the first. Progress on the Roadmap was completely halted following the Palestinian election of Hamas in 2006. (Hamas is a terrorist organization committed to destroying Israel. ) Negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority became possible again when the Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas, dissolved the government controlled by Hamas. There has yet to be significant progress as a result of the Roadmap
• • Iranian Revolution Causes: • 1970’s US backed the shah of Iran who westernized. • Many thought he was a puppet of the US. • Exiled Ayatollah Khomeini led opposition to the shah and westernization • Overthrew shah and created an Islamic Fundamentalist state Effects: • New government extremely hostile toward the west • Western books, music and movies were banned • Government required strict adherence to fundamentalist beliefs – no separation of state and religion • Women lost rights • Militants seized the American embassy in Tehran and held a group of Americans there for over a year • Government encourages other countries to overthrow secular governments and create Islamic republics
Iraq • • Persian Gulf War 1990: • Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded neighboring Kuwait and seized its oil fields. • US saw this as a threat to Saudi Arabia and the flow of oil • Organized a trade embargo • Iraq refused to leave – war resulted • War was quick and Kuwait was liberated Iraq War (2001 -2011) • Saddam Hussein refused to allow UN weapons inspectors inside Iraq • Military intelligence believed he was hiding weapons of mass destruction • He may have been aiding terrorism • He also committed human rights violations against the Kurds by using poisonous gas • Coalition forces invaded and quickly defeated the Iraqi military • Hussein was captured in December 2003 • Elections were held in 2005 and a new constitution was drawn • Hussein was tried by the Iraqis for certain crimes including crimes against humanity. • He was convicted and hung
Arab Spring • Period that began in Tunisia in December 2010 when a street vendor set himself on fire to show his frustration with the government and police. This led to an uprising calling for democratic change • This spread across the Middle East via social media and the internet