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Functions (2) Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 1 Functions (2) Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 1

Outline n n n Recall - sample application n functions that return no value Outline n n n Recall - sample application n functions that return no value n functions that return a value Recall – global variable vs. local variable Pass by value Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 2

Sample application n Write a C program that reads item code and quantity, then Sample application n Write a C program that reads item code and quantity, then calculate the payment. Use functions: n menu – print item code menu n determine_price – determine price based on item code n calc - calculate payment n print_result – print payment What argument name do I want to feed in as parameters and what to return? ? Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming Think!! Which function return no value and which function return a value. 3

Sample application-cont #include <stdio. h> void menu(); float determine_price(int); float calc(float, int); void print_result(float); Sample application-cont #include void menu(); float determine_price(int); float calc(float, int); void print_result(float); int main() { int code, qty; float price, pay; menu(); printf("Enter item code and quantity: "); scanf("%d %d", &code, &qty); price= determine_price(code); pay=calc(price, qty); print_result(pay); return 0; } Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 4

Sample application-cont void menu( ) { printf( Sample application-cont void menu( ) { printf("Codet. Itemt. Pricen"); printf("1t. Papayat 1. 00n"); printf("2t. Melont 2. 00n"); printf("3t. Duriant 3. 00n"); printf("t. Otherst 4. 00n"); } float determine_price(int item_code) { float pricing; switch(item_code) { case 1: pricing=1. 00; break; case 2: pricing=2. 00; break; case 3: pricing=3. 00; break; default: pricing=4. 00; } return(pricing); } float calc(float item_price, int quantity) { float answer; answer=item_price*quantity; return(answer); } void print_result(float payment) { printf("Payment is %. 2 fn", payment); } Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 [yasmin@localhost week 5]$ gcc testing. c [yasmin@localhost week 5]$. /a. out Code Item Price 1 Papaya 1. 00 2 Melon 2. 00 3 Durian 3. 00 Others 4. 00 Enter item code and quantity: 1 3 Payment is 3. 00 [yasmin@localhost week 5]$. /a. out Code Item Price 1 Papaya 1. 00 2 Melon 2. 00 3 Durian 3. 00 Others 4. 00 Enter item code and quantity: 9 3 Payment is 12. 00 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 5

Global variable vs. local variable modification #include <stdio. h> void menu(); float determine_price(int); float Global variable vs. local variable modification #include void menu(); float determine_price(int); float calc(float, int); void print_result(float); int code, qty; float price, pay; int main() { menu(); printf("Enter item code and quantity: "); scanf("%d %d", &code, &qty); price= determine_price(code); pay=calc(price, qty); print_result(pay); return 0; } void menu( ) { printf("Codet. Itemt. Pricen"); printf("1t. Papayat 1. 00n"); printf("2t. Melont 2. 00n"); printf("3t. Duriant 3. 00n"); printf("t. Otherst 4. 00n"); } float determine_price(int code) { code--; switch(code) { case 1: price=1. 00; break; case 2: price=2. 00; break; case 3: price=3. 00; break; default: price=4. 00; } return(price); } float calc(float price, int quantity) { pay=pay+1; pay=price*quantity; return(pay); } void print_result(float pay) { printf("Payment is %. 2 fn", pay); } [yasmin@localhost yasmin]$ gcc testing 2. c [yasmin@localhost yasmin]$. /a. out Code Item Price 1 Papaya 1. 00 2 Melon 2. 00 3 Durian 3. 00 Others 4. 00 Enter item code and quantity: 1 4 Payment is 16. 00 [yasmin@localhost yasmin]$. /a. out Code Item Price 1 Papaya 1. 00 2 Melon 2. 00 3 Durian 3. 00 Others 4. 00 Enter item code and quantity: 3 1 Payment is 2. 00 However, sometimes we need to do some modification from inside a function, using global variable will make things worse!!! DKT 121: Fundamental of Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 Computer Programming 6

Pass by Value n n If a parameter is passed by value, then the Pass by Value n n If a parameter is passed by value, then the value of the original data is copied into the function’s parameter (scope: local variable(s)) In other words, it (i. e. local variable) has its own copy of the data changes to copy do not change original data During program execution, it (i. e. local variable) will manipulate the data stored in its own memory space Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 7

Pass by Value (Example) #include <stdio. h> void fun 1(int, int); //function prototype int Pass by Value (Example) #include void fun 1(int, int); //function prototype int main(void) { int a=5, b=10; printf("Before fun 1n“); printf(" a = %d b = %dn”, a, b); fun 1(a, b); //function call printf("n. After fun 1n“); printf(" a = %d b = %dn”, a, b); return 0; } void fun 1(int aa, int bb) //function definition { aa++; bb--; printf("nn. Inside fun 1n)"; printf("aa = %d bb = %dn”, aa, bb); } Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 Output Before fun 1 a = 5 b = 10 Inside fun 1 aa = 6 bb = 9 After fun 1 a = 5 b = 10 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 8

End Functions (2) Q & A! Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental End Functions (2) Q & A! Uni. MAP Sem 2 -10/11 DKT 121: Fundamental of Computer Programming 9