- Количество слайдов: 2
FUNCTIONALISTS / STRUCTURALISTS Mommsen, Broszat (1970 s <) Opportunistic, non-determinist, weak dictator. “Confusion of Private Empires” LEGACY of Bismark, Kaiser and Weimar – continuation of Germany’s past. (Mommsen) HITLER – led state through propaganda rather than organisation and leadership. WAR YEARS – permanent confusion and conflict in planning (admitted needed army more onside) ECONOMIC RECOVERY – was shaky. A full war-economy didn’t exist until 1942. STRUCTURALISTS Believe: SPEER – often privately over ruled Hitler’s orders during war that would have caused further destruction for Germany. HITLER MANIPULETED – by key figures eg Martin Borman. HITLER didn’t create policy – he sanctioned whichever competing parts of states had succeeded in seeing off rivals. HITLER – was an opportunist. He only sprung into action in emergencies. IDEOLOGY – Confused and contradictory. HITLER – destroyed State Organisations with destructive policies. Gradually previously strong organisations like the army and civil service were worn down to collapse. DUALISM – chaos in Germany as Nazi and State organisations overlapped and clashed. Eg – Police v Army v SS v Gestapo. Econ – Schacht v Goering v Tadt v Darre. Educ – von Shirach v Rust v Himmler. NO CLEAR LINES OF AUTHORITY – Eg big businesses didn’t know where to go to get effective action. POLYCRATIC REGIME – Large no of power bases Eg Goering, Goebbles and Himmler sought power and titles. Gauleiters could become very powerful at local level. NAZI LEADERS IN CONFLICT – Continually clashed in seeking power INDIVIDUAL MINISTERS – left to own devices because Hitler was lazy, hated paperwork and was preoccupied with pet projects like re-building Berlin! EARLY 20 s – Hitler said he was the ‘drummer’ for the Volkish movement, making way for a more major figure to follow.
INTENTIONALISTS Bullock, Bracher, Fest, Shirer 1945 -c. 1970 s Planned, Determinist, Totalitarianism, Strong Dictator. “Nazism was Hitlerism” (Bracher) DURING WAR – Persuaded Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg to allow Nazi to enter Gov – Feb ‘ 38. Persuaded Czech President Hacha to allow Nazis into country. Nullified Anglo-German Naval Agreement and planned invasion of Poland, once Britain had given ultimatum. ARMY – swore to die for him and to protect him. PLANNED rise to power – policy of legality after Munich confused everyone, achieved broad-based support. TOTALITARIANISM – one leader, one party, one ideology. FUHRER PRINZIP – All powerful leader. INTENTIONALIST S Believe: WAR CRIMES TRIALS – Nazi officials declared they had simply “followed orders” ECONOMY – strong, as unemployment was virtually nil and Germany was preparing for autarky. IDEOLOGY – strong core of War, Racial Extermination and Fuhrer Prinzip. TERROR HOUSE – SS, Gestapo and to some extent SA all under Hitler’s control and in turn controlled masses through fear. FEW REBELLIONS – Generally people supported his policies and ultimately supported him. ALL POLICIES – went through Hitler, his word was law. CULT OF LEADERSHIP – charismatic leader underpinned by propaganda Eg Nuremburg Rallies. WORSHIPPED by other leading Nazis. POWER STRUGGLES – were allowed between ministers to gain more power for Hitler. ELIMINATED OPPOSITION: EXTERNALLY – 1933 Enabling Act, Law Against Formation of Parties, becoming Fuhrer. INTERNALLY – 1934 Night of the Long Knives. EDUCATION SYSTEM – strong, from teachers, to students in the class room and the Hitler Youth.