- Количество слайдов: 79
FVCC Fire Rescue Communications
FIRE DEPARTMENT COMMUNICATIONS All methods by which the public notifies the communication center of any emergency All methods by which the center notifies proper fire fighting forces All methods by which information is exchanged at the scene Routine communications
TS 18– 2 IMPORTANCE OF FIRE DEPARTMENT COMMUNICATIONS The expedient and accurate handling of fire alarms or calls for help is a significant factor in the outcome of any incident. Failure to quickly communicate the need for help can result in large and tragic losses. Fire department communications play a critical role in the successful outcome of an incident.
ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TELECOMMUNICATOR Processing calls from unknown and unseen individuals, usually calling under stressful conditions Obtaining complete, reliable information from the caller Prioritizing requests for assistance Dispatching emergency responders TS 18– 3 • Staying in contact with the incident commander to receive requests for information and/or additional resources • Keeping records of each request for assistance and how each one was handled
TS 18– 4 CUSTOMER SERVICE Proving professional and nonjudgmental service to the general public Handling a variety of local calls seeking assistance or information Referring non-emergency callers to the appropriate person or agency
VS 18 -1 REFERRALS Domestic Abuse Shelters American Red Cross Emergency Housing Shelters Telecommunicator Utility Companies Food Pantries
TELECOMMUNICATOR SKILLS & TRAITS Maintaining a positive attitude Forming conclusions from Working with team members Adjusting to various levels of activity Handling multi-tasking Making decisions and judgments based on common sense and values Maintaining composure TS 18– 5 disassociated facts Handling criticism Remembering and recalling information Dealing with verbal abuse Functioning under stress Maintaining confidentiality
TS 18– 6 TELECOMMUNICATOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS Basic reading skills Basic writing skills Ability to speak clearly Ability to follow written and verbal instructions
TELECOMMUNICATOR MAP READING SKILLS Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD) Automatic Vehicle Locating (AVL) X, Y, and Z coordinates TS 18– 7
Homework 1. What are three phases of a tele-communicator’s role in an emergency response? a. Receive the request, determine the required resources, request the required resources b. Receive the request, relay the request, monitor the response c. Prepare to receive the request, relay the request d. Receive the request, relay the request, record information about the request, response, and results 2. Which of the following is not a part of fire department communications? a. Methods by which the public can notify the communications center of an emergency b. Methods by which the center can notify the proper fire fighting forces and relay information between all personnel involved at the scene c. Routine communications, such as telephone calls for business purposes d. Personal two-way radio communications with fire service personnel over a designated fire department radio channel 3. What important customer service or public relations function should a tele-communicator try to achieve with each call? a. Evaluate the worthiness of the individuals for assistance. b. Project a sense of competence to the caller. c. Transfer the caller to someone else as soon as possible so that the tele-communicator is available for other calls. d. Impress the caller with the various services provided by the municipality. 4. What standard defines the minimum job performance requirements for public safety tele-communicators? a. NFPA 1106 b. NFPA 1160 c. NFPA 1610 d. NFPA 1061 5. As applied to telecommunications, what does the abbreviation CAD stand for? a. Computer-aided dispatch b. Communications attention deficiency c. Communications and dispatch d. Computer-alerted departments
“NERVE CENTER” OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE TS 18– 8 Point through which nearly all information flows, is processed, and is then acted upon Houses personnel and equipment to receive alarms and dispatch resources May be remote from primary location May be located in the fire station May be part of a larger, joint communications center for all community emergencies
TS 18– 9 COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT Alarm Receiving Equipment Telephones Fax Machines Radios
TS 18– 10 ALARM RECEIVING EQUIPMENT Public Alerting System Private Alerting System
TS 18– 11 TELEPHONES Commercial phone systems Offer access to multiple phone lines Provide features such as hold, conference calling, and speaker phones Direct lines — Are directly connected between point A and point B so that when one party picks up phone it immediately rings at other end • TDD/TTY/Text phones § Visually display text § Allow the hearing- or speech -impaired to communicate over telephone system • Wireless — Are basically sophisticated two-way radios
TS 18– 12 FAX MACHINES Convert an image to digital signals, which are transmitted and converted back to an image Are stand-alone machines but often double as telephones or are built into computers
TS 18– 13 RADIOS Tie together all elements of organization Can convey task-related information or direct orders Can be monitored by the news media and the public Should never be used to transmit a message that may bring liability or embarrassment to the department
COMPUTER-AIDED DISPATCH (CAD) SYSTEMS Can shorten response time Can enable dispatchers to handle a greater volume of calls Can reduce voice com- munications between telecommunicators and responding units Come in various designs and sizes TS 18– 14 • Can be as simple as a system that retrieves run card information • Can be complex § Selecting and dispatching units § Determining quickest route to the scene § Monitoring the status of units § Transmitting additional information via mobile data terminals
TS 18– 15 a VOICE RECORDERS Document radio traffic and telephone calls on emergency lines Document dispatching information and provide an accurate account of operations Protect the department and its members if questions are raised about communications and operations or in case of litigation Allow retrieval of alarm information if caller hangs up
TS 18– 15 b VOICE RECORDERS (cont. ) Are important when callers are so excited that they cannot be understood or when they speak a foreign language Run either continuously or intermittently Should be capable of instant playback Should automatically record the time of the call
TS 18– 16 RADIO LOGS Record the incident and location of each activity performed by a public safety unit Generally include entries on the location and the nature of the incident, along with a notation of which unit(s) responded to the call Manual system entered onto paper
Homework Select facts about fire department telecommunications equipment. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 6. Firefighter A says that the communications center is always located in a fire station. Firefighter B says that NFPA requirements determine what equipment should be available at the communications center. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 7. To what part of the human anatomy is the communications center often compared? a. Heart b. Brain c. Nerve center d. Auditory system (ears) 8. What does the abbreviation AVL stand for in terms of telecommunications? a. Automatic vehicle locating c. Automatic voice logging b. Audio-visual logging d. Automated victim locator 9. What is the most widely used method for transmitting fire alarms? a. Municipal alarm systems c. Public telephone systems b. Proprietary alarm systems d. Remote station alarm systems
Homework 10. Firefighter A says that tele-communicators are often required to determine the response unit nearest an incident and to determine the best route for the unit to use in responding. Firefighter B says that advances in technology have not reduced the need for tele-communicators to be able to read maps. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 11. What is a direct telephone line? a. A public telephone line that serves only one number b. A private telephone line that connects one phone directly to another phone c. A public telephone line that does not allow dialing of long-distance numbers d. A private telephone line from communications between telecommunications consoles within a dispatch facility 12. Commercial phone systems provide access to ___. a. Pay telephones only b. Wireless telephones only c. Business telephones only d. The public switch network 13. TDD, TYY, and Text Phones are primarily for ___. a. Transmitting audio messages c. Transmitting Internet messages b. Transmitting and displaying video images d. Transmitting and displaying multimedia messages
Homework 17. Which of the following is essential in the development of a fire service communications center? a. Tape-recording equipment b. A reliable secondary source of power c. Noncombustible floor covering d. Computers to handle incoming alarms 18. Which of the following is not a common piece of equipment in a communications center? a. Two-way radio equipment for communicating with line personnel b. Satellite communications uplinks for communicating with federal authorities during major emergencies c. Tape-recording equipment to record phone calls and radio traffic d. Computer equipment for dispatch information and communications to line personnel 19. Wireless telephones are similar to ___ in message transmission. a. Conventional telephones b. Two-way radios c. TDD, TYY, and Text Phones d. Direct telephones 20. Fax machines allow the transmission of ___. a. Rapidly encoded text b. Images, including pictures, documents, and diagrams c. Vital signs of victims from accident sites to medical facilities d. Equipment status from remote sites
Homework 21. What is the primary purpose of radios used by fire departments? a. Eliminating the dependency on commercial power and transmission lines b. Providing a safe and secure means of communicating confidential information quickly c. Tying all elements of the organization together so that each element can perform its task in an efficient, informed manner d. Obtaining inexpensive, portable communication systems that are not subject to disruption by natural or man-made sources of energy 22. Firefighter A says that one of the disadvantages of CAD systems is that they require additional time for each response. Firefighter B says that one of the advantages of CAD systems is that they increase the number of calls that each tele-communicator can handle. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 23. An important consideration in the use of radios for communications is that ___. a. Telephone transmissions travel at the speed of light while radio transmissions travel at the speed of sound, resulting in delays b. Radio transmissions can be monitored by the public and the news media c. Communications beyond approximately 2 miles (3. 2 km) is not practical d. Personnel must remain with response vehicles in order to continue communications 24. Firefighter A says that the voice recorders used in all telecommunications centers record continuously so that no telephone conversation will be missed. Firefighter B says that voice recordings provide records of the events and can be helpful when played back to obtain information that was not clear. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 25. The first entry on a written radio log is generally ___. a. The name of the person speaking b. The name of the person receiving the report c. The time of the event d. The channel being used
TS 18– 17 GUIDELINES FOR RECEIVING NONEMERGENCY CALLS Answer promptly. Identify yourself and the department. Be prepared to take accurate messages. Do not leave line open or caller on hold for long. Post message or deliver it promptly. Write down all pertinent information: Date Time Caller’s name Caller’s number Message Your name End call courteously. Always hang up last.
TS 18– 18 a RECEIVING EMERGENCY REPORTS FROM THE PUBLIC Identify the agency. Ask if there is an emergency and, if so, ask about the problem. Have questions organized to control the conversation to get the information needed. Get information that details the emergency: Exact location of incident Type of incident/situation When the incident occurred
RECEIVING EMERGENCY REPORTS FROM THE PUBLIC (cont. ) TS 18– 18 b Get information about the caller: Name Location if different from the incident location Callback phone number Address Do not let caller off the phone until all information necessary to dispatch responding units has been obtained or until it is certain there is no emergency. Ask questions in an assertive voice. Follow the department’s SOPs.
Homework Select from a list proper etiquette for receiving a non-emergency call vs. an emergency call. Mark an “A” for each that relates to a non-emergency call, mark a “B” if it relates to an emergency call and a “C” if it does not apply to either correct action. 26. __ Answer after the third ring. 27. __ Identify yourself and your department. 28. __ Be prepared to take messages. 29. __ Write down the caller’s location and place of employment. 30. __ Place the caller on hold while you input data on the computer. 31. __ Write down the message and post it or deliver it promptly. 32. __ End the call courteously. 33. __ Always hang up first. 34. __ Identify the agency. 35. __ Ask if there is an emergency and, if so, ask about the problem. 36. __ Have questions organized to control the conversation to get the information needed.
Homework 37. __ Get information that details the _______: Exact location of incident Type of incident/situation When the incident occurred Get information about the caller: Name Location if different from the incident location Callback phone number Address 38. __ Do not let caller off the phone until all information necessary to dispatch responding units has been obtained or until it is certain there is or is not an emergency. 39. __ Ask questions in an assertive voice. 40. __ Follow the department’s SOPs.
PUBLIC ALERTING SYSTEMS Telephone Emergency Number Two-way Radio Wired Telegraph Circuit Box Telephone-telegraph Fire Alarm Box Radio Fire Alarm Box Walk-ins TS 18– 19
TELEPHONE EMERGENCY NUMBERS 9 -1 -1 Enhanced 9 -1 -1 (E 9 -1 -1) Seven-digit number “ 0” for the operator Star + a two- or three-digit number (cellular phone) TS 18– 20
TS 18– 21 TYPES OF 9 -1 -1 TELEPHONE EMERGENCY NUMBERS Basic Called Party Hold Forced Disconnect Ringback
TS 18– 22 ENHANCED 9 -1 -1 (E 9 -1 -1) Combines telephones and computers Uses Automatic Location Identification (ALI) Provides telecommunicator with instant information Caller’s location Caller’s phone number Directions to the location Other information about the address
Homework Select facts about public alerting systems. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 41. Who is most likely to use a two-way radio to report an emergency? a. Truck driver b. Average citizen c. Firefighter d. City official 42. What is the universal citizen’s band emergency radio channel? a. CB channel 9 b. CB channel 5 c. CB channel 8 d. CB channel 3 43. What information does the operator who receives a report via CB radio request instead of a callback number? a. Caller’s social security number b. Caller’s license number c. Caller’s code password d. Caller’s radio handle 44. Some fire departments require the person taking a walk-in report to ___. a. Notify the communications center by telephone before responding b. Notify the company officer before responding to the report c. Notify the fire chief before responding d. Leave at least two people at the station while responding to the report
Homework 45. Why have wired telegraph circuit box alerting systems been eliminated in many locations? a. The transmitted codes often crossed, leading to incorrect location information. b. They transmitted only the location of the box, and false alarms were a problem. c. The signal was dependent on overhead wires that cost too much to maintain. d. Dampness or extreme cold would often render the system inoperable. 46. Which of the following is not a way that firefighters are alerted through a radio alarm box? a. Vocally through P. A. system b. Audible signal c. Red light indicator d. Printed record of location 47. Firefighter A says that callers using a radio alarm box can select ambulance, police, or fire service options on some boxes. Firefighter B says that radio alarm boxes are nothing more than a radio transmitter with battery or wound-spring alternator power supply. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
VS 18 -2 TWO-WAY RADIO
TS 18– 23 TWO-WAY RADIO Used most often by fire department personnel Uses CB channel 9, the universal citizen’s band (CB) radio frequency Uses radio handle instead of a callback number
VS 18 -3 WALK-IN REPORT
TS 18– 24 WALK-INS Some departments may take immediate action and then radio the dispatcher from the scene Other departments may first notify the dispatch center by phone before taking any action
WIRED TELEGRAPH CIRCUIT BOX VS 18 -4
WIRED TELEGRAPH CIRCUIT BOX TS 18– 25 Have been eliminated in many localities due to vandalism and false alarms Operation Pressed lever activates a wound-spring mechanism that transmits a code by opening and closing the circuit Each box transmits a different code to specify its location
COMBINATION TELEGRAPH/ TELEPHONE ALARM BOX VS 18 -5
TELEPHONE-TELEGRAPH FIRE ALARM BOX Pull-down hook sends coded location signal, so caller does not need to know his or her exact location Telephone can be used for additional information through direct voice contact
RADIO ALARM BOX VS 18 -6
RADIO FIRE ALARM BOX TS 18– 27 a Has independent radio transmitter with battery power supply that may be solar recharged May contain wound-spring alternator to provide power when handle is pulled Alerts F. D. with audible signal, red light indicator, and printed record, or a display panel number, indicating location May have an additional test or tamper light indicator signal
RADIO FIRE ALARM BOX (cont. ) TS 18– 27 b Has a time clock within the box that allows system to test itself every twenty-four hours May have feature that allows caller to select fire, police, or ambulance service May have two-way communications capabilities
TS 18– 28 REPORTING AN EMERGENCY FROM A TELEPHONE Dial the appropriate number: 9 -1 -1 Fire department 7 -digit number “ 0” for the operator Give address, with cross streets or landmarks if possible. State your name and location. • Give the telephone number from which you are calling. • State the nature of the emergency. • Stay on the line if requested to do so by the telecommunicator.
TS 18– 29 REPORTING AN EMERGENCY FROM A TELEGRAPH BOX Send signal as directed on the box. Stay at the box until fire personnel arrive so that you can provide them with the exact location of the emergency.
TS 18– 30 REPORTING AN EMERGENCY FROM A LOCAL ALARM BOX Send signal as directed on the box. Notify the fire department by telephone using the guidelines given earlier.
TS 18– 31 ALERTING STAFFED STATIONS Computerized line printer or terminal screen with alarm Telephone from telecommunicator on secure phone line Vocal alarm Telegraph register Teletype Radio with tone alert House bell or gong House light
ALERTING UNSTAFFED STATIONS Pagers Home electronic monitors Telephones Sirens Whistles or air horns TS 18– 32
VS 18 -7 INFORMATION SHEET ASSIGNMENT
GUIDELINES FOR TWO-WAY RADIO USE TS 18– 33 a Follow the five communication Cs. Know your department’s radio operating procedures. Do not transmit until you have determined that the air is clear. Think about what you are going to say before transmitting. Use only your assigned frequency.
GUIDELINES FOR TWO-WAY RADIO USE (cont. ) TS 18– 33 b Hold the microphone 1 to 2 inches (25 mm to 50 mm) from your mouth at a 45 -degree angle. Know that any unit working at a fire or rescue scene has priority over any other transmission. Use the radio only for fire department business. Avoid unnecessary transmissions. Transmit only essential information: Be brief, accurate, and to the point.
GUIDELINES FOR TWO-WAY RADIO USE (cont. ) TS 18– 33 c Transmit complete information. Transmit only one task at a time. Identify yourself in every transmission according to your department’s policies and procedures. Speak at a moderate, slightly louder than normal but in a calm, clear manner. Do not eat or chew gum while using the radio.
GUIDELINES FOR TWO-WAY RADIO USE (cont. ) TS 18– 33 d Make the message impersonal. Acknowledge every message by repeating it to the sender. Avoid laying the microphone on the vehicle seat because the switch may be pressed and cause interference. Avoid radio frequency burns by not touching the antenna when transmitting. Be polite and professional.
FIVE COMMUNICATION Cs Conciseness Clarity Confidence Control Capability TS 18– 34
RADIO OPERATING PROCEDURES Department codes Test procedures Transmission time limits TS 18– 35
TWO-WAY RADIO ETIQUETTE Never transmit a message that could bring liability or embarrassment to the department. Do not use profane or obscene language on the air. TS 18– 36
TS 18– 37 ARRIVAL REPORT Address, particularly if other than the one initially reported Building and occupancy description Nature and extent of fire Attack mode selected Rescue and exposure problems Instructions to other responding units Location of incident command position Establishing command
TS 18– 38 PROGRESS REPORT Transfer of command Exposures by direction, height, occupancy, and distance Change in command location Any problems or needs Progress (or lack of) in situation control Direction of fire spread Anticipated actions
TS 18– 39 TACTICAL CHANNELS Larger incidents may require using several channels to allow for clear and timely exchanges of information Telecommunicator’s responsibilities Assigning operational frequency Ensuring current response of additional units is acknowledged Notifying other agencies and services Providing updated information
EMERGENCY RADIO TRAFFIC Weak signals from portable and mobile radios Firefighters in distress TS 18– 40
TS 18– 41 EVACUATION SIGNALS May be a broadcast radio message ordering evacuation May be an audible warning sounded on apparatus for an extended time
Homework Select facts about tactical channels, emergency radio traffic, and evacuation signals. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 48. Which of the following statements about using radio channels to support tactical operations is not true? a. Large incidents may require the use of several radio channels. b. Separate channels may be needed for command, tactical, and support functions. c. The incident commander should notify other agencies and services of the need to respond d. Dispatch units on one channel and then switch to a tactical channel upon arrival at the scene. 49. Who should assign an operational frequency for the management of an incident? a. The fire marshal b. The operations officer c. The telecommunicator d. The command post driver 50. Which of the following statements is true with regard to emergency radio traffic? a. Personnel on the scene are in a better position to pick up emergency traffic than are telecommunications centers. b Because emergency transmissions are brief, it is not necessary for the telecommunicator to advise other units to stand by in order to receive emergency transmissions. c. The telecommunicator is helpless to aid firefighters in distress d. The sender should announce that the transmission is an emergency message at the beginning of the transmission.
Homework 51. The two most common ways for command personnel to signal firefighters that they should evacuate a burning building are to transmit an evacuation signal on the two-way radio and to ___. a. Sound the audible warning devices on the on-scene apparatus for an extended period of time b. Personally contact each firefighter at the scene c. Provide visual and audio withdrawal signals d. Pass the word to evacuate down the attack line 52. Firefighter A says that all radio equipment will automatically stand by when a radio message that carries emergency traffic is initiated. Firefighter B says that first-arriving companies should use the radio to provide communications with a size-up report of the conditions observed on arrival at the scene. Who is correct? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
TS 18– 1 RESPONSIBILITIES IN SUMMONING ADDITIONAL RESPONSE Incident commander Calling for additional responses Ordering multiple alarms Each communications team supervisor Maintaining constant contact with the team Following local IMS and SOPs for communication with IC and telecommunications center • All firefighters § Knowing procedures for § § requesting additional alarms Knowing signals used for multiple and special alarms Knowing number and types of units that respond to alarms
TS 18– 2 LOCAL PROTOCOL IN SUMMONING ADDITIONAL RESPONSE Requesting additional alarms Multiple and special alarm signals Numbers and types of units that respond to various alarms How teams request assistance
Homework Select facts about making calls for additional response. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 53. Who normally calls for additional responses or orders multiple alarms? a. The first team member to recognize the need b. The supervisor of the team needing assistance c. The incident commander d. The dispatcher 54. All firefighters should know the local procedures for requesting ___. Transfer to another department c. Additional alarms a. b. Incident termination d. All-clear signals 55. Firefighter A says that firefighters need not know the number of units that respond to alarms. Firefighter B says that firefighters need not know the types of units that respond to alarms. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 56. Firefighters need to know the signals for ___. a. Breaks and lunch c. Turning and backing apparatus b. Multiple and special alarms d. Speeding up or slowing down a response 57. Each response team should have a supervisor who is in constant contact with the team and who can ___. a. Follow local IMS and SOPs for communication with the IC and telecommunications center b. Terminate the incident on his or her own authority c. Sound the evacuation alarm if required d. Evaluate the team’s compliance with local IMS and SOPs
REASONS FOR INCIDENT REPORTS TS 18– 3 a Providing data on types of emergencies Providing data on the economic impact of emergencies Providing information about the health and safety impact of emergencies Helping evaluate department preparedness Helping evaluate response effectiveness
REASONS FOR INCIDENT REPORTS (cont. ) TS 18– 3 b Providing information on the status and condition of equipment Assisting with legal issues and insurance claims Justifying budget requests, code enforcement, and resource allocations Evaluating needs of department and community in order to improve department’s level of service
TS 18– 4 HOW INCIDENT REPORTS MAY BE REPORTED Handwritten Directly entered into computer in state/ departmental format by officer in charge Input into computer using National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) uniform data collection system format
INFORMATION IN AN INCIDENT REPORT TS 18– 5 a Identifying information Fire department name Incident number District name/number Shift number Number of alarms Names and addresses of the occupant(s) and/or owner(s)
INFORMATION IN AN INCIDENT REPORT (cont. ) Information about structure Type Primary use Construction type Number of stories TS 18– 5 b • How the emergency was reported § 9 -1 -1 § Walk-in § Radio § Alarm box
INFORMATION IN AN INCIDENT REPORT (cont. ) Type of call Fire Rescue Medical Haz Mat • Action taken § Investigation § Extinguishment § Rescue § Mitigation TS 18– 5 c
INFORMATION IN AN INCIDENT REPORT (cont. ) Property use information Single-family dwelling Paved public street Number of injuries and/or fatalities Number of personnel who responded Type of apparatus that responded TS 18– 5 d • How and where fire or incident started • Method used to extinguish fire or mitigate situation • Estimated cost of damage • Remarks/comments
RESULTS OF INACCURATE REPORTS TS 18– 6 Unfavorable legal decisions Incorrect methods, which endanger firefighters Departmental failure to obtain required resources or develop required procedures Unprepared department that poses a threat to public safety
SOURCES OF REPORT INFORMATION Incident Commander Dispatch Log Hospital Records Interview with Property Owner Investigation Report Pre-incident Survey TS 18– 7
TS 18– 8 REPORT CODES Local Codes State Codes National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) Codes