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GISC 6383 Geographic Information Systems Management & Implementation Introduction: The Challenges Dr. Ronald Briggs University of Texas at Dallas Program in Geographic Information Sciences
Course Objectives • to understand the fundamentals of implementing and managing Geographic Information Systems within modern organizations – maximizing the liklihood of success – minimizing the liklihood of failures
Who is in Attendance? • • Graduate Students pursuing degrees GIS Professionals seeking additional skills People who think GIS holds promise Students who couldn’t care less - need the hours and the time fitted their schedule
Texts Tomlinson, Roger Thinking about GIS: GIS Planning for Managers ESRI Press, 2005 2 nd ed. (1 st ed is OK) Zeiler, M. Modeling our World: The ESRI Guide to Geodatabase Design ESRI Press, 1999 Alternative Texts to Tomlinson : Huxhold, William E. and Levinsohn, Allan G. Managing Geographic Information System Projects New York: Oxford, 1995 Harmon and Anderson The Design and implementation of Geographic Information Systems Wiley, 2003
Alternative Texts and Useful Books Management/People focused Obermeyer, Nancy J. and Pinto, Jeffrey K. Managing Geographic Information Systems New York: The Guilford Press, 1994 (dated and very academic) von Meyer, Nancy and R. Scott Oppman Enterprise GIS. URISA, 1999, 98 pp. (set of case studies) Derek Reeve, GIS, Organizations and People London: Taylor & Francis, 2000 (UK case studies) Heather Campbell and Ian Masser GIS and Organizations London Taylor and Francis, 1995 (earlier edition of Reeve) Technology focused Korte, George B. The GIS Book Santa Fe: Onword Press, 5 th Ed. 2001 Hohl, Pat GIS Data Conversion: Strategies, Techniques, Management Santa Fe, Onword Press, 1998 Yong-Qi Chen and Yuk-Cheung Lee Geographical Data Acquisition Springer-Verlag, 2001, Shashi Shekhar and Sanjay Chawla Spatial Databases: A Tour Prentice Hall, 2003
ESRI PRESS Application area series Public Sector • O’Looney, John Beyond Maps: GIS and Decision Making in Local Government, 2000 --- excellent! • Fleming, Cory The GIS Guide for Local Government Officials , 2005 • Huxhold, W. E. Arc. GIS and the Digital City: A hands-on approach for local government, 2004 • Green, R. W. Open Access-GIS in E-Government, 2001 • Green, R. W. GIS in Public Policy • Amdahl, G. Disaster Response: GIS for Public Safety, 2001 • Green, R. W. Confronting Catastrophe: A GIS Handbook, 2002 • Le. Gates, R. Think Globally, Act Regionally: GIS and data visualization for social science and public policy research, 2005
ESRI PRESS Application area series Private Sector/Specific Application Areas • • • Boyles, C. T. Measuring Up: The Business Case for GIS, 2004 Harder, C. GIS Means Business, 1998 Lang, L. Managing Natural Resources with GIS, 1998 Harder, Christian Enterprise GIS for Energy Companies, 1999 Lang, Laura GIS for Health Organizations, 2000 Godin, Lisa GIS in Telecommunications, 2001 Lang, Laura Transportation GIS, 1999 Godin, Lisa GIS in Telecommunications, 2001 Herzog, David Mapping the News: GIS in Jounalism, 2003 (features UTD!) • Harder, C. Enterprise GIS for Energy Companies 1999 • Lang, L. Managing Natural Resources with GIS, 1998 • Hanna, K GIS for Landscape Architects, 1999
Semester Student Assignments • Provide a State-of-the-Art Technology Assessment report for a selected topic: – class presentation to be made on assigned date and accompanied by written evaluation – See course outline for example topics: you may select others – 2 or 3 people per group (no more and no less: 12 groups max. ) • Prepare a GIS Implementation Plan for an organization, using principles outlined in class – 1. By or before date of Midterm, identify organization and send me e -mail outlining your intentions. – 2. Turn in your written report (target 10 -15 pages) at semester end. See course syllabus for exact due dates. See Web site for additional details.
What is a GIS? A GIS allows the geographic features in real world locations to be digitally represented so that they can be abstractly presented in map (analog) form, and they can be worked with and manipulated to address some problem. It can be the basis for: • conducting a project, • running one or more departments within an organization, • or for managing an entire enterprise.
Real World A city wants you to propose a plan for re-organizing its primary operations (80% of which are geographic based) so that standard daily operations, as well as longer-term decision making, can be accomplished more speedily and efficiently. You propose an inter-departmental shared GIS to replace paper maps and documents associated with daily operations and to improve data and information flow between departments to enhance and speed-up decision-making.
Real World • Texas Super High Speed Rail asks YOU to propose alternative routes, with initial cost estimates, for high speed rail lines linking Dallas, Houston, San Antonio. The initial plan should be ready next month. You use GIS to examine alternative corridors and estimate costs.
An Oil company wants to start documenting it’s oil production by well. They own or lease over 30 thousand wells worldwide. Set up a GIS that can accept reporting data on a daily basis and analyze production trends. • Add natural features • Add human features • Add socio-economic data • Utilize industry standard commercial database (Oracle, SQL Server, etc. )
• A City wants YOU to supply it with all it’s base mapping, set up it’s new computers/GIS network so maps can be shared between departments, train it’s users and make quarterly updates for them until they hire a GIS Coordinator. They need a proposal in two weeks.
Real World You are an intern in the city fire department. The fire chief has heard of GIS and thinks it could help them with their planning. Being young, educated, somewhat computer literate, but not trained to go out on fire-trucks (thus in the chief’s eye relatively useless), you are asked to research this and make recommendations.
GIS Scope • Project • Single department application (Departmental GIS) • Multi departmental application • Enterprise system (Enterprise GIS) • Multi Institutional endeavor (Community GIS)
Level I: Project • Institutional Environment – – – Expected result is a product Project has an end date Costs paid by project No long-term support expected & no commitment to GIS little or no organizational impact • GIS Implementation Approach – One-time effort – need best tool for the job – consultant or contractor may do entire thing • Benefit – product produced on-time & within budget • highway feasibility study completed • rail line corridor study complete
Level II: Single Department (but perhaps multiple of them!) • Institutional Environment – – – Small Institution or Single Department Well-defined, existing business function to be supported Ongoing support is required but no major commitment to GIS Little or no reorganization e. g. manual drafters shift to GIS workstation Managed by departmental responsible for business activity Corporate support nice, but not needed • GIS Implementation Approach – – PCs, with local department network File-based spatial data; maybe CAD focused Little or no integration with attribute databases Little or no sharing of information within or beyond department • Benefit Example: automate map production or manage storm water drainage system – supports specific business task more effectively and efficiently
Level III: Multi-Department/Service Resource • Institutional Environment – – – Mid-size to large institution, more than one department More significant commitment of staff and budget to GIS Ongoing support and update strategies essential Some organizational or functional adjustments required perhaps run as a service department or managed by cooperating departments corporate support helps, but not essential • GIS Implementation – – Multiple, networked PCs Topological GIS data Relational database Some information sharing between departments • Benefit – – Improves effectiveness of specific business tasks Improved operational efficiency Integration of business functions Better use of limited resources Example: automate map production and manage storm water drainage system
Level IV: Enterprise System • Institutional Environment – Usually medium to large institution, multiple departments – High level long-term commitment of staff and resources to GIS – Organization-level strategic planning via formal methodology, distributed implementation and maintenance – Incorporation of GIS as part of organizational infrastructure for production of services; significant organizational adjustments – corporate management support and involvement of corporate is essential • GIS Implementation – – Distributed client-server networks Integration of multiple GIS, database, and related technologies Multi-department data sharing, standards and metadata essential Example: • Benefit: as for multi-department, plus “Calgary – Emphasis is improved effectiveness (better , not just cheaper!) Implements – Consistent information Enterprise GIS” – Better decision making – Better external service to citizens and customers ARCNews, v. 21, #2, 1999
Level V: Multi-Organizational • Institutional Environment – public organizations, most probably; industry alliance possibly, but anti -trust laws may be a problem – Multi-participant organizational structure for planning and policy – Distributed maintenance responsibilities across organizations – Long-term, high level commitment among participating organizations – Significant reorganization of functions across organizations • GIS Implementation – – Distributed maintenance of shared elements Data exchange facility via Internet or other WAN Data integration from multiple technologies standards and metadata paramount Example: • Benefits – lower costs to citizen/tax payer – enhanced competitive position State government, metropolitan area, industry alliance
Scope of Management Challenge • Know how to use GIS as a tool – route fire or garbage trucks – draw maps – reduce losses from fires – enhance service to citizens/customers • Appreciate the challenge of integrating GIS enterprise-wide into the organization to enhance its efficiency and effectiveness – This is what we will do!!! Gets harder! • Understand how GIS can be used to meet the goals and objectives of your unit or organization
Fundamental Management Responsibilities • Plan! – Taking the hits as they come is not management! • If you don’t know where you are going, you never get there • The unexpected should never be expected • Standardize! – Free-for-all throughout the organization is not management! – Standards are paramount • Document! – Relying on people’s heads as the depository for organizational knowledge is not management!
Take a Break!
GIS Implementation • no guaranteed recipe for success • no cookie-cutter formula to apply BUT • there are general procedures and processes (models) which can help immeasurably • ignorance of problems & past failures is not bliss • to be forewarned is to be forearmed!
Context for Successful GIS Implementation (What you need to understand: primary course topics) • GIS Paradigm – Use of spatial location as integrating framework for information – Understanding the GIS paradigm the focus of GISC 6381 Fund. • Geographic Data Management Principles – Extend data management principles to include geographic focus – db (database) principles one major component of this course • Technology – Select appropriate GIS-enabling technology and plan to evolve – Addressed via student group technology reports • Organizational Setting – Organizational setting a crucial ingredient to success/failure – Systematic GIS design process essential for enterprise-wide applications: major topic for this course
Steps in a GIS Project • I. Data acquisition (never underestimate the cost!) – – paper maps digital files remote sensing/satellite fieldwork • II. Preprocessing: preparation & integration – format conversion – digitizing and/or scanning – edge matching and rectification Appropriate for a project, but insufficient for an enterprise implementation. • III. Data Management – variable selection & definition – table design (performance v. usability) – CRUD policies/procedures: Create (data entry), Retrieve (view), Update (change), Deletion (remove) • IV. Manipulation and Analysis (all the user cares about!) – address matching – network analysis – terrain modelling (e. g. slopes, aspects) • V. Product Generation – tabular reports – graphics (maps and charts)
• GIS Enterprise Planning Process: general strategy Conceptual Design/Needs Assessment/Requirements/ why do it retirement savings? – does it support organization’s goal or strategic plan? – Tomlinson Chap 3, 4, 5 Chap. 11 – Huxhold Chap. 3 Strategic Planning for GIS • Logical Design: what it does boats & cars? kids college? residence? bachelor pad m-no-k core family extended family Physical design: how it will do it – hardware, software, data, applications, people & their management or 3 story Ranch – Tomlinson Chap 8, Chap 9, Chap 10 floorplans – Huxhold Chap. 4 Implementation Planning wood or brick – what business process(es) will be supported? – Tomlinson Chap 6 , 7 – Huxhold Chap. 5 Systems Design Methodology • • Implementation: getting it going – actually doing it! – Tomlinson Chap 12 – Huxhold Chap. 6 Implementation Management • On-going System Management: keeping it going – operations, maintenance, update and use – Huxhold Chap. 7 Managing the System tub or shower Dirt flies concrete poured Move in. Living there. Maintenance Home improvements
…if you were building your dream house, would you use blueprints?
GIS Development Guides State of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997) Needs Assessment Conceptual Design http: //www. sara. nysed. gov/pubs/gisindex. htm 1 An 11 -step Process 2 6 Database Planning and Design Available Data Survey 5 Database Construction GIS System Integration 3 Pilot/ Benchmark H/W & S/W Survey 4 7 Acquisition of GIS Hardware and Software 8 Application Development GIS Use and Database Maintenance 9 9 11
A 10 -Stage GIS Planing Methodology Tomlinson, Thinking About GIS • • • Consider the strategic purpose Plan for the planning Conceptual Design Conduct a technology seminar Describe the information products Define the system scope Logical Design Create a data design Choose a logical model Physical Design Determine system requirements Benefit-cost, migration and risk analysis Make an implementation plan Implementation
Analysis of Requirements Specification of Requirements 1. Definition of Objectives 6. Final Design 8. Shortlisting 2. User Requirements 7. Request for Proposal (RFP) 9. Benchmark Testing 12. Contract 10. Cost. Effectiveness Evaluation 13. Acceptance Testing 3. Preliminary Design 4. Cost-Benefit Analysis 5. Pilot Study Evaluation of Alternatives A Fourteen Step Implementation Process! (assumes external acquisition) Source: Longley, et. al. p. 391 Implementation of System 11. Implementation Plan 14. Implementation
Five-step Process from Somers/URISA Conceptual design Plan Logical design Analyze Physical design Design Implementation Acquire & Develop Operate & Maintain Source: Rebecca Somers, Quick Guide to GIS Implementation and Management Park Ridge, IL: Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 2001, p. 7
“Its not the order or precise structure of the tasks but rather that, in one way or another, all get completed. ” GIS Development Guides State of New York, Local Government Technology Services (1997)
But…. . no guaranteed recipe for success!
Evolution of Issues During Implementation as implementation proceeds Campbell, (1992) • Technological, associated with system compatibility • data-related, associated with lack of consistency between data sets • organizational, associated with data ownership and control • institutional, associated with how to use information in the policy-making process Each challenge must be overcome as the implementation process proceeds.
Human Factors Paramount Campbell, 1992 • Organizations, and units in them, jealously guard their scope of activity and treat with suspicion proposals that may change this • administrative applications associated with cost savings are more readily accepted than decisionmaking applications to be used by policy makers • local communities very suspicious of developments that suggest centralization of information and therefore power • GIS techies often uncomfortable with social and political aspects of system implementation and utilization, thus need to involve politically-adept users/line managers/policy makers
People problems paramount! • ". . As far as your project goes, I'm willing to help but I'm not sure we are the ideal candidate for the project. I'm working for the Department of Natural Resources which covers a lot of territory: Oil and Gas Administration, Water Administration, Game and Fish Department, Land Administration, etc. All these departments are sort of run as little fiefdoms with each not really working with the others unless they have to. It's sort of the norm, nobody wants to coordinate with anyone else. I know from attempts in the past that it is nearly impossible to get information or data from these guys. In some cases we have ended up collecting our own data just because we couldn't get copies from other departments. We had a full time planner spend the better part of a year meeting with department heads to try to identify their needs, update the status of various projects, and come up with a plan for the future. Very frustrating as this was all work that was going to help them but they didn't want to cooperate at all. Long story short, I'm willing to help but can't commit much time to dealing with these idiots, trying to get information out of them. This is a weird little environment and not really like the "real world" in a lot of respects. . . " • Quote from an e-mail received by a student in GISC 6383
Conclusion: GIS Implementation • a comprehensive, systematic approach to planning, design and implementation will more likely produce a successful GIS implementation--but no guarantees! • GIS is both an enabling technology and a set of concepts about organizing work and data, thus it will impact an organization’s established “way of doing business” • management and institutional issues raise the greatest challenges, thus must be addressed – “The only human that loves change is a baby in diapers”: • open, participative processes are more likely to deal successfully with these management and institutional issues ( and the technical ones!), therefore involve people • GIS is a complex information technology application, thus many of the same principles apply as in IT…. . .
Conclusion: Information Technology Implementation • Organizational change is both a cause and an effect of evolving information technology • Human aspects of organizational change are more important and challenging than technical aspects • While information technology can improve organizational performance, the technology alone will not transform an organization • Successful implementation depends on planned, wellconceived and managed integration of information technology change and organizational change A corresponding list of implementation challenges from an IT text!
Conclusion: GIS within Context Organizational Context --people and processes Management Organizational Context --people and processes Organization’s Goals and Strategies Technological Environment