- Количество слайдов: 21
Geopolitics as a science explores, in their unity, geographical, historical, political and other interrelated influences on the strategical potential of a country
Political map of the world A map, geographical atlas, reproducing various politically geographical information Data diversity about political life of a country, a region, the world
According to politically territorial effects are discerned: a territory a country a state
A territory is the part of the Earth’s upland surface with natural and artificial (manmade) resources, restricted spatially and geographically
A country is the territory with particular borders and population, able to be dependent or independent politically and geographically
A state is a sovereign political formation, the country with designated territory, economy and power (authority). It is the main bearer of rights and duties at international level
The characteristic of the state: the sovereignty; the territory; ability to publish rules; to collect taxes; to give credits; possibility to express and protect interests of the certain part of the population. • A state sovereignty – is an independent completeness, unity, indivisibility of the power of the state and equal rights of the state in other relations. • •
• The form of the state – is a way of organization of the government, which characterized by certain structure and the territorial organization and management members. • The main elements: • State system; • Form of government; • Political regime.
• The state system – represent a way of division of the state on certain making parts with principles of distribution of power between the central public authorities and authorities of making part. • Depending the state system distinguishes: • The unitary state – completely consist of such parts which have majority of science sovereignty and this parts are only administrative and territorial units. (Ukraine) • Federation – consist of separate parts which have separate parts of sovereignty. Subjects of federation usually equal in rights, have the representative bodies. (Russia, USA).
• Confederation- is a voluntary association of the sovereign states, which have independence, but they have general bodies of the decision solving of specific problems (e. g. Arabian states, the organization of the country explore oil). • The empire – is the state formation, consisting of the main state and separate parts, which completely depend on it and keep in its structure.
• Form of government – is the organization of the supreme government in order of it’s formation and activity. Traditionally forms of government are monarchy and republic. • The monarchy – the mainly individual organization of the government. Monarchy can be absolute and limited. Absolute monarchy is a form of government, which is supreme power concentrated in hands of person. With limited (constitutional, parliamentary) monarchy monarch has only a certain part of the authority, and most of the functions carried out by other government bodies (parliament, cabinet ministers, judges). • The republic - represents such form of government, where all highest bodies of state authority are elected or formed nationwide representative institutions (eg parliaments), and citizens have the personal and political rights. The main difference in the management of the national state from the other types of state - a law (Code, constitution, etc. ), which must be obeyed by all residents, regardless of social status.
• There are 3 kinds of republic: • In presidential republics: – the president as a rule elected by people of the state; – the president is a head of the state and carries out an executive power; – the legislation belongs to the parliament; – the president has the right to veto and the right to dismiss parliament, but can be removed of the power by the special procedure impeachment. • The parliament republics: – the president elected by the parliament; – the government is founded by the representatives of the party, having the majority of the parliament and is accountable to the parliament; – the parliament can to express incredulity to the government; – the president can dismiss parliament and appoint new election. • Mixed republic – there are elements of whole presidential and parliament forms.
• The political regime – is a way of realization of the government by certain means, methods and techniques. Political mode can be democratic, liberal, totalitarian and authoritarian. • Democratically political regime – is realization of fundamental rights of the person, high degree of political freedom, real participation in the realization of the government, maintenance legal possibility of free will and the account of interests of groups and classes of the society, through democratic institutes (e. g. referendum, election).
• Liberal – differs by considerable degree of a political freedom, however to use it can be only such group of population. Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on the ideas of liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas such as free and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade, and a right to life, liberty, and property • Totalitarianism (or totalitarian regime) is a political system where the state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever necessary.
• Authoritarianism is a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority as well as the administration of said authority. In politics, an authoritarian government is one in which political authority is concentrated in a small group of politicians. Authoritarianism is characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime
Dependent states: colonies trust territories (trusteeships) protectorates
In a colony the population is deprived of sovereignty, political and economic independence; economic resources are under the control of a foreign state. A protectorate is the state formation which delegates its foreign-policy (sometimes – even domestic) rights to other independent state Trusted territories are pro tempore (provisionally) given under the governance to other states by the UN
Condominium is a shared control under the one territory by a few states Neutral zone often makes controversial territories Vassalage – the type of foreign relations when more powerful state concedes some formal rights to less powerful one, exchange for resources
The groups of countries by territory: The territory size The number of the countries The part of total upland Giant countries more than 3 mn km 2 7 46, 5 Large countries 1 - 3 mn km 2 23 28, 5 Over 40 14 – 15 Nearly 100 10 28 0, 2 Country groups Average countries Small countries Diminutive states 250 th – 1 mn km 2 no less than 250 th km 2 no less than 3 th km 2
The waters of exclusive economic zones (outside uplands) Antarctica and adjacent waters High (open) seas
The waters of exclusive economic zones Offshore area – 200, sometimes 350 miles (according to international legal texts) Sea economic zone – 200 miles Adjacent waters – 24 miles Territorial waters – 12 miles