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Geo-Synthetics Specifications for Railway Sector Rajesh Agarwal, Director, RDSO Geo-Synthetics Specifications for Railway Sector Rajesh Agarwal, Director, RDSO

n n n RDSO – Research Design & Standard Organization Only R & D n n n RDSO – Research Design & Standard Organization Only R & D organization of IR Deals from Track formation to Bridges to Coaches to signal to OHE Made specifications of products for Railway Use Latest Achievements includes ¨ AC Double Decker Coach ¨ 4500 HP Hotel load locomotive ¨ Video Surveillances for running train ¨ Designing of Track including formation for HAL ¨

Geotechnical Directorate n Deals with R & D of soil mechanics – for the Geotechnical Directorate n Deals with R & D of soil mechanics – for the use of Railways in n Formations n Cuttings n Ground improvement n RE wall constructions ( ROB )

Introduction n n Geosynthetics : Generally Polymer based Polypropylene, Polyester, PVC, Polyamide, Polyethylene Various Introduction n n Geosynthetics : Generally Polymer based Polypropylene, Polyester, PVC, Polyamide, Polyethylene Various types of Geosynthetics can be used in Railways ¨ Geotextiles ¨ Geogrids ¨ Geonets ¨ Geocell ¨ Geomembranes ¨ Geocomposites ¨ Prefabricated Vertical Drains (Band Drains)

Functions of Geosynthetics n n n n Geo-synthetics can perform one or several functions Functions of Geosynthetics n n n n Geo-synthetics can perform one or several functions to improve mechanical or hydraulic behaviour of the Railway Formations (Base structure) The basic functions performed by geo-synthetics are: Separation Filtration Drainage Reinforcement Barrier Basal Layer

Functions of Geosynthetics Separation Filtration Functions of Geosynthetics Separation Filtration

Functions of Geosynthetics Reinforcement Drainage Functions of Geosynthetics Reinforcement Drainage

Functions of Geosynthetics Barrier Functions of Geosynthetics Barrier

Scope for use of geosynthetics Vision 2020 n n n New Lines -- 25000 Scope for use of geosynthetics Vision 2020 n n n New Lines -- 25000 km route expansion DFC- Western & Eastern Corridor Double/Multiple lines – 30000 Kms

Need for Use of Geo-Synthetics Existing Lines Indian Railways is upgrading infrastructure to meet Need for Use of Geo-Synthetics Existing Lines Indian Railways is upgrading infrastructure to meet future demand of growing traffic. • Geosynthetics can also be used in rehabilitation/strengthening of existing weak formation of length about 700 kms PR & 2000 km TSR. •

Scope for use of geosynthetics ROB/RUB n Road Over Bridge ( 600 ROB constructed Scope for use of geosynthetics ROB/RUB n Road Over Bridge ( 600 ROB constructed per year)

Application In Railway (General) q Steep Slope Construction ( Non Railway Loading) q Construction Application In Railway (General) q Steep Slope Construction ( Non Railway Loading) q Construction of high banks on soft soil (PVD) q Erosion control of slope q Protection against rock falls q ROB for Road Loading

Use of Synthetic Geogrids for Erosion Control of Natural Existing Slopes Use of Synthetic Geogrids for Erosion Control of Natural Existing Slopes

Construction of RE Embankment Construction of RE Embankment

Typical Cross Section of Embankment with Prefabricated Vertical Band Drains Initial Embankment Soft Clay Typical Cross Section of Embankment with Prefabricated Vertical Band Drains Initial Embankment Soft Clay Layer Sand Blanket Band drains Firm Soil 15

Application In Railway (Specific) q Track Bed Design q Reinforced Earth Embankment (Railway Loading Application In Railway (Specific) q Track Bed Design q Reinforced Earth Embankment (Railway Loading ) q Formation Rehabilitation

GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATION IN RAILWAY FORMATION USES OF GEO-GRID GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATION IN RAILWAY FORMATION USES OF GEO-GRID

GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATION IN RAILWAY FORMATION GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATION IN RAILWAY FORMATION

Geotechnical Directorate Locations Formations Cuttings Ground improvement Specification requirement To be designed for Rly Geotechnical Directorate Locations Formations Cuttings Ground improvement Specification requirement To be designed for Rly Loadings No issue with Rlys RE wall constructions ( ROB) No issue with Rlys

Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways European Railways (UIC) Code Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways European Railways (UIC) Code 719 R New Construction § Geotextiles between blanket and prepared subgrade if prepared subgrade has fines more than 15% Existing Track § Geotextiles and geogrids for Formation Rehabilitation

Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways European Railways (UIC) Code Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways European Railways (UIC) Code 719 R New Construction § Geotextiles between blanket and prepared subgrade if prepared subgrade has fines more than 15% Existing Track § Geotextiles and geogrids for Formation Rehabilitation

Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways American Railways AREMA Manual Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways American Railways AREMA Manual Part 10 New Construction § § § Geotextiles between Ballast & sub-ballast Geotextiles beneath sub-ballast Erosion Control on slopes Existing Track § Formation Rehabilitation

Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways Australian Railways Reconditioning Guidelines Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways Australian Railways Reconditioning Guidelines RTS 3430 Existing Track § Geotextiles and Geogrids for Formation Rehabilitation

Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics Indian Railways (specific to railway use) § Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics Indian Railways (specific to railway use) § § § Jute geotextiles ( for erosion control) Issued Geo-grids under trial Geotextiles (beneath track & slope protection) under preparation

Jute Geo-Textile n Guidelines for application of Jute Geo-textile in Railway Embankment & Hill Jute Geo-Textile n Guidelines for application of Jute Geo-textile in Railway Embankment & Hill slopes issued for erosion control. n Guidelines no. RDSO/2007/GE : G-0008

Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR Geo Jute All properties is to be Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR Geo Jute All properties is to be checked with IS codes Properties Test Method (IS) Weight (gsm) IS: 2387 Maximum length & width IS: 1954 Ends/dm & picks/dm IS: 1963 Thickness IS: 7702 Aperture size IS: 2405 Minimum Breaking Load IS: 1969 Maximum Elongation at Break IS: 1969

Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR Geo Grid All properties is to be Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR Geo Grid All properties is to be checked with IS codes Properties Test Method (IS) Mass per unit area IS: 14716 Ultimate Tensile Strength IS: 13162 (Part V) Load at 2% & 5% strain IS: 13162(Part V) Strain at Ultimate Tensile Strength IS: 13162(Part V)

Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR Geo Textiles All properties is to be Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR Geo Textiles All properties is to be checked with IS codes Properties Test Method (IS) Mass per unit area IS: 14716 Tensile Strength IS 13162 Elongation at break IS: 13162 Apparent opening size IS: 14294 Water flow rate normal to the plane IS: 14324

Geo-grid in IR q Biaxial geo-grid has been used in South Central Railway, Northern Geo-grid in IR q Biaxial geo-grid has been used in South Central Railway, Northern Railway (Polypropylene – strength 30 k. N/m with aperture size of 61 mm x 61 mm) has been used formation rehabilitation/strengthening. q Observations in field at SCR & NR have indicated improvement of overall track performance after the application of Geo-grid.

Geo-grid+Geo-textile on IR q q NF Railway also tried use of Geo-grid (Polyester based Geo-grid+Geo-textile on IR q q NF Railway also tried use of Geo-grid (Polyester based – knitted & coated with strength of 40 k. N/m & aperture size of 25 mmx 25 mm) in combination of geo-textile and sand layer formation rehabilitation. The performance report of the trial section of NF Railway is satisfactory. For low density routes, geotextile along with sand layer and brick soling has been used in Sitamarhi – Darbangha project, ECR.

Geo-grids q Field trials formation rehabilitation Geogrid in SCR q Issues involved for optimum Geo-grids q Field trials formation rehabilitation Geogrid in SCR q Issues involved for optimum benefit Aperture size ( As per ballast size if IR) q Junction strength (As per Axle load) q Material type (As per Soil/Atmospheric condition) q

Geo-grids 40 X 40 mm to 60 X 60 mm aperture size are not Geo-grids 40 X 40 mm to 60 X 60 mm aperture size are not available for trial. These sizes may be provided/manufactured. Scope- Early Rehabilitation of approx. 2000 km track.

Specifications of Geogrids for Extended Trials on South Central Railway Item 1 Property Material Specifications of Geogrids for Extended Trials on South Central Railway Item 1 Property Material of Geogrid Test Method • • Values Any organic polymer based material to provided required mechanical properties (like Polypropylene/Polyester/HDPE or similar polymer). Atleast, both Polypropylene and Polyester geo-grid material must be used in trial. 2 Aperture size (clear) 1. 30 -40 mm – Square (preferably 35 mmx 35 mm) 2. 40 -50 mm – Square (preferably 45 mmx 45 mm) 3. 50 -60 mm – Square (preferably 55 mmx 55 mm) 4. 30 -40 mm x 60 -65 mm – Rectangular 5. 40 -50 mm x 60 -65 mm – Rectangular Aperture sizes of geo-grid of square/rectangular shape in each above group should differ atleast by 8 -10 mm. 3 Roll width As per requirement of width attachment to fit with BCM, in the range 3. 8 m to 4. 0 m. 4 Roll length 50 m (Minimum)

Mechanical Properties & other Tests Item Property Test Method Values 5. 1 Ultimate Tensile Mechanical Properties & other Tests Item Property Test Method Values 5. 1 Ultimate Tensile Strength (MD & CD) IS: 13162 part 5 & IS: 13325/ASTM D 6637/BS EN ISO: 10319 Two types 1. 20 k. N/m (minimum) 2. 30 k. N/m (minimum) 5. 2 Strain at Ultimate Tensile Strength (MD & CD) IS: 13162 part 5 & IS: 13325/ASTM D 6637/BS EN ISO: 10319 8 -5% (Range) 5. 3 Junction Efficiency (CD & MD) (Non Essential Test) GRI-GG 2 -87 and GRIGG 1 -87 Desirable 95% (Test to be done prior to insertion) Non Essential Tests : These tests are to be conducted on geo-grid samples before laying and test values are to recorded for further decision. 6. 1 Radial stiffness at low strain (@0. 5% strain)(Non Essential Test) ISO 10319: 1996

Property Test Method Item 6. 5 Resistance to chemical degradation (Non Essential Test) EPA Property Test Method Item 6. 5 Resistance to chemical degradation (Non Essential Test) EPA 9090 6. 6 a Resistance to UV Light Weathering (Non Essential Test) ASTM D 4355 6. 6 b Carbon Black Test (where applicable as per polymer type material) (Non Essential Test) BS 2782 Part-4 Method, 452 B: 1993 6. 7 Creep limited Strength for 15 years period at 30° C temp. (MD & CD) (Non Essential Test) ASTM D 5262/ASTM D 6992/ISO 13431 Values

Specification of Non-woven Geo-textile SL Property Test Method Values 1 Polymer Polypropylene/ High Density Specification of Non-woven Geo-textile SL Property Test Method Values 1 Polymer Polypropylene/ High Density Polyethylene/ polyamide, polyester or similar polymer 2 Weight/Mass per unit area IS: 14716 / ASTM D: 3776 3 Thickness of Fabric at 2 Kpa ASTM 5199 4 Roll width 5. 0 metre (minimum). 5 Roll Length 300 g/m 2 (Minimum) 2. 0 mm (minimum) 50 m (minimum) Mechanical Properties 1 Elongation at break IS: 13162 / ASTM D 4595 / EN ISO: 10319 40 % to 70 % 2 Tensile Strength IS: 13162 / ASTM D 4595 / EN ISO: 10319 15 k. N/m (minimum) Hydraulic Properties 1 2 36 Apparent opening size O 95 IS: 14294 / ASTM D 4751 / EN ISO: 12956 Water Flow Rate Normal to the Plane IS 14324 / ASTM D 4491 40 to 85 microns 20 lit. /m 2/s Geotechnical (minimum) Engg. /RDSO

Specification of woven geo-textile SL Property Test Method 1 Polymer 2 Mass per unit Specification of woven geo-textile SL Property Test Method 1 Polymer 2 Mass per unit area IS: 14716 / ASTM D: 3776 3 Thickness at 2 Kpa ASTM: 5199 4 Roll width 5. 0 metre (minimum) 5 Roll Length Values Polypropylene/ High Density Polyethylene/ polyamide/ polyester or similar polymer 50 m (minimum) 240 g/m 2 (Minimum) 0. 65 mm (minimum) Mechanical Properties 1 Tensile Strength Warp Weft 2 40 k. N/m (Minimum) IS: 1969 / ASTM D 4595 / EN ISO: 10319 15%-30 % 35 k. N/m (Minimum) Elongation at Maximum Load Warp Weft 3 IS: 1969 / ASTM D 4595 / EN ISO: 10319 Puncture Strength 15%-30 % IS: 13162 / ASTM D: 4833 600 N (Minimum) Hydraulic Properties 1 37 Apparent opening size O 95 IS 14294 / ASTM D: 4751 / EN ISO: 12956 425 microns (maximum) 2 Water Flow Rate Normal To The Plane IS: 14324/ ASTM D: 4491 Geotechnical 15 lit. /m 2/s (minimum) Engg. /RDSO

q Reinforced Earth Design for Railway Loading q By KRCL in USBRL Projects q. q Reinforced Earth Design for Railway Loading q By KRCL in USBRL Projects q. Bridge no 40 at Riasi q. Bank of 16 m to 56 m high q. Design Approved by IIT/D q Cost effective (whether or not)

Road Over Bridge without Reinforced Earth Wall (Conventional ROB) Road Over Bridge without Reinforced Earth Wall (Conventional ROB)

Road Over Bridge With Retaining Wall Road Over Bridge With Retaining Wall

Road Over Bridge With Reinforced Earth Wall Road Over Bridge With Reinforced Earth Wall

General Issues n Specification- Generic in nature ¨ To avoid monopoly ¨ Material to General Issues n Specification- Generic in nature ¨ To avoid monopoly ¨ Material to be readily available (Time constraint) n Cost effective ¨ Should be competitive with Alternates ¨ Research with Blending of Jute with PP etc. being explored by Railways

Issues concern n Testing facilities ¨ Contracts to be awarded division wise & to Issues concern n Testing facilities ¨ Contracts to be awarded division wise & to be passed by divisional authorities ¨ How testing of material to be monitored n Works contract/Supply contract ¨ Railway prefers works contract

Application of Geo-syntheticis q Analysis of behavior of different Geo-synthetics to be used in Application of Geo-syntheticis q Analysis of behavior of different Geo-synthetics to be used in Railway Formations q Validation through Lab model, q FEM model q And site measurements etc. q Draft Guidelines For Geo-synthetics Prepared & under active discussion with in Railway

THANKS THANKS

Other Use Of Geosyntheticis in IR Different Zonal Railways may be use the Geosynthetic Other Use Of Geosyntheticis in IR Different Zonal Railways may be use the Geosynthetic on their railway as per requirement and site conditions such as: Steep Slope Construction, Embankment Slip repairs, Construction of high banks on soft soil (PVD), Erosion control of slope And Protection against rock falls etc.

Formation treatment with blanket & geotextile by formation rehabilitation m/c The limitations of Indian Formation treatment with blanket & geotextile by formation rehabilitation m/c The limitations of Indian railways q The formation rehabilitation m/c very costly q Line Block Requirement - 6 to 8 Hrs. (Very difficult for running track) q Progress very slow- 300 to 400 m per day q Geotextile life is very short 4 -5 years, Indian Railway want long life such as 10 to 15 years. q Cost effectiveness - Cost consideration not match

QUALITY ASSURANCE & QUALITY CONTROL PLAN FOR GEOSYNTHETICS q The manufacturer must have in QUALITY ASSURANCE & QUALITY CONTROL PLAN FOR GEOSYNTHETICS q The manufacturer must have in house integrated testing facilities for all the tests as per specifications to be carried out on the product. The testing facilities may be more for Geosynthetics in India. q The Railway Authorities may witness the tests carried out at independent testing facilities.

CONCLUSIONS n n n Geo-synthetics can be used effectively in railway application for track CONCLUSIONS n n n Geo-synthetics can be used effectively in railway application for track bed stabilization, track drainage, erosion control, interface protection, construction over soft soil, steep slope construction, mud pumping, etc. Its use is a necessity and cost effective for construction of new formations & rehabilitate / strengthen the existing formations for running of heavy axle loads. The specifications of Geosynthetics items specially Geogrid for railway application are in evolving stage worldwide. IR has gained some experience and RDSO has framed provisional specifications. These should be tried as per site conditions. Extended Field trials are necessary to validate & assess specifications of geogrids for track bed strengthening.

Need for Use of Geo-Synthetics New Constructions To construct ‘Dedicated Freight Corridors i. e. Need for Use of Geo-Synthetics New Constructions To construct ‘Dedicated Freight Corridors i. e. Eastern Corridor & Western Corridor’ & ‘High Speed Corridors to connect the major cities. ’ • This requires construction of new stable track formations suitable for heavy axle loads. • It is difficult to adopt the present practice in DFC & High speed which will increase the maintenance cycles. Hence Railway formation should be design using geo-synthetics. •

Specification of Geo-grid SN Property Test Method Values 1 Polymer Polypropylene/Polyester or similar polymer Specification of Geo-grid SN Property Test Method Values 1 Polymer Polypropylene/Polyester or similar polymer 2. Mass per unit area IS: 14716 / ASTM D: 3776 3. Aperture size Square opening of suitable size (suggested size 35 mm to 60 mm) such that effective interlocking takes place with the existing ballast particles. (Size to be decided by PCE Zonal railway, as per site conditions. ) 4. Roll width As per site requirement and width attachment to BCM 5. Roll Length 50 m (minimum) 320 g/m 2(minimum) Mechanical Properties 1. Ultimate Tensile Strength (MD) Ultimate Tensile Strength (CD) 2. Strain at Ultimate Tensile Strength (MD) Strain at Ultimate Tensile Strength (CD) 3. Creep limited strength for 15 years period at 30 0 C temperature (MD and CD) IS: 13162 part 5 & IS: 13325 / ASTM D 6637 / BS EN ISO: 10319 ASTM D 5262 / ASTM D 6992 / ISO 13431 30 k. N/m (minimum) 8 - 15% 15 k. N/m (minimum) Note: 1. Test method is only indicative which give procedure. However values will govern as specified above. 2. Long term strength of geogrid with due consideration of creep effect is important as geogrid is supposed to remain under track for long period say 20 years or more. Geotechnical Engg. /RDSO 3. MD stands for Main Direction & CD stands for Cross Direction. 51