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Georgia Studies Unit 3 - Revolution in Georgia Lesson 4: Westward Expansion Georgia Studies Unit 3 - Revolution in Georgia Lesson 4: Westward Expansion

Lesson 4: Westward Expansion ►Essential Question: -How do political policies and new technologies influence Lesson 4: Westward Expansion ►Essential Question: -How do political policies and new technologies influence growth and development?

Education and Religion ► The University of Georgia chartered in 1785 as nation’s first Education and Religion ► The University of Georgia chartered in 1785 as nation’s first land-grant university; opened for classes in 1801 ► Georgia Female College (later Wesleyan College) opened in 1836 ► Religious groups, such as the Baptist and Methodist churches, also began to spread across Georgia. As more towns were established churches became the centers for social and commuity life.

Cotton and the Cotton Gin Cash Crop-Crops which are grown to be sold ► Cotton and the Cotton Gin Cash Crop-Crops which are grown to be sold ► Eli Whitney in 1793 invented a machine for separating cotton seeds from its fiber ► Increased the amount cotton growers could process each day ► The cotton gin used wire teeth on a turning cylinder to separate the seed from fiber ► Other inventions, such as Cyrus Mc. Cormick’s Mechanical Reaper also helped farmers to become more productive. ► Since farmers were now able to do more work each day, many farmers wanted to move westward so that they could have even larger farms. ►

The Western Territory In 1802, Georgia ceded its land claims west of the Chattahoochee The Western Territory In 1802, Georgia ceded its land claims west of the Chattahoochee River to the federal government for $1. 25 million ► President Thomas Jefferson doubled the nation’s size in 1803 with the Louisiana territory purchase; the U. S. paid France $15 million for land that stretched to the Rocky Mountains ► Many people began to move west across the Oregon and Santa Fe trails, many of these hoping to find gold. Between 1848 and 1850, the population of California increased tenfold due to the major gold rush. ► Georgia’s farmers now had access to a large amount of land. ►

Frontier Georgia ► Undeveloped land in central and western Georgia ► Few settlers; much Frontier Georgia ► Undeveloped land in central and western Georgia ► Few settlers; much land given away in land lotteries or through the Headright System ► Far-flung trading posts were only stories ► Often danger lurked from hostile attacks ► Social activities often centered around necessary work ► The country store became the center of activity; few luxuries were available

Headright System ► Indian land in Georgia east of the Oconee River was given Headright System ► Indian land in Georgia east of the Oconee River was given to settlers ► Every white male counted as a head of household and had the “right” to receive up to 1, 000 acres ► This was generally replaced in 1803 by a land lottery for government-owned land west of the Oconee ► All white heads-of-household could buy a lottery chance and win land; millions of acres in several states were given away

Yazoo Land Fraud ► Around 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislators ► Yazoo Land Fraud ► Around 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislators ► Bought millions of acres in western Georgia for 1 ½ ¢ an acre ► The public found out and protested; the legislators involved were voted out of office ► The General Assembly repealed the law approving the sale; the federal government paid more than $4 million to help Georgia settle Yazoo land claims

Early Roads in Georgia ► Railroads, most built after 1830, replaced horses, stagecoaches, and Early Roads in Georgia ► Railroads, most built after 1830, replaced horses, stagecoaches, and boats. Railroads helped Georgia’s citizens travel and trade much more efficiently. ► Most Georgia roads ran east to west; they were former Indian footpaths ► Plank roads over wetlands that featured “pikes” or gates were called turnpikes ► Travelers paid a toll, or fee at each pike; the Old Federal Road connected Athens north to Tennessee

Georgia’s Capital City ► ► ► After the American Revolution Georgia’s capital city moved Georgia’s Capital City ► ► ► After the American Revolution Georgia’s capital city moved from the original capital (Savannah) to Augusta. As Georgia’s population began to move farther west Georgia decided to move its capital city; Louisville served as GA’s third capital city from 1795 -1807. The city of Milledgeville served as Georgia’s fourth capital cit from 1807 until after the Civil War (1868) The city of Terminus was created in 1837 and meant to serve as the end of a proposed railroad that originated in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Terminus was renamed Marthasville in 1843, after the daughter of former Governor Wilson Lumpkin The name was changed to Atlanta in 1845. Atlanta became Georgia’s fifth capital city in 1868.

Georgia Studies Unit 3: Revolution in Georgia Lesson 5: Indian Removal Georgia Studies Unit 3: Revolution in Georgia Lesson 5: Indian Removal

Lesson 5: Indian Removal ► Essential Question: -How do economic and political factors affect Lesson 5: Indian Removal ► Essential Question: -How do economic and political factors affect disenfranchised groups? (e. g. Creeks and Cherokees)

Creek Indians ► Series of clashes between Creek and settlers who pushed into their Creek Indians ► Series of clashes between Creek and settlers who pushed into their land known as Oconee War ► Treaty of New York: Creek Chief Alexander Mc. Gillivray signed the treaty giving up all land east of the Oconee River, but could keep land on the west side; this angered Georgia settlers, who felt betrayed by their government ► Land treaties were often broken ► Red Stick Creeks endorsed war to fight for their land claims; White Stick Creeks wanted peace

The Creek War ► Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims, killing more than 400 people The Creek War ► Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims, killing more than 400 people ► The Battle of Horseshoe Band, in Alabama, ended the Creek War in 1814; Andrew Jackson led the U. S. Troops ► The Creeks were forced to give up nearly all their land to the U. S. Government ► The Treaty of Indian Springs gave up last Creek lands in Georgia to the U. S. : Chief William Mc. Intosh was later murdered by rival Creeks for signing the treaty

Removal of the Creeks ► Treaty of Washington (1832) resulted in 5 million acres Removal of the Creeks ► Treaty of Washington (1832) resulted in 5 million acres of Creek land ceded to the United States ► U. S. agreed to allow Creeks who wished to remain and live on 2 million of those acres; the U. S. promised to protect those who stayed ► Those who didn’t wish to stay would have to move to the western territories ► The treaty was broker; by 1840, nearly all Creeks were forced to move west

Cherokee Culture ► Most advanced of Georgia’s tribes; learned quickly from white settlers ► Cherokee Culture ► Most advanced of Georgia’s tribes; learned quickly from white settlers ► Some, like Chief James Vann, lived in large houses ► Chief Vann encouraged Christianity ► Sequoyah developed a syllabary, a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables; it gave Cherokees a written form of their language ► Government modeled on that of United States; capital at New Echota by 1825

Cherokee Removal Indian Removal Act of 1830 -Signed by President Andrew Jackson; made the Cherokee Removal Indian Removal Act of 1830 -Signed by President Andrew Jackson; made the practice of forcibly removing Native Americans legal. ► Dahlonega Gold Rush-Gold was discovered on Cherokee land in north Georgia near the city of Dahlonega; heightened demand for Cherokee land ► The Supreme Court of the United States and Chief Justice John Marshall decided that the Cherokee were a sovereign nation and should be allowed to rule themselves. ► Without the support of Chief John Ross, a rebellious Cherokee group signed a treaty giving away all Cherokee land ►

The Trail of Tears ► Between 1832 and 1835, Cherokees were stripped of their The Trail of Tears ► Between 1832 and 1835, Cherokees were stripped of their land ► In the winter of 1838, thousand of Cherokees were forcibly removed to Oklahoma; about 4, 000 died from disease, exposure, or hunger ► 700 to 800 escaped and hid in the North Carolina mountains