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GCN and SONG Scott Barthelmy GSFC 16 -18 Sep 2011, SONG Workshop, Charleston, SC GCN and SONG Scott Barthelmy GSFC 16 -18 Sep 2011, SONG Workshop, Charleston, SC http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov Outline: 1) System Description: Functions, Features, & Notice Types 2) How GCN can contribute to SONG 3) How SONG can contribute to GCN (Gamma-ray Coordinates Network) continues to grow and expand to accommodate the needs of the community and to incorporate new sources of transient phenomena. Transitioning into the Transient Astronomy Network (TAN). 1

System Description of the GCN System • GCN is a system of programs with System Description of the GCN System • GCN is a system of programs with 3 basic activities: – NOTICES: Collects GRB/Transient locations from various space-based & ground-based sources and distributes them to interested parties. – CIRCULARS: Collects reports from GRB follow-up observers & distributes them to the GRB community. – REPORTS: Collects full/detailed/final reports from GRB follow-up observers & distributes them to the GRB community. • These 3 compliment each other: – Notices for the real-time observation needs (all automated, ho humans). – Circulars for the humans-in-the-loop after-the-observations. – Reports provide the final (full analysis) reference. Provide fast, efficient, and uniform supply of all transient information to every instrument, operation, and person that wants it. One-stop shopping for all your transient needs. 2

System Notice Basic Contents • Each notice contains: – RA, Dec location of the System Notice Basic Contents • Each notice contains: – RA, Dec location of the burst/transient – Location uncertainty – Time/Date of the event – ID or Serial_number – Intensity (& sometimes Significance) – Event type identity (& sometimes Conf. Level) – Value-added items (see later slides) Important part Speed is important. Do not need the full analysis; just need the location. The human can sort out the rest after the observation is done. 3

History of GCN • Dec 92 With the advent of the C-GRO tape recorder History of GCN • Dec 92 With the advent of the C-GRO tape recorder failure… • Aug 93 First “light” for GCN (called BACODINE at the time). – All C-GRO data transmitted to ground in real-time via TDRSS. – Extract the burst data from BATSE telemetry stream, calculate a position, distribute it to whomever. – Socket & Phone were the first distribution methods. • Dec 93 Email distribution method added. Started out as a GRB-only network, but then opened up with other transients as well – Time Domain Astronomy. • • • May 97 ALEXIS extreme UV transients, & XTE x-ray transients. Nov 97 Beppo. SAX added (GRB 970228 was a game changer: afterglow). Sep 00 IPN error boxes added. May 01 HETE added. …. and more things added over the years…. 4

System Distribution Methods • Internet Socket (for the robotic instruments) – – 4 msec System Distribution Methods • Internet Socket (for the robotic instruments) – – 4 msec to write to 65 socket connections 0. 01 -2. 0 sec roundtrip travel time (~0. 3 sec 98 -percentile) Each end can break/make the connection at will; there are re-try loops. Binary & VOEvent formats available. – Software provided (socket_demo. c & xml_sock_demo. c) • Email-based (for human operations) – – – Full-format emails, plus shorter formats for cellphones & pagers (slide 7) VOEvent format also available. 9 msec to generate the ~300 email commands (max load) 40 sec to execute those 300 commands 0. 1 -2 min for the delivery across the internet Images, spectra, lightcurves available in FITS/GIF/JPEG/PDF as attachments. • Web site (“pull” technology) – Archive all the Notices & Circulars, Light. Curves, Images, Spectra, etc. – http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov/burst_info. html – Updated within T+3 min. 5

System Socket Packet Contents • 160 bytes (40 dwords) • • Nearly the same System Socket Packet Contents • 160 bytes (40 dwords) • • Nearly the same content, and the same format across all types. Type number Serial number Packet Time RA, Dec, Error Intensity Trigger_ID Flags Misc Flags Plus other type-specific items (box shape, energy band, URL, etc). • All documented in: http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov/gcn/sock_pkt_def_doc. html 6

System Email & Pager Format Examples TITLE: NOTICE_DATE: NOTICE_TYPE: TRIGGER_NUM: GRB_RA: GRB_DEC: GRB_ERROR: GRB_INTEN: System Email & Pager Format Examples TITLE: NOTICE_DATE: NOTICE_TYPE: TRIGGER_NUM: GRB_RA: GRB_DEC: GRB_ERROR: GRB_INTEN: BKG_TIME: GRB_DATE: GRB_TIME: GRB_PHI: GRB_EL: TRIGGER_INDEX: SOLN_STATUS: RATE_SIGNIF: IMAGE_SIGNIF: MERIT_PARAMS: SUN_POSTN: SUN_DIST: MOON_POSTN: MOON_DIST: GAL_COORDS: ECL_COORDS: COMMENTS: COMMENTS: GCN/SWIFT NOTICE Sat 04 Sep 04 19: 42: 25 UT Swift-BAT GRB Position 100002, Seg_Num: 0 68. 95 d {+04 h 35 m 47 s} (J 2000), 68. 99 d {+04 h 35 m 57 s} (current), 68. 50 d {+04 h 34 m 01 s} (1950) -37. 30 d {-37 d 18' 13"} (J 2000), -37. 29 d {-37 d 17' 39"} (current), -37. 40 d {-37 d 24' 16"} (1950) 4. 00 [arcmin radius, statistical only] 4591 [cnts] Peak=933 [cnts/sec] 6455 [cnts] 45384. 00 SOD {12: 36: 24. 00} UT 13243 TJD; 239 DOY; 04/08/26 45400. 44 SOD {12: 36: 40. 44} UT 154. 14 [deg] 43. 60 [deg] 127 3 18. 63 [sigma] 14. 79 [sigma] +1 +0 +0 +0 +3 +33 +0 +0 +6 +1 155. 52 d {+10 h 22 m 05 s} +10. 18 d {+10 d 11' 02"} 93. 43 [deg] 286. 97 d {+19 h 07 m 53 s} -27. 40 d {-27 d 23' 53"} 106. 13 [deg] 239. 98, -42. 17 [deg] galactic lon, lat of the burst direction 57. 00, -58. 36 [deg] ecliptic lon, lat of the burst direction SWIFT-BAT GRB Coordinates. This is a rate trigger. A point_source was found. This does not match any source in the on-board catalog. This does not match any source in the ground catalog. This is a GRB. GCN/SWIFT-BAT GRB Position RA=68. 988 d DEC=-37. 295 d ERROR=4. 0 arcmin TIME: 12: 36: 40. 44 UT R_Signif=18. 6 I_Signif=14. 8 Nearly the same content, and the same format across all types. Some types have attachments. 7

System Filtering (1 of 4) • The original filtering capability had 6 functions: – System Filtering (1 of 4) • The original filtering capability had 6 functions: – Notice Type, Error size, Time Delay, Trigger_ID, Intensity, & Observability (All, Visible, Night, custom). • 10 more filtering functions were added (May 2011): – – – – Celestial coordinates (RA, Dec ranges) Galactic coordinates (Lon, Lat ranges) Ecliptic coordinates (Lon, Lat ranges) Time-of-Day_Window (hh: mm – hh: mm range) Significance_Level [sigma] Confidence_Level [%] Sun_Distance & Sun_Hour_Angle_Distance Moon_Distance & Moon_Illumination [deg] [%] • Each site specifies the values for each of these 16 filter criteria. • To receive a given notice, it has to pass all 16 filtering tests. • The default values for each filter are such so as to pass everything. 8

System Filtering (2 of 4) Examples: If you have a southern hemisphere telescope, you System Filtering (2 of 4) Examples: If you have a southern hemisphere telescope, you can restrict the Declination to what you can observe: CEL_DEC_LIM -90 +30 If you wanted events ONLY in the Galactic Plane, then GAL_LAT_LIM -10. 0 +10. 0 All of these filters specifications can be reversed (negated). The "!" character (as a suffix to the Token) is used to "reverse" the meaning of the filter range. If you want only things off the Plane (i. e. nothing in the Plane) GAL_LAT_LIM! -10. 0 +10. 0 If you only want items in the Galactic Bulge: GAL_LON_LIM 340. 0 +20. 0 GAL_LAT_LIM -20. 0 +20. 0 If you only want items in the LMC: CEL_RA_LIM 75. 4 86. 5 CEL_DEC_LIM -74 -64 9

System Filtering (3 of 4) • The next slide shows the complete set of System Filtering (3 of 4) • The next slide shows the complete set of filtering parameters. It also shows which parameters are global in their application and which are type-specific in their application. • Global filter parameters apply to all Notice Types that the site has selected to be enabled. • Type-specific filter parameters apply only to the Notice Type that they are attached to (see slide 7). • 8 of the filter parameters are both global and type-specific. The type-specific value always overrides the global value. 10

System Filtering (4 of 4) Filter Param Global Type-specific Range [units] Default Value Notice_Type System Filtering (4 of 4) Filter Param Global Type-specific Range [units] Default Value Notice_Type x x n/a all enabled Error x x 0. 0 - 360. 0 [deg] 360. 0 Time_delay x x 0. 001 - 1 e 17 [hr] 1 e 17 Intensity x x Significance x x 0 - inf [sigma] 0 Confidence x x 0 - 100 [%] 0 Trigger_ID x x 0 or 1 0 Observability x x All, Vis, Night All Sun_distance x 0. 0 - 360. 0 [deg] 360. 0 Sun_hr_angle x 0. 0 - 12. 0 [hr] 0 Moon_distance x 0. 0 - 360. 0 [deg] 0 Moon_Illum x 0 - 100 [%] 100 Celestial_coords x 0 -360, -90 -+90 [deg] 0 -360, -90 -+90 Galactic_coords x 0 -360, -90 -+90 [deg] 0 -360, -90 -+90 Ecliptic_coords x 0 -360, -90 -+90 [deg] 0 -360, -90 -+90 Time-o-Day_wind x 00: 00 -24: 00, 00: 00 -24: 00 0 -24 11

Strawman SONG Site Configuration • Map these functions to something suitable for SONG. • Strawman SONG Site Configuration • Map these functions to something suitable for SONG. • Can be 1 entry (for the whole network of telescopes), or 2 (for N vs S hemisphere telescopes), or 8 individual entries. • Choose such that you don’t get things that you have no chance of observing: • Types: The small-errorbox notices: Swift-XRT_Pos, Swift–UVOT_Pos, MOA. – If allow tiling (say 2 x 2 or 3 x 3), then MAXI, INTEGRAL, Swift-BAT_Pos. – No problems for a mini-SONG configuration. These plus a few more. • • • Sky Coverage: Dec band: -90 +30 (for South) and -30 +90 (North) Intensity: Mag limit by type (based on SONG sensitivity and integration time). Observability: Night for short-lived transients; Visible for day-long transients. Delay: say 12 hours for the GRB types, and infinity for the grav lensing types. Some of these filter choices will depend on (a) how fast you can interrupt a current observation and (b) how long you are willing to observe a given target. • Of course, you can always do your own filtering. Open up all the filters, receive everything, and make your own filtering choices and observation decisions on a case -by-case basis. • Distribution Method: Given the automated operations and the fast slewing, the 12 socket method seems best.

System Sites. cfg File Format (1 of 2) • The old format for the System Sites. cfg File Format (1 of 2) • The old format for the “sites. cfg” file was compact, but hard for a human to read (and to maintain). Site. Name -76. 80 39. 00 -1 360. 1 48. 0 C 80 20 E 3 FEF FB 71 0 0 0 0 f 0 207 F 0 0 ALL FITS EMAIL [email protected] gsfc. nasa. gov D C ; 25 jun 01 29 jun 09 • The new/current format is (see slide 14): – Very human-readable – Allows for easy growth and expansion; adding: • Type-specific filtering function specifications (see slide 11), • More globally-applied filter function specifications, • New Notice Types. • Status: Running since May 2011. 13

System Sites. cfg File Format (2 of 2) An example of the new “configuration” System Sites. cfg File Format (2 of 2) An example of the new “configuration” format is shown to the right. It contains all the information of the old format (shown on slide 13), plus it shows some of the new filtering functions described in slides 8 -11. BEGIN_SITE # Site_administrative items: SITE_NAME Your. Site. Name SITE_LON_LAT -76. 80 39. 00 DIST_METHOD LMAIL DIST_ADDRESS [email protected] gsfc. nasa. gov ATTACHMENT FITS POC_NAME your_name_here POC_ADDRESS [email protected] goes. here DAILY_REPORT_ENABLE 0 DAILY_REPORT_ADDRESS [email protected] goes. here # Site-specific Global Filtering specifications: INTENSITY -1 TRIGGER_ID 0 ERROR 360. 100 DELAY 48 CONF_LEVEL 0. 00 OBSERVABILITY ALL SIMBAD_NED 0 # Type-specific items: INTEGRAL_WAKEUP INTEGRAL_REFINED INTEGRAL_OFFLINE delay=24 GRB_COUNTERPART inten=18. 0 SWIFT_BAT_GRB_POS inten=300, signif=8. 0 SWIFT_BAT_GRB_LC SWIFT_FOM_2 OBS SWIFT_SC_2 SLEW SWIFT_XRT_POS inten=1 e-10 SWIFT_XRT_IMAGE SWIFT_UVOT_SRCLIST SWIFT_UVOT_POS inten=22. 0 SWIFT_UVOT_PROC_IMAGE SWIFT_UVOT_PROC_SRCLIST SWIFT_BAT_SLEW_POS signif=6. 5 SWIFT_BAT_MONITOR signif=6. 0 FERMI_GBM_FLT_POS FERMI_GBM_GND_POS FERMI_LAT_UPDATE END_SITE There are 3 sections within each site’s configuration: a) The Administrative stuff about the site: b) Global filtering specifications, c) Notice Type specifications (with Type-specific filtering params) 14

System Active GRB Notice Types NAME (1 of 2) 3’ RA, Dec only; 3 System Active GRB Notice Types NAME (1 of 2) 3’ RA, Dec only; 3 sec before the BAT_Pos Swift_BAT_Pos 90 3’ BAT Position (initial trigger for Swift NFIs). Delay: 10 - 30 sec Swift_BAT_Slew_Pos 4 4’ Off-line analysis to find burst during Swift slews. Swift_BAT_Lightcurve 90 3’ Light curve 90 3’ What is the Figure-of-Merit for this trigger. 90 3’ Will the s/c slewing (or not) to this trigger. Swift_XRT_Pos 80 5” XRT Position. Swift_XRT_Pos_Nack 10 n/a XRT did not find a real-time position. 90 n/a XRT Image used to find the position. Swift_UVOT_Src. List 90 n/a UVOT Sources within an 8 x 8’ image. Swift_UVOT_Image 90 n/a UVOT image, 2. 2 x 2. 2’ sub-region. Swift_UVOT_Pos 35 1” UVOT Position. Fermi_GBM_Alert 260 n/a GBM had a trigger, timestamp only. Fermi_GBM_Flt_Pos 260 10 -20° GBM on-board location & type assessment. Fermi_GBM_Gnd_Pos - 90 Swift_XRT_Image * Swift_BAT_QL Swift_Slew * ERROR Swift_FOM - RATE [/yr] 260 4 -13° GBM automated, ground determination. Fermi_GBM_Final_Pos 25 3 -6° GBM humans-in-the-loop analysis. Fermi_LAT_Pos_Update 10 1 -2’ LAT on-board location. Fermi_LAT_Pos_Gnd 1 0. 2 -1’ LAT automated ground trigger search. AGILE_Wakeup/Gnd/Refined 10 30/3/3’ 3 levels of AGILE analysis. INTEGRAL Weak/Wake/Refine/Offline 12 < 4’ MAXI_Unknown 12 30 -60” * * SONG compatible: COMMENT Delay: 70 - 120 sec Delay: 100 - 400 sec 4 levels of INTEGRAL analysis. MAXI unknown source triggers (mostly GRBs). location uncertainty is less than SONG Fo. V. - mini-SONG compatible. 15

System Active Non-GRB Notice Types CLASS & NAME RATE [/yr] ERROR MONITORS: * * System Active Non-GRB Notice Types CLASS & NAME RATE [/yr] ERROR MONITORS: * * * - * Flares from known sources that are periodically monitored. Swift-BAT_Monitor 90 0 Well known sources, so loc error is usually small (~1”). Fermi-LAT_Monitor 2 0 Well known sources, so loc error is usually small (~1”). MAXI_Known 90 0 -60” Well known sources, so loc error is usually small (~1”). TRANSIENTS: Hard X-ray transients. Swift-BAT_Trans 20 3’ MAXI_Unknown 12 30 -60” MISC: Does not include noise events. Did not match a previously identified source. Grab bag. MOA 360 1” SIMBAD_NED ~150 n/a Spacecraft Slewing (Swift, Fermi) * COMMENT 120 n/a POINTING DIRECTION: Gravitational micro-lensing event. Follow along (be on target before/during T 0). Swift 27, 000 n/a Fermi 9, 000 n/a Every hour. INTEGRAL 100’s n/a Episodic. AGILE 9, 000 n/a Every hour. TEST: Provide practice notices; exercise your system. Swift-BAT, Fermi-GBM/-LAT 3000 , 3000 n/a INTEGRAL-all, AGILE 1500 , 3000 n/a * SONG compatible: location uncertainty is less than SONG Fo. V. - mini-SONG compatible. 16

System Value-Added Services for Observers Information calculated by GCN to aid follow-up observers in System Value-Added Services for Observers Information calculated by GCN to aid follow-up observers in planning their observations: • Temporal and Spatial coincidences between missions and instruments in real-time. – These appear in the “COMMENTS” field of the full-format email notices. COMMENTS: NOTE: This INTEGRAL event is temporally(21. 0<100 sec) coincident with the FERMI_GBM event (trignum=336710376). • Galaxy associations (4875 nearby galaxies). – If it is in/near one of these galaxies, then a flag bit is set. (& COMMENT in emails) • SIMBAD & NED searches on all the small error box burst/transient position types. (This is a separate Notice Type) • Sun & Moon distances and Moon phase. • Near-by bright stars (<6. 5 mag, 9054 stars) within 12’. • Galactic and Ecliptic coordinates.

System Near-by Galaxy Associations • Full-format emails now contain a comment when the burst System Near-by Galaxy Associations • Full-format emails now contain a comment when the burst location overlaps a near-by galaxy. • The NGC 2000 catalog used to make the GCN-NGC catalog: – Only the 4875 galaxies that have sizes specified are included. – Even though most are elliptical in shape, they are assumed to be circular when making the proximity comparison. – All non-galaxy entries were eliminated (nebulae, clusters, etc): • Since there is a <0. 05% probability that this would happen by chance, the association of a given burst with the galaxy is almost certainly real. • Two scenarios are tested and reported: Position circle smaller than Galaxy Major Dia. Galaxy (eg M 31) P 1 Galaxy smaller & inside Position Circle BAT Error Circle Galaxy Bursts Position P 2 18

System Bright Star Notification • Full-format emails now contain a comment when there is System Bright Star Notification • Full-format emails now contain a comment when there is a bright star near the burst location. – – There are 9054 stars in the search dbase, Brighter than 6. 5 mag. The proximity match must be closer than 12 arcmin (radius). Actual mag and actual distance to the burst location are also specified in the full-format email notice. – Done for all burst/trans_position-containing Notice types. • This helps follow-up observers to know when there will be a bright star complicating their observations. 19

System Recently Added Notice Types (1 of 2) • Fermi-LAT_Monitor – – Flares from System Recently Added Notice Types (1 of 2) • Fermi-LAT_Monitor – – Flares from the 168 sources routinely monitored by LAT. About 25 per year. 10 -60 arcmin radius error circles (95% containment). Delays: 1 day to 1 week. • Fermi-LAT_Transient – – (26 Aug 11) Detections by LAT of previously unknown sources, specifically not GRBs). About 5 -10 per year. 10 -60 arcmin radius error circles (95% containment). Delays: 1 day to 1 week • Fermi-LAT_Ground – – (26 Aug 11) (02 Aug 11) GRBs found during automated off-line ground processing. About 5 per year. 10 -60 arcmin radius error circles (95% containment). Delays: 6 -24 hours. • MOA Gravitational Lensing Events – – Alerts about upcoming gravitational lensing events from the MOA project. About 2/3 are issued before the peak in the lensing lightcurve. About 60/month. Quiescent mag: 14 -22 (90 percentile). About 50% have a delta_mag brightening of 2 or more. Position errors less than 1 arcsec. • Day-of-Week-Time-of-Day – (13 Jun 11) Receive a notice at specific time-of-day and on the days-of-the-week of your choosing. It allows you to monitor your connectivity – especially useful for cellphone/pager recipients. • Fermi-GBM_Final – – – (01 Aug 11) (07 Jun 11) Humain-in-the-loop ground processing to improve the location determinations: 1 -3° stat + 3° sys. Delays: 0. 2 -2 hours. Issued for the 20% brightest GBM bursts (ie ~50 per year). 20

System Recently Added Notice Types (2 of 2) • MAXI_Unknown – – Detections of System Recently Added Notice Types (2 of 2) • MAXI_Unknown – – Detections of previously unknown sources. ~12 per year. Location errors: 30 -60 arcmin (radius, stat+sys, 90% containment). Delays: 2 -3 hours. • MAXI_Known – – (12 Apr 11) Detections of flares from previously known sources. ~52 per year. Location errors: 30 -60 arcmin (radius, stat+sys, 90% containment). Delays: 2 -3 hours. • INTEGRAL_Weak – – – The regular threshold has been lowered from 8 to 6. 5 sigma for these “weak” triggers. Location error is 4 arcmin radius. These can be issued (a) just before the normal Wakeup/Update/Final sequence, or (b) all by itself. • Swift-BAT_Monitor – – (24 Feb 11) (23 Feb 10) Alerts the recipient of outbursts from any of the 741 sources routinely monitored by BAT during the course of its hard x-ray survey. The Notice contains: the Source_name, RA, Dec location, the Date/Time, the Current and Baseline flux values, and the outburst increase in sigma units (ie significance). • Swift-BAT_Quick. Look – – (11 Jan 10) Has only the RA, Dec, Time of the bursts and transients detected by BAT. But it arrives 0 -6 sec (ave=3. 0 sec) sooner than the regular BAT_Position Notice. This is suitable for robotic telescopes so they can be “on target” 0 -6 sec sooner. (It is available only to socket-based sites; not to email-based sites -- 6 sec sooner for a human-read email is not worth the effort. ) 21

System VOEvents (as of Apr 08) • As part of the IVO Association and System VOEvents (as of Apr 08) • As part of the IVO Association and the VOEvent subgroup, GCN has implemented the VOEvent format (an XML-based format). • It follows the VOEvent protocol and formats. – See http: //www. ivoa. net/cgi-bin/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/Ivoa. VOEvent • VOEvents are being distributed for all the GCN Notice types. – They are available via the XML_SOCKET distribution method. The XML_SOCKET method is very similar to the original (binary) SOCKET distribution method. – They are available via the EMAIL method, both as the body of the email or as an attachment. • They are also forwarded to the Caltech/Sky. Alert broker, which then distributes them to interested parties. • In the near future (few months), the GCN VOEvents will be distributed directly by a GCN VOEvent server/broker (next slide). 22

System GCN Outside the Box • GCN is going outside the Goddard firewall. • System GCN Outside the Box • GCN is going outside the Goddard firewall. • Goddard’s firewall rules preclude operation of a true server, i. e. an unknown (outside) client initiating a connection to a server inside Goddard. (HEASARC is the only exception & GCN will not be given a similar exception. ) • To overcome that prohibition, I am working on establishing a true server operation outside of Goddard. Work has begun using the Atlantic Net cloud service provider. • Both the original 160 -byte binary socket packet format and the VOEvent XML socket message format are being supported. (appropriate socket_demo programs will be provided) • Both the original (current) GCN and the outside GCN will be operated in parallel (i. e. no need to migrate if you don’t want to). • The next slide shows the existing GCN operation (black text) and the future new GCN operation (blue text). 23

System GSFC Firewall Architecture: Current & Future Swift Fermi INTEGRAL MAXI AGILE MOA others System GSFC Firewall Architecture: Current & Future Swift Fermi INTEGRAL MAXI AGILE MOA others 160 B binary socket packet Import Filter & Distribute world VOEvent XML Socket world email world sites configs Outside GCN (Atlantic Cloud) Some contributors use socket connection to GCN, some use email method to get their data to GCN. 160 B packet socket server world VOEvent XML socket server world 24

System Daily Socket Connection Report For the UT day 12/10 2005: 0 failed attempts System Daily Socket Connection Report For the UT day 12/10 2005: 0 failed attempts to connect were made. 1 successful connections were made. 1 disconnects from the GCN end. 1547 Total packets sent (types 2 -4, 39, 40 -44, 51 -55, 60 -84): 0 Type 2 sent (Test Coords) out of 8 1437 Type 3 sent ( Imalive) out of 1437 1 Type 4 sent (Kill pkts) out of 1 0 Type 39 sent (IPN_POS) out of 0 0 Type 40 sent (HETE_ALERT) out of 0 0 Type 41 sent (HETE_UPDATE) out of 0 0 Type 42 sent (HETE_FINAL) out of 0 0 Type 43 sent (HETE_GNDANA) out of 0 8 Type 44 sent (HETE_TEST) out of 8 31 Type 51 sent (INTEGRAL_PNTDIR) out of 39 0 Type 52 sent (INTEGRAL_SPIACS) out of 39 0 Type 53 sent (INTEGRAL_WAKEUP) out of 39 0 Type 54 sent (INTEGRAL_REFINED) out of 39 0 Type 55 sent (INTEGRAL_OFFLINE) out of 39 0 Type 60 sent (SWIFT_BAT_GRB_ALERT) out of 0 1 Type 61 sent (SWIFT_BAT_GRB_POS_ACK) out of 1 0 Type 62 sent (SWIFT_BAT_GRB_POS_NACK) out of 0 1 Type 63 sent (SWIFT_BAT_GRB_LC) out of 1 1 Type 65 sent (SWIFT_FOM_2 OBSAT) out of 1 1 Type 66 sent (SWIFT_FOSC_2 OBSAT) out of 1 1 Type 67 sent (SWIFT_XRT_POSITION) out of 1 0 Type 68 sent (SWIFT_XRT_SPECTRUM) out of 2 1 Type 69 sent (SWIFT_XRT_IMAGE) out of 1 1 Type 70 sent (SWIFT_XRT_LC) out of 1 0 Type 71 sent (SWIFT_XRT_CENTROID) out of 0 1 Type 72 sent (SWIFT_UVOT_DBURST) out of 1 1 Type 73 sent (SWIFT_UVOT_FCHART) out of 1 0 Type 74 sent (SWIFT_FULL_DATA_INIT) out of 0 0 Type 75 sent (SWIFT_FULL_DATA_UPDATE) out of 0 0 Type 76 sent (SWIFT_BAT_GRB_LC_PROC) out of 0 0 Type 77 sent (SWIFT_XRT_SPECTRUM_PROC) out of 2 0 Type 78 sent (SWIFT_XRT_IMAGE_PROC) out of 1 0 Type 79 sent (SWIFT_UVOT_DBURST_PROC) out of 1 0 Type 80 sent (SWIFT_UVOT_FCHART_PROC) out of 1 0 Type 81 sent (SWIFT_UVOT_POS) out of 0 0 Type 82 sent (SWIFT_BAT_GRB_POS_TEST) out of 8 62 Type 83 sent (SWIFT_POINTDIR) out of 62 0 Type 84 sent (SWIFT_BAT_TRANS) out of 0 0 Were received back with some sort of error. (1 of 2) ////// RECORD OF PROGRAM OPERATIONS /////////// 05/12/10 19: 26: 30. 472 GMT: Starting gromain. ////// RECORD OF SOCKET OPERATIONS /////////// 05/12/10 19: 25: 10. 983 GMT: Attempting to send KILL packet to XYZ. . . 05/12/10 19: 25: 11. 093 GMT: The shutdown of XYZ worked OK. 05/12/10 19: 26: 31. 263 GMT: Client socket to xyz. univ. edu XYZ is up. ////// RECORD OF PACKET ERRORS ///////////// There were no packet errors today. Helps you monitor and manage your GCN operation. There is also a similar version for the email-based clients. 25

1. 0 72318. 0 * 9. 00 1. 0 72348. 0 * 2. 0 1. 0 72318. 0 * 9. 00 1. 0 72348. 0 * 2. 0 72350. 0 * 1. 0 72351. 0 * 1. 0 72352. 0 * 1. 0 72353. 0 * 1. 0 72354. 0 * 1. 0 72355. 0 * 1. 0 72356. 0 * 1. 0 72357. 0 * 1. 0 72358. 0 * 1. 0 72359. 0 * 1. 0 72360. 0 * 1. 0 72361. 0 * 1. 0 72362. 0 * 1. 0 72363. 0 * 14. 00 15. 25 16. 25 18. 25 22. 75 30. 50 31. 75 33. 50 36. 50 39. 00 40. 25 45. 75 46. 25 57. 50 -------------Overflow(>100. 00)= 0. 0 1. 0 72347. 0 * 10. 25 9. 50 28. 0 72346. 0 * 1. 0 72317. 0 * 8. 50 8. 00 30. 0 72316. 0 * 6. 50 36. 0 72280. 0 * 6. 75 1. 0 72281. 0 * 7. 00 2. 0 72283. 0 * 7. 25 3. 0 72286. 0 * 5. 25 4. 0 72156. 0 * 5. 50 6. 0 72162. 0 * 5. 75 5. 0 72167. 0 * 6. 00 77. 0 72244. 0 * 0. 00 26522. 0 **************************** 0. 25 24488. 0 51010. 0 ************************** 0. 50 7675. 0 58685. 0 ******** 0. 75 7209. 0 65894. 0 ******** 1. 00 4472. 0 70366. 0 ***** 1. 25 892. 0 71258. 0 ** 1. 50 461. 0 71719. 0 * 1. 75 144. 0 71863. 0 * 2. 00 63. 0 71926. 0 * 2. 25 10. 0 71936. 0 * 2. 50 12. 0 71948. 0 * 2. 75 12. 0 71960. 0 * 3. 00 38. 0 71998. 0 * 3. 25 9. 0 72007. 0 * 3. 50 65. 0 72072. 0 * 3. 75 8. 0 72080. 0 * 4. 00 5. 0 72085. 0 * 4. 25 33. 0 72118. 0 * 4. 50 31. 0 72149. 0 * 4. 75 3. 0 72152. 0 * Underflow(<0. 00)= 0. 0 ------------- Scale[cnts/star]=482. 22 Binning[value/chan]=0. 25 Comprs[chan/bin]=1 User=0 VAL CNTS CUMCNTS Header[5]: Roundtrip of All pkt Types for all sites for 12/10 UT System Daily Report: (2 of 2) Histo of Roundtrip Times: All Packets ////// HISTOGRAMS OF ROUNDTRIP TIMES ////////// Attached below are histograms of the roundtrip travel times of the packets between the GCN system (capella) and SLOTIS that were received back in the proper order & with valid contents. The range of the histos is from 0. 00 sec to 100 sec with 0. 25 sec per bin resolution. Underflows (there should not be any) and overflows are also tabulated. The 6 histos are for the 4 packet type subclasses (0, 1, 2, 3): 0) All_Position_Notices+INTEGRAL_Test (that pass your filter criteria), 1) All_Non-Pos_Swift_Notices. 2) All_Test_Notices(Type=2&44) (if enabled), 3) Type=Imalives (1440+-few per 24 hrs). 4) Type=, 5) Type=. 26

Call for Contributors to GCN • GCN is always looking for new Notice Types Call for Contributors to GCN • GCN is always looking for new Notice Types to add. Let GCN distribute your timely data to others in the world so they can make timely follow-up observations of your targets. • GCN has 500+ customers ready to accept your transients. Many robotic operations are looking for other targets in between GRBs. • GCN is not just GRBs – it is all transient phenomena (ie TAN = Transient Astronomy Network). • GCN wants to do: SN, Novae, CV, optical transients (known & unknown). All wave-bands and all particles. • Please contact me to discuss setting up your Notice Type within GCN/TAN: • [email protected] gsfc. nasa. gov • +1 301 -286 -3106 27

System GCN Statistics (as of 03 Sep 11) • 99. 7% livetime (for the System GCN Statistics (as of 03 Sep 11) • 99. 7% livetime (for the last 4 years; 98. 2% in the prior 14 yrs) • 525 Sites in the GCN system: – 107 socket-based (~65 routinely connected) – 418 email-based (full-format, cellphone, pager, VOEvent) • Swift Statistics: – 592 bursts detected & distributed – The false positive rate is 2% (after May 2006) – 252 transients detected & distributed (includes ~25% SGRs & AXPs) • Other Burst/Transients Distribution Statistics: – – 68 INTEGRAL bursts (plus 24 “Weak” notices) 13 Super. AGILE bursts 1199 Fermi GBM burst & non-burst notices (& 33 LAT) 47 MAXI (41 Known transients, 6 Unknown transients) • 1002 Circulars/Reports recipients • 12, 322 Circulars distributed • 342 Reports distributed 28

System Site Configuration (New or Mod) • People wishing to receive GCN Notices can System Site Configuration (New or Mod) • People wishing to receive GCN Notices can read about the basic information needed to set up a new site at: http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov/invitation. html Then go to: http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov/config_builder. html – And then select “ 1” (create a new site). • Existing sites can use the same webpage to: – Modify their existing configurations (select “ 2”). – Request a copy of your configuration be emailed to you (select “ 3”), • You can also find out about signing up for Circulars and Reports. http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov/config_builder. html 29

GCN SONG (1 of 2) • SONG is an extensive network of robotic telescopes GCN SONG (1 of 2) • SONG is an extensive network of robotic telescopes that can make follow-up observations of the GRB &Transients distributed by GCN. – Notified in 1 -15 minutes of the GRB/Transients. Mini-SONG in 10 -30 sec. • SONG has some time in between its stellar oscillation observations to make rapid-response follow-up observations: – Gap-less coverage with the full network; better than space-based coverage because no Earth occultations. (Fill in that first-orbit gap. ) – GRB afterglow detection: Swift-XRT_Position, -UVOT_Position; and MAXI-Unknown/-Known, Swift-BAT_Position, INTEGRAL if willing to do 2 x 2 or 3 x 3 tiling. • Check against catalogs (DSS) for the “new” source; revisits are necessary to detect fading if no prior identification (w/in a few hours is sufficient if early in the lightcurve). – Spectroscopy might also be possible; UVOT accuracy is sub-arcsec, about half your slit width. (Lines; or at least L cut-off for z ~ 3. 5 - 5. 5. ) – MOA Gravitational lensing events (well suited since half of your telescopes are southern hemisphere) • Just slip the GCN Notices into your observing queue(s). 30

26 GRB Lightcurves 12. 7 Oates, MNRAS, 2009 UVOT V Mag GRB Afterglows V 26 GRB Lightcurves 12. 7 Oates, MNRAS, 2009 UVOT V Mag GRB Afterglows V Mag 79 GRB Mags at T<500 sec, 37% Roming, Ap. J, 2009 17. 8 And there are few notables: 990123 peaked at 9 mag, 080319 B peaked at 5. 8 mag. XRT Positions available in 70 -120 sec (90%), UVOT in 100 -400 sec. 31

MOA Events • 2/3 are available before the peak in the lightcurve. • 50% MOA Events • 2/3 are available before the peak in the lightcurve. • 50% have a delta_mag brightening of 2 mags. • Mean baseline mag is 18. 32

GCN SONG (2 of 2) • GCN provides software (both 160 byte packet & GCN SONG (2 of 2) • GCN provides software (both 160 byte packet & VOEvent XML). – Use the code directly in your control, or as examples of code segments you can paste into your control program. – Or you can use the email-based method if you prefer. • Let GCN know of any new data type you would like to see. – I can arrange with that source provider to get it incorporated into GCN. • Then you have to maintain only one interface. – And chances are other GCN customers would also like to subscribe. 33

SONG GCN • • And the direction of information flow can be reversed. SONG SONG GCN • • And the direction of information flow can be reversed. SONG has a large amount of time coverage. SONG can make discoveries of GRB afterglows and Transients. These discoveries can be fed back into GCN for distribution: – GCN/COUNTERPART for the GRB afterglows, & also the Circulars. – New GCN Notices; call them “SONG_Trans”, for the Transients. – New Gravitation micro-lensing events (separate from MOA and OGLE); call them “SONG_Lens” notices. – GCN offers ability to send internal Notices only to SONG Team members. – GCN offers SONG to control who can receive Notices (ie partial public). 34

Typical Process for Setting up a Feed into GCN • • Decide on what Typical Process for Setting up a Feed into GCN • • Decide on what product(s) and contents. Decide on import method into GCN: socket or email. Decide on format (and fine tune the contents). Get both ends coded up. Run some test/fake message into GCN. Distribute only to me & SONG Team members. I make up GCN/SONG webpage, archive page, and Announcement. – Comments from you, iterate, and ultimate final approval from you. • • Run some real SONG message (full end-to-end test). Send out Announcement to GCN customer list. Add SONG Notice types to those customers that want them. We’re running SONG --> GCN --> the world.

Summary • GCN has the data types SONG & mini-SONG needs to increase its Summary • GCN has the data types SONG & mini-SONG needs to increase its science productivity. • GCN has the methods to get it to you quickly. • And GCN can receive anything you might produce and distribute it to the world.

BACKUP and DUP SLIDES 37 BACKUP and DUP SLIDES 37

Circulars • Observations and results from follow-up observers. TITLE: NUMBER: SUBJECT: DATE: FROM: GCN Circulars • Observations and results from follow-up observers. TITLE: NUMBER: SUBJECT: DATE: FROM: GCN CIRCULAR 12284 GRB 110818 A: Optical afterglow and redshift from VLT/X-shooter 11/08/19 07: 49: 47 GMT Daniele Malesani at Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Inst P. D'Avanzo (INAF/Brera), M. Sparre, D. Watson, J. P. U. Fynbo, D. Malesani, B. Milvang-Jensen (DARK/NBI), P. Goldoni (APC/Univ. Paris 7 and SAp/CEA), V. D'Elia (INAF/Rome), and N. R. Tanvir (U. Leicester), report on behalf of the X-shooter GTO GRB collaboration: We observed the field of GRB 110818 A (Markwardt et al. GCN 12279) with the ESO VLT equipped with X-shooter. Observations started on 2011 -08 -19 at 02: 47 UT (6. 15 hr after the GRB). The acquisition image shows an optical afterglow candidate inside the XRT error circle (Markwardt et al. GCN 12279) at the following coordinates (J 2000): RA = 21: 09: 21. 04 Dec = -63: 58: 52. 3 with an uncertainty of about 0. 5". The object has a magnitude R ~ 22. 3, calibrated assuming R = 19. 2 for the USNO-B 1 star 0260 -0726657 (RA, Dec = 21: 09: 23. 14, -63: 58: 33. 0). A total spectroscopic exposure of 4 x 1200 s was obtained, covering the spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. We report a redshift of z = 3. 36 based on detection of absorption features from Si II, C IV, Al II, Ca H, Ca K and Mg I. Emission from the [O III] doublet is also observed. We would like to thank the staff at the VLT, in particular, Alain Smette, Patricia Guajardo and Dimitri Gadotti for carrying out the observations. 38

REPORTS • Are more detailed than the Circulars. • Are more complete; more accurate. REPORTS • Are more detailed than the Circulars. • Are more complete; more accurate. • 295 GRBs have these Reports (all of them Swift so far) (as of 14 Sep 11) – “Initial” available in 24 -36 hours (Discontinued by the Swift Team). – “Final” available after the last of the XRT/UVOT follow-ups. (days-weeks) • Encourage non-Swift observers to submit Reports. 39

Near-Term Future New Notice Types • The following new Notice Types will be added Near-Term Future New Notice Types • The following new Notice Types will be added to the GCN system. Discussions and/or work has begun with all these sources of transient events: • KAIT, PTF, PIOTS, OGLE, , 40

Swift Data Products • BAT: Position and Lightcurve • XRT: Position (or nack) and Swift Data Products • BAT: Position and Lightcurve • XRT: Position (or nack) and Image (2 x 2’) 15 -30 sec 80 -120 – Spectrum and Lightcurves on the web page • UVOT: Image and Source. List 300 -400 – 200 sec V band, 2. 7 x 2. 7’ and 8 x 8’ – Raw and Processed forms • S/C Observe and Slew (or not) 15 -30 • S/C Pointing Direction (so you can follow along) • Test • Circulars on each burst: – 1 st has BAT/XRT/UVOT initial findings & interpretation. – 2 nd has “refined” results & analysis by each instrument. 41

GRB 060105 Cosmic Ray XRT Images (2 x 2’) PSF= 7. 6 pix HPD GRB 060105 Cosmic Ray XRT Images (2 x 2’) PSF= 7. 6 pix HPD GRB 051227 GRB 050421 42

Raw UVOT Image & Source List 2. 7 x 2. 7 arcmin 8 x Raw UVOT Image & Source List 2. 7 x 2. 7 arcmin 8 x 8 arcmin Raw = no coordinates, no catalog matching 43

Processed UVOT Image & Source List sw 00173904_0274 uvot_field_image. ps. gz 10 -100 sec Processed UVOT Image & Source List sw 00173904_0274 uvot_field_image. ps. gz 10 -100 sec after the raw versions. T BA or Err cl Cir 0+% e, 9 CL UVOT Image 2. 7 x 2. 7 arcmin UVOT Source List 8 x 8 arcmin 44

Swift GRBs Web Table Archive of the Notices. Get plots of lightcurves & spectra, Swift GRBs Web Table Archive of the Notices. Get plots of lightcurves & spectra, images (GIF, JPEG, PDF, PS). Get the FITS files. 45

The “Tables” page on the GCN web site. These are all the archives of The “Tables” page on the GCN web site. These are all the archives of the active and discontinued missions. 46

Auto-Processed Lightcurves • These “auto-processed” are different than the real-time TDRSS lightcurves. The use Auto-Processed Lightcurves • These “auto-processed” are different than the real-time TDRSS lightcurves. The use the full data set. They have the full groundanalysis applied. • BAT, XRT, & UVOT lightcurves – – – BAT: Mask-weighted (background subtracted) XRT & UVOT: On-going afterglow Automatically processed and updated as more data is downlinked. Available in plot-form and in text-form. Suitable for inclusion into your papers. • URL: http: //gcn. gsfc. nasa. gov/gcn/swift_gnd_ana. html Example BAT Plot Example Text file (XRT) Example XRT Plot 47

BAT Lightcurves (1 of 2) GRB 051105 GRB 051109 A GRB 051111 GRB 051210 BAT Lightcurves (1 of 2) GRB 051105 GRB 051109 A GRB 051111 GRB 051210 No slew -- Moon constraint 48