Скачать презентацию GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY PART I Lecture 10 Скачать презентацию GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY PART I Lecture 10

PHIL-PP-L- 10.German Classic-1.pptx

  • Количество слайдов: 19

GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY (PART I) Lecture # 10 GERMAN CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY (PART I) Lecture # 10

Content of the lecture: • Introduction • Classical German philosophy • Prominent German philosophers: Content of the lecture: • Introduction • Classical German philosophy • Prominent German philosophers: I. Kant F. W. Schelling J. Fichte • Recommended Readings

Europe at the end of XVIII century Europe at the end of XVIII century

Introduction • The end of XVIII and first half of XIX century characterized by Introduction • The end of XVIII and first half of XIX century characterized by absolutely domination of German classical philosophy • German classical philosophy considered the top of the development of philosophical thought of Modern Times

Classical German philosophy • Interest in theory of knowledge (epistemology); • Interest in ethical Classical German philosophy • Interest in theory of knowledge (epistemology); • Interest in ethical issues; • Desire to develop a universal (absolute) laws of the world and of human thinking; • High scientific level of philosophical works

Prominent German philosophers Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) • Kant spent all his life in Prominent German philosophers Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) • Kant spent all his life in Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) • He was head of the philosophy department at the university, and later became its rector • Two periods of Kant biography: 1. Subcritical (up to 1770) 2. Critical (from 1770)

Kaliningrad (former Konigsberg) Kaliningrad (former Konigsberg)

Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) 1. Subcritical (up to 1770) • Kant started work as Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) 1. Subcritical (up to 1770) • Kant started work as a scientist • He formulated the hypothesis of the solar system, the influence of the moon on the tides 2. Critical (from 1770) • Kant has nascent interest (қызықшылық білдіру/ проявлять интерес) in the problems of philosophy • In 1780 appeared his works: "Critique of Pure Reason, " "Critique of Practical Reason" and "Critique of judgment” (Критика способности к суждению)

Cathedral in Kaliningrad Cathedral in Kaliningrad

Museum of Kant Museum of Kant

Immanuel Kant • The main question for Kant – how to know the “thing Immanuel Kant • The main question for Kant – how to know the “thing in itself”? • "Things in itself" are the objects and phenomena of the world • They exist objectively, that is why, independently of human consciousness (сана/сознание) • According to Kant, everyone is trying to find the essence of "things in itself"

Immanuel Kant • In the process of learning this phenomenon, individual goes through 3 Immanuel Kant • In the process of learning this phenomenon, individual goes through 3 stages: 1) At the stage of perceptual (сезімдік/ чувственного) learning based on testimony (көрсету/показания) of the senses: smell, color, etc. ) knowledge are chaotic and not systematic 2) At the stage of learning through reason and experiences with the help of space and time (birth/native/innate) category the knowledge becomes systematic and not chaotic

Immanuel Kant 3) At the stage of rational knowledge a person tries to go Immanuel Kant 3) At the stage of rational knowledge a person tries to go beyond the evidence of the senses, space and time. Man tries to give a definition of general concepts, consciousness, God, matter • However, a person will face persistent (тұрақты /постоянный) antinomies - mutually contradictory propositions (түсіндіріс/суждение) on the subject (For example: God is a God or not) Kant's conclusions: • It is impossible to understand the essence of "things in itself" with a clear mind and innate category

Immanuel Kant • It is possible to understand the essence of Immanuel Kant • It is possible to understand the essence of "things in itself" only with high morality (practical reason) and ethics • People should not depend on the testimony of the senses, and innate categories • Kant created the original theory of knowledge and ethical teachings • At the core of his teachings were the ideals of humanism

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775 -1854) • F. W. Schelling was a student Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775 -1854) • F. W. Schelling was a student of Kant). His contribution in the development of philosophy was to create a theory of nature - natural philosophy • The main idea of his teaching: in the nature all phenomena are in constant and increasingly complex development • Thus Schelling began to develop the dialectical method

F. W. Schelling • Dialectic (from the Greek word - the art of debate, F. W. Schelling • Dialectic (from the Greek word - the art of debate, conduct reasoning) • Dialectics is a method of reasoning in philosophy • The dialectical method is a method of theoretical thinking, revealing the contradictions in the content of this thinking

 Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1772 -1814) • He was also a student of Kant Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1772 -1814) • He was also a student of Kant • He was an outstanding representative of subjective idealism • All the phenomena of the world he saw through the interaction of the "I" (the thinking subject, the bearer (иеленуші/носитель) of consciousness) and "Not I" (everything around individual) • Absolute 'I' is the maximum knowledge about the world

Johann Fichte • But this ideal, according to Fichte unreachable: solving a task, a Johann Fichte • But this ideal, according to Fichte unreachable: solving a task, a person thinks that he came close to this ideal, then it raises a new problem, and the ideal extended to infinity • Fichte formulated the idea of infinite progress of human knowledge • That was his contribution to the development of philosophy

Recommended readings: • 1. В. Лейферт. Немецкая классическая философия. − http: //philosoff. ru/rus/philosophy/history/deutche/nemeskaj _k Recommended readings: • 1. В. Лейферт. Немецкая классическая философия. − http: //philosoff. ru/rus/philosophy/history/deutche/nemeskaj _k 91. shtml • 2. Волков С. Н, Здоровьева М. В. Философия: электронное учебное пособие. − http: //www. kampi. ru/info/studentam/filosofia/fil_book/l_7. h tm • 3. Гулыга А. В. Немецкая классическая философия. − М. : Айрис-пресс, Рольф, 2001. − 416 с. • 4. Кант И. Сочинения: В 6 т. − Т. 6. − С. 167, 195, 201, 214, 176. • 5. Философия: Учебник / Под ред. проф. В. Н. Лавриненко. − M. : Юрист, 2004. − 520 с. • 6. Фихте Г. И. Избранные сочинения. − М. , 1916. − Т. 1. − С. 259. • 7. Шеллинг Ф. В. И Система трансцендентального идеализма. − М. , 1936. − С. 162.