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 Gender Equality and Social Inclusion(GESI) Braham Deo Ray NASC Gender Equality and Social Inclusion(GESI) Braham Deo Ray NASC

Objective: The overall objective of the session is to increase the participants’ understanding on Objective: The overall objective of the session is to increase the participants’ understanding on gender equality and social inclusion issues in governance.

Specific objectives: • explain the concept and meaning of gender equality and social inclusion; Specific objectives: • explain the concept and meaning of gender equality and social inclusion; • identify the issues of gender and social inclusion in governance; • discuss the demands of excluded groups and the ways to respond

Contents – Concept and meaning of gender and social inclusion – Equity and Equality Contents – Concept and meaning of gender and social inclusion – Equity and Equality – Reasons and extent of gender and social exclusion in Nepal – Demands of excluded groups and ways forward to solve the problems

What is Gender ? Exercise – 1 Group A What is it that a What is Gender ? Exercise – 1 Group A What is it that a woman only can do that a man cannot: put those point under CAN, Group B What is it that a women should do: put those points under SHOULD.

Some examples of Women “CAN” do • Girls will begin to menstruate. • Women Some examples of Women “CAN” do • Girls will begin to menstruate. • Women can get pregnant. • Give birth to a baby. • Women will be able to breastfeed.

Some examples of Women “SHOULD” do • • • Women earn significantly less money Some examples of Women “SHOULD” do • • • Women earn significantly less money than men for similar work; Girls dance more while boys play more football; Women do more housework than men Girls often suffer from corporal punishment than boys. Women should be good nurses, doctors, professionals etc.

Sex and Gender Sex Gender Biological Determined Socially Constructed Innate Unchangeable Learnt Dynamic and Sex and Gender Sex Gender Biological Determined Socially Constructed Innate Unchangeable Learnt Dynamic and Changeable Universal Differs within and between cultures

Gender This refers to the socially and culturally constructed differences between men and women; Gender This refers to the socially and culturally constructed differences between men and women; as distinct from sex which refers to their biological differences. The social constructs vary across cultures and time. This process results in girls/women and men/boys being valued differently, having differential life chances and opportunities Sex refers to the biological and physiological differences between males and females and also intersex (reproductive differences based on genitalia, chromosomes, hormones)as determined by nature. It is God-given, universal and non-changeable. Intersex A variety of conditions that lead to a typical development of physical sex characteristics are collectively referred to as intersex conditions. These conditions can involve abnormalities of the external genitals, internal reproductive organs, sex chromosomes, or sex-related hormones.

Examples • External genitals that cannot be easily classified as male or female • Examples • External genitals that cannot be easily classified as male or female • Incomplete or unusual development of the internal reproductive organs • Inconsistency between the external genitals and the internal reproductive organs • Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes • Abnormal development of the testes or ovaries • Over- or underproduction of sex-related hormones • Inability of the body to respond normally to sex-related hormones

Hijra in India and Nepal Caster Semenya, South African athlete A ‘Tom’ in Thailand Hijra in India and Nepal Caster Semenya, South African athlete A ‘Tom’ in Thailand

Equity and Equality • Exercise - 2 Equity and Equality • Exercise - 2

Equality is when everyone is given the same opportunity without recognization that there could Equality is when everyone is given the same opportunity without recognization that there could be some differences but Equity recognizes that some people may have constraints and their ability to access their services may not be the same.

What is Gender Equality? An important human right issue, gender equality means equal empowerment What is Gender Equality? An important human right issue, gender equality means equal empowerment and participation for both men and women in all spheres of public and private life. This does not imply that both sexes are the same but rather that they are equal in rights and dignity. As with all human rights, gender equality must be constantly fought for protected and encouraged. Gender equality starts with equal valuing of girls and boys.

Gender Equity • Gender equity means fairness of treatment for women and men according Gender Equity • Gender equity means fairness of treatment for women and men according to their respective needs. Equal treatment in terms of- rights, benefits, obligations, opportunities and socioeconomic resources.

Key areas for Gender Equality? • • Equal access to education Equal pay for Key areas for Gender Equality? • • Equal access to education Equal pay for equal work Equal participation/rights to decision making Equal access to resources Access to project benefits Access to information Government more responsive to GESI issues Advocacy

 Social Exclusion 1. Formal laws & government policies, and/or 2. Informal social practice, Social Exclusion 1. Formal laws & government policies, and/or 2. Informal social practice, values and beliefs …Prevent members of certain social groups from getting equal access to: - Economic assets and opportunities, - Public goods, services and rights, and - Political voice and influence. • Social exclusion is defined as the opposite to social integration, which reflects the perceived importance of being part of society, being integrated.

Forms of Social Exclusion based on : • Gender • Caste • Ethnicity • Forms of Social Exclusion based on : • Gender • Caste • Ethnicity • Religion/Language • Geo-political • Spatial • Others v Age v Health

Forms of social exclusion(contd. ) v based on job status v income v. Disability Forms of social exclusion(contd. ) v based on job status v income v. Disability v. Overlapping combination of these (two or more)

Extent of Exclusion Caste/Ethnic Groups Poverty % Hill Brahmin 10. 34 Hill Chhetri 23. Extent of Exclusion Caste/Ethnic Groups Poverty % Hill Brahmin 10. 34 Hill Chhetri 23. 40 Tarai Brahmin 18. 61 Tarai Middle Caste 28. 69 Hill Dalit 43. 63 Tarai Dalit 38. 16 Newar 10. 25 Hill Indigenous 28. 25 Tarai Indigenous 25. 93 Muslim 20. 28 Others 12. 34 Nepal 25. 6 Source: Poverty in Nepal 2010/11, CBS

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Percentage of Bahun-Chhetris in Key Positions % of Bahun-Chhetris Supreme Court’s Justices 88. 8 Percentage of Bahun-Chhetris in Key Positions % of Bahun-Chhetris Supreme Court’s Justices 88. 8 Appellate Court’s Justices 69. 1 District Court’s Justices 89. 0 Ministers 68. 4 MPs (House of Representative) 60. 4 MPs (National Assembly) 58. 3 Election Commission 90. 0 National Planning Commission Members 50. 0 Secretary or Equivalent (Go. N) 74. 3 Major and above Ranks in Nepal Army 90. 0 Chief District Administrators (CDOs) (Source: K. B. Bhattachan: Minorities 86. 1 & Indigenous People of Nepal, 2008)

Social Barriers to Inclusions Social Category Status Gender Caste Ethnicity Race Dominant Men/ Boy Social Barriers to Inclusions Social Category Status Gender Caste Ethnicity Race Dominant Men/ Boy Brahmin/ Chhetri Indo-Aryan Nepali Subordinate Wome n/ Girl All other Adivasi, Castes, Janajati/ Especially Mongoloid Dalit Source: Bennette(2006) Langua ge Over 100 other Distinct Languag es Religion Age Geo. Political Hindu Adult Hills Buddhist, Child and Madhes Muslim Aged (Tarai) and Others

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Definition of Social Inclusion “Social Inclusion is the removal of institutional barriers and the Definition of Social Inclusion “Social Inclusion is the removal of institutional barriers and the enhancement of incentives to increase the access of diverse individuals and groups to development opportunities. ” World Bank 2002: 2

Group Work: - Demands/needs of Excluded Groups: Women, Janajati, Madhesi, Dalit and Poors - Group Work: - Demands/needs of Excluded Groups: Women, Janajati, Madhesi, Dalit and Poors - Strategies to be adopted to address the demands / needs of excluded groups

Women • Elimination of patriarchy • Federal Democratic Republic • Right to one’s own Women • Elimination of patriarchy • Federal Democratic Republic • Right to one’s own body • Elimination of violence against women • Proportional representation • Special measures • Additional demands: Dalit rights; Madhesi rights; indigenous peoples rights

 Indigenous Nationalities • Federal Democratic Republic • Rights to self-determination • Federalism base Indigenous Nationalities • Federal Democratic Republic • Rights to self-determination • Federalism base on Ethnic, linguistic and regional autonomy and sub-autonomy • Fully Proportional representation based on caste/ethnic population size • Secularism • Equal language rights – Education in mother tongues – 3 language policy • Affirmative action • True census data

 Madhesi Elimination of the Hill domination Elimination of all forms of regional discrimination Madhesi Elimination of the Hill domination Elimination of all forms of regional discrimination Federal Democratic Republic Terai-Madhes : Separate independent Madhes Nepal – Sabaiko sajha, resource badau adha Proportional representation based on population size Proportional representation at all levels, including army, police and civil service • Special rights or reservation • Citizenship right to all Madhesis • Equal language rights • •

 Dalits • Federal Democratic Republic • Fully proportional representation in constituent assembly • Dalits • Federal Democratic Republic • Fully proportional representation in constituent assembly • Special rights/reservation • Caste-based untouchability and other forms of discrimination • Secularism • Proportional representation / “Reservation” • Abolition of forced labor (Haliya).

Domains of change that we can support • Improving access to assets and services Domains of change that we can support • Improving access to assets and services for women, Janajati, Madhesi, Dalit and Poor. • Increasing their voice and influence. • Supporting changes in the “rules of the game” that have always favored the men/advantaged group.

Efforts have been made so far for social inclusion 1. Sixth Plan(1980 -85): Incorporation Efforts have been made so far for social inclusion 1. Sixth Plan(1980 -85): Incorporation of women’s development. 2. July 1994: UML govt. identification of 16 deprived groups 3. July 1995: Congress govt. additional identification of 12 deprived groups 4. Ninth Plan (1997 -2002): Section on Indigenous Groups and Downtrodden Community without identification 5. 1997: National Committee for Development of Nationalities(NCDN)

Efforts have been made so far for social inclusion (contd. ) 6. 1997: Committee Efforts have been made so far for social inclusion (contd. ) 6. 1997: Committee for Upliftment of Downtrodden, Oppressed and Dalit Classes (CUDODC) 7. 2002: Upgrading of NCDN to National Foundation for Development of Indigenous Nationalities(NFDIN) 8. 2002: National Women Commission (NWC) 9. 2002: National Dalit Commission (NDC) 10. August 2003: Roadmap Policies on Economic and Social Transformation 11. January 2004: Committee on Reservation Recommendation 12. October 2004: Policy Announcement on job Reservation

Efforts have been made so far for social inclusion (contd. ) April 2009 • Efforts have been made so far for social inclusion (contd. ) April 2009 • - Peace process, Elected Government, Diversity in CA, Secular State, • - New openings for equality of all citizens • - 45% reservation in civil service (33% women, 28%Janajati, 22% Madeshi, 9% Dalit …) Another important milestone • - Most discriminatory laws abolished and affirmative actions introduced - Equal inheritance for sons and daughters, Third gender laws, single women provisions, etc

Expected Model and Process of Inclusive Governance Expected Model and Process of Inclusive Governance

Two Elements • Structural Elements • Process Elements Two Elements • Structural Elements • Process Elements

Structural Elements Change in Institutional Barrier/System/Rule of game 1. Federalism 2. Ethnic, linguistic and Structural Elements Change in Institutional Barrier/System/Rule of game 1. Federalism 2. Ethnic, linguistic and regional autonomy and sub-autonomy within autonomy 3. Proportional representation 4. Special Measures or Affirmative Action

Process related Elements 1. Round Table Conference 2. Right to self-determination 3. Constituent Assembly Process related Elements 1. Round Table Conference 2. Right to self-determination 3. Constituent Assembly 4. Referendum

Above all the most important and the most difficult things are: • Changing MY Above all the most important and the most difficult things are: • Changing MY OWN ATTITUDE for inclusion and empowerment • Changing MY OWN MINDSET and internal values and beliefs about social justice • To BECOME A CHANGE AGENT by myself……. • A STARTING POINT………….

THE END • ANY QUERIES? THE END • ANY QUERIES?

Thank you Thank you