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Functional Tasks for Mastering the Mechanics of Writing and Going Just Beyond
Introduction 1. Communicative with any readers Ø Close or distant readers Ø Known or unknown readers 2. Important nowadays on whether A. Interaction of writing takes the form of a. Traditional paper-and-pencil b. Electronic mail writing
3. Communicative activity in course Ø Be encouraged Ø Be nurtured; supported 4. Interactive process A. Between reader and writer via the text B. Placing value on a. The goal of writing b. The perceived reader audience
5. Grice’s (1975) cooperative principle A. Writer a. Anticipate readers’ reaction b. Produce a text > clear, relevant, truthful, informative interesting, memorable B. Reader a. Interpret the text with proper regard > for writer’s presumed intention
6. The efficacy of the communicative act A. Linguistic accuracy B. Clarity of presentation C. Organization of ideas
Early Writing Tasks: Coping With The Mechanics What do we teach? 1. Mechanics Ø Letter recognition Ø Letter discrimination Ø Word recognition Ø Basic rules of spelling Ø Punctuation Ø Capitalization Ø Recognition of whole sentences and paragraphs
2. Writing A. Important role in early reading a. Facilitate the development of > both the reading and writing skills Sound-spelling correspondences 1. Enable teacher to combine the teaching A. Phonetics units with graphemic units 2. Give students practice in pronunciation A. Along with practice in spelling
The English consonants 1. The sounds of consonant letters A. Depend on the environment a. in which consonant letters occur Ex: “c” /k/ & /s/ Ø c + (a, o, u, l, r) /k/ : cat, coat, cup, clock, cry Ø c + e, i /s/ : cell, city Ø c + h /7/ : cheese Ø c + k /k/ : chicken, duck (in the middle or the end)
The consonant letter of “h” A. Powerful in changing the sound a. varied environment e. g. , “ch” /ch/ : chopsticks “sh” /S/ : sheep “th” /θ/ : theme 2. Ø Need to recognize these graphic clusters
4. Teach students from different writing systems A. Special writing exercises (see Appendix A)
The English vowels 1. The vowel letters in English A. Being more complex sound-spelling correspondences B. still have consistency and predictability 2. Basic Types of English Vowels A. Consonant Vowel Consonant (CVC) a. known as the environment for short vowels B. CV or CVCe (the end with silent “e”) a. known as the environment for long vowels
Inappropriate term of short and long vowel A. Associated with vowel length B. For the real difference: a. Phonetic quality e. g. , pit and pin It seems than both two are short vowel. 3. However, Pit is shorter than pin. Pit: Voiceless stop Pin: Voiced nasal
Environment A. Influence the quality of the vowel sound 5. The environment CVC in (a, e, i, o , u) A. Occurs as simple lax (relaxed muscle) B. Nondiphthongized > pan, pen, pin, pot and but. However, 6. The CVCe environment A. Occurs as tense and diphthongized > pane, Pete, pine, rope, and cute. 4. Diphthong : a vowel sound that starts near the articulatory position for one vowel
Monosyllabic words A. The rule that add the inflection (-ing) a. to the final syllable stressed verbs > needs letters doubling e. g. , sitting 7. 8. Polysyllabic Words A. The same rule to any polysyllabic verb e. g. , beginning B. If the final syllable is not stressed a. doesn’t need letters doubling e. g. , opening (stressed on the first)
The English vowels To sum up, 1. Not simple one-to-one letter sound correspondences Its own consistency Ø Embedded in the combination of letters > with their immediate environments 2.
How do we teach mechanics? 1. Aims to teach reading and writing mechanics Ø Enhance letter recognition > especially with different writing system Ø Practice sound-spelling correspondences > via all four language skills Ø Help the learner move > from letters and words > to meaningful sentences > to large units of discourse
Three types of recognition tasks: Ø Matching task Ø Writing task Ø Meaningful sound-spelling correspondence practice 2. 2 -1. Matching task Ø Enables learners develop A. Effective recognition habits > Based on distinctive graphic features. (See Appendix A)
2 -2. Writing tasks Ø Start with basic letter formation Ø Leads to meaningful writing of words and sentences. (Appendix B)
2 -3. Meaningful sound-spelling correspondence practice Ø Requires learners to focus on A. the pronunciation B. the written shape of the spelling patterns (Appendix C)
More advanced writing tasks: Developing basic communication tools 1. More advanced writing activities A. Shifting the goal ü from the focus on the mechanics of writing ü To basic process-oriented tasks B. Incorporating some language work a. morphological and discourse level Ø Enable focus on both accuracy and content of the message
2. A set of specifications of consideration Ø Task description – goal and its importance Content description > Content area related to the task Audience description > the intended audience, their background, needs, and expectation Format cues – plan of overall structure Linguistic cues > grammatical structure and vocabulary choices Spelling and punctuation cues > attention on spelling rules, acceptable punctuation, capitalization conventions Ø Ø Ø
Practical writing tasks These writing tasks A. Being procedural in nature B. Have a predictable format (e. g. list) Ø Focus on spelling and morphology 1. Many types of lists A. “Things to do” lists B. “Things completed” lists C. “Message for my little sister” lists Ø Provides with an opportunity to combine > some spelling rules with morphological rules and with the logical creation of a meaning sentence 2.
“Things to do” lists 1. useful to practice verb base forms e. g. , A list for a group of students who are preparing a surprise birthday party A. Things to do 1. Buy a present for Donna (Sharon). 2. Call Donna’s friends (Gail). 3. Write invitations (Dan). etc.
B. “Things completed” lists 1. Useful to practice past forms of verbs 2. Regular and irregular formation: a. - ed (regular) b. the deletion of a final e before adding e. g. , -ed : lived c. double letter + -ed when the end of the word is stressed e. g. , -ed : canned d. replacement of y with i when the base ends is “consonant + y” e. g. , -ed : try tried
Things completed 1. Planned the games for the party 2. Wrote the invitation 3. Bought the present 4. Called the friends 5. Tried to call Donna’s mother
“Shopping” lists 1. practice the spelling of > the plural ending of countable nouns > the use of quantifiers Ø /s/: when the end of the word is voiceless, we pronounce /s/ : cups Ø /z/: when the end of the word is voiced, we read /z/ : models In spelling pattern, /s/ and /z/ are the same Ø /ez/: when the ends of the word are s, sh, ch, x, o, we pronounce /ez/ : oranges C.
Notes and messages 1. Practice brief and simple sentences > with proper punctuation > with a meaningful message 2. Design their own messages headings e. g. , Messages for My Little Sister Wash the dishes in the sink. Feed the dog. Watch your favorite program on TV and have a good time. D.
E. Other types 1. Activities a. the filling in of forms b. the preparation of invitation > “greetings” and “thank you” All of these specification should focus on Ø orthographic, mechanical, and linguistic accuracy
Emotive Writing Tasks 1. Personal writing activity includes A. letters to friends B. narratives describing personal experiences C. personal journals or diaries Ø Letter Writing Ø Personal Experience Ø Journals and Diaries Suitable for the more advanced stages 3. Journal and personal writing > reflect the learner’s proficiency level 2.
School-Oriented Tasks 1. Important functions of writing 2. Students are required to a. write assignments, summaries, answers to questions, or a variety of essay-type passages All these activities 1. Given attention a. at the linguistic-accuracy level b. at the message-transmission level
Dialogue journal writing at the early stages 1. Enables students and teachers A. interaction on a one-to-one basis B. communicative event at the early stages a. of learning to write in a new language 2. Enables beginners A. generate some personal input B. receive the teacher’s direct feedback 3. Dialogue journal can be done A. via e-mail and the communication B. multimedia programs
Conclusion l Objective 1. Encouraging teachers A. Use a variety of writing tasks at all level a. particularly at the beginning level l 1. Being a skill Plan and rethink the communication process l 1. 2. Provides the opportunity to focus on Linguistic accuracy Content organization
l The Major aim 1. The mechanics of writing are important A. At the initial stage of learning B. Establish a good basis in sound-spelling correspondences
Considerations for Teaching an ESL / EFL Writing Course
Steps for Teaching Composition Called Product Approach Principles of rhetoric and organization → rules for writing A text for classroom discussion, analysis Writing assignment Read, comment on, and criticize papers
Process Approach vs. Product Approach Focus on general academic writing, personal writing (content course) A cyclical approach 1. ) drafting 2. ) receiving feedback ( from peer or teacher)
Placement considerations To sort students into levels of writing proficiency (homogeneous) Prerequisite for curriculum planning (materials and methodologies) Placement test 1. ) produce one or more writing samples 2. ) TOEFL Test for Written English / 100 -point ESL English Composition Profile 3. ) multiple-choice grammar tests (×)
Establishing Curriculum Principles Based on skill levels For beginning or intermediate-level 1. ) the imitation of models 2. ) short texts 3. ) self-expression For intermediate and advanced 1. ) creation of self-generated texts
ESL / EFL Writing Class As a workshop to learn to produce academic essays through mastering techniques for getting started → generating ideas → drafting papers → anticipating revising → utilizing feedback
The Writing Class Syllabus Design Techniques for Getting Started Using Readings in the Writing Class Writing Assignments Responding Goal-Setting Shaping Feedback Forms of Feedback Error Correction
Syllabus Design Take into account curricular goals and the particular students 1. ) How much writing 2. ) What the timelines 3. ) What composing process 4. ) What grammar and syntax 5. ) What constitute progress 6. ) How much readings 7. ) How to grade
Techniques for Getting Started Brainstorming → sharing their collective knowledge for their first drafts Listing → individual activity / produce as lengthy a list as possible Clustering → a key word or central idea Free-writing (speed writing) → write without taking the pen from the page / provide an opening clause or sentence
Using Readings in the Writing Class Models of what English texts look like Input that helps students develop awareness of English prose style Attention to particular stylistic choices, grammar features Develop and refine genre awareness Practice skills as summarizing, paraphrasing, interpreting, and synthesizing
Writing Assignments Refer to as a “Life Cycle” 1. ) Let students know the context and reasons 2. ) Content be accessible and allow for multiple approaches 3. ) Be un-ambiguous and comprehensible 4. ) Further knowledge of content and skills 5. ) Rhetorical cues format of finished assignments 6. ) Let students know how their output will be judged
Responding What general goals What specific goals on a particular piece of writing What stage What form Who should provide What students do
Goal-Setting Teacher 1. ) implementing a variety of response types 2. ) training students to maximize feedback on future writing occasions Student 1. ) make the best use of commentary
Shaping Feedback First draft → marginal and end comments Second draft → further examined the second draft papers Students should process and work with a teacher’s comments
Forms of Feedback Embrace the value of Collaborative Learning Oral Teacher Feedback 1. ) uncover potential misunderstanding 2. ) learn more in the one-to-one exchange 3. )submit a cassette tape with each draft Peer Response 1. ) gain a sense of audience 2. ) put students together in groups 3. ) must be modeled, taught, and controlled
Way to Guide Peer Response Provide a short list of directed questions Particular rhetorical feature discussed in class Trained by reviewing an essay written by a students in a previous class More complex and varied questions ex: What is the main purpose of this paper? What have you found particularly effect in the paper
Maximize the Value of the Feedback Provide practice in the valuable skill of text analysis Written responses as the basis for oral discussion between reader and writer Focus not only grammar but training and instruction Different cultures and participants
Error Correction Grammar and editing feedback as well as instruction Writing course is not a grammar course Work on eliminate grammar and stylistic infelicities Decide WHEN, WHO, WHICH, and HOW to correct
How to Call Students’ attention to errors Point out specific errors by using a mark Correct by writing in the corrected form Label specific errors Indicate the presence of error but not the precise location Ignore specific errors
GRAMMAR IN WRITING 9710008 M Venus
GRAMMAR IN WRITING
Grammar in Writing INTRODUCTION Barbara Hawkins Doughty and Williams (1998) Hillocks (1986) Krashen (1982) Silva (1993) Scarcella (1996) Lightbown (1998)
Grammar in Writing The role of grammar in ESL/EFL writing Widdowson (1988) The importance of Grammar in Writing Instruction
Grammar in Writing General Guidelines For Integrating Grammar In Writing Instruction Learner (learner-centered) Language to be taught
Grammar in Writing General Guidelines For Integrating Grammar In Writing Instruction Learner Variables - Celce-Murcia (1985) - Ferris and Hedgcock (1998) - Reid (1998) - Native Speakers versus EFL Students - Error Avoidance
Grammar in Writing General Guidelines For Integrating Grammar In Writing Instruction Learner Variables - Native Speakers versus EFL Students Ex: 1) unable to explain Gr. rules 2) acquire English “by ear” learn English in classroom 3) unfamiliar with Gr. terminologies
Grammar in Writing General Guidelines For Integrating Grammar In Writing Instruction Learner Variables - Celce-Murcia (1985) - Ferris and Hedgcock (1998) - Reid (1998) - Native Speakers versus EFL Students - Error Avoidance
Grammar in Writing General Guidelines For Integrating Grammar In Writing Instruction Situational Variables - Celce-Murcia (1985) - Little (1994) - Gr. in different objectives of classes - Gr. in different kinds of writing
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Analysis - learn how to use different kinds of grammatical features and grammatical systems Advantages: 1) help learners get familiar with prescriptive grammar rules 2) help learners realize implicit knowledge of grammar
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Analysis - Considerations for Selecting Grammar Points and Materials for Text Analysis 1) depends on course objective to select materials 2) learn to write from reading - Holten (1997) 3) supplementary texts
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Analysis - Considerations for Selecting Grammar Points and Materials for Text Analysis Six considerations for selecting texts and grammatical points for analysis 1) be appropriate for students’ developmental stages 2) reflect students’ writing needs for the course 3) be sources of text analysis on assigned course readings 4) be generally kept brief on the lessons 5) enhance the texts by underlining or bolding certain elements 6) follow text analysis on productive tasks
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Sample Text Analysis Lessons - That and zero-that clauses - Tense and Time Frame Shifts - Demonstrative Reference
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Sample Text Analysis Lessons - That and zero-that clauses to help learners identify clauses in which “that” can be deleted optionally before a complement clause Ex: 1) Margaret thinks she’s smarter than we are just because she’s smarter than we are. 2) I know I’m no longer young and pretty… 3) But I guarantee it won’t happen again. 4) It makes me feel good to know I might help save someone.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Sample Text Analysis Lessons - Tense and Time Frame Shifts EFL writers are often confused about the verb tense shifts; therefore, the writing teachers should review the reasons why we need to shift verb tenses and time frames. Ex: Tense : from present to present perfect Time Frames : from present to past
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Sample Text Analysis Lessons - Demonstrative Reference The teachers give a text that has examples of both “this” used in pronoun reference and “this” used in noun reference.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Guided Writing Activities - Guided writings focus students’ attention on language features that are difficult to them. - They encourage learners to expand their linguistic resources through eliciting exercises of grammatical structures.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Learners have to rewrite passage or short texts. Ex: 1) present time frame past time frame 2) direct speech indirect speech - Celce-Murcia and Hilles (1998)
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Revision and Editing Focused Exercises - Sentence Combining - Guided Paraphrase - Text Elicitation - Dictation - Text Completion
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Revision and Editing Focused Exercises The purpose of the exercise is to address learners’ grammar problems with the focus of the particular grammatical structure.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Revision and Editing Focused Exercises Ex: We tested velocity by placing a green trace dye on the surface of the lot, at a measured point. After each run we estimated the vegetation cover using a five-point pin frame. We placed the pin frame in 20 places on the plot, moving downward. Rewritten into Passive Voice: Velocity was tested by placing a green trace dye on the surface of the plot, at a measured point. After each run, the vegetation cover was estimated using a five-point pin frame. The pin frame was placed on the plot, moving downward.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Sentence Combining 1) Mellon (1969) 2) This technique was to develop syntactic fluency which involved the kernel sentence combining.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Sentence Combining Ex: The man was old. The man had gray hair. The man walked down the street. The man walked slowly. Combined Sentence: The old, gray-haired man walked slowly down the street.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Sentence Combining 1) Mellon (1969) 2) This technique was to develop syntactic fluency which involved the kernel sentence combining. 3) De Beaugrande (1985) 4) Draft revision is one of the most useful applications of sentence combining for advanced ESL learners which can achieve a better flow of information through clearer connections between ideas.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Sentence Combining Ex: Written by Developing Writer Oliver Sack is a neurologist. He wrote the article “Brilliant Light: A Chemical Boyhood. ” In this article, he describes how his “Uncle Tungsten” influenced his love of science. Written by Experienced Writer In “Brilliant Light: A Chemical Boyhood, ” neurologist Oliver Sacks describes how his “Uncle Tungsten” influenced his love of science.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Guided Paraphrase The developing of paraphrasing is one of the most important skills in academic writing which can support student’s claims and develop their ideas.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Guided Paraphrase Ex: 1) Original: People trying to interpret a situation often look at those around them to see how to react. (base reactions on ) Rewrite: People trying to interpret a situation often base their reactions on those around them. 2) Original: Even if a person defines an event as an emergency. . . (decides) Rewrite: Even if a person decides that an event is an emergency. . .
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Elicitation The writing teacher can give a topic or writing objective and a grammatical structure or structure for students’ practice.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Elicitation Ex: Text In many U. S. towns, the opening of large retail chain stores known as superstores has made it difficult for the local small business to keep customers. However, some of these local businesses are now successfully using the Web to increase sales and improve customer service. Conditional Sentences If customers shop at chain superstores instead of their local businesses, the local stores may have to close. Unless small businesses find new ways to attract customers, such as advertising on the Web, they may no be able to compete with superstores.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Elicitation 1) In this exercise, surveys, graphs and research articles related to the writing topic are good sources for eliciting summaries. 2) It can help students diagnose their structural problems, develop syntactic complexity and provide strategies for organizing and displaying information.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Dictation 1) Dictation is a good way to help students understand the collocations between grammar and vocabulary. 2) three procedures in dictation
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Completion three types of text completion 1) Cloze passage 2) Gapped text 3) the third type
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Completion Ex: Cloze __1__ pollution may be defined as __2__ deterioration of __3__ everyday life’s natural resources. __4__ pollution is __5__ global problem that has affected __6__ quality of __7__ water we drink, __8__ air we breathe and __9__ land we use. __10__ scientific solutions to overcome __11__ problem have increased __12__ destruction.
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Completion Ex: Gapped Text passive, progressive aspect, present perfect, comparatives, superlatives, phrasal verbs
Grammar in Writing Activities For Incorporating Grammar Into Writing Instruction Text Conversion - Text Completion Ex: Third Type Climatologists have predicted that the continual warming of the earth’s surface, commonly known as “the greenhouse effect, ” could have dramatic consequences. 1. (a) The melting of the polar ice caps could be one result. (b) One result could be the melting of the polar ice caps. 2. (a) This melting would, in turn, cause a rise of the sea level. (b) A rise of the sea level would, in turn, be caused by this melting.
Grammar in Writing ERROR DIAGNOSIS AND CORRECTION Error Detection and Correction Exercises - The First Type The students are told how many errors there are with different types of errors. Ex: The text below has the following errors: 1 preposition, 1 verb tense, 1 subject-verb agreement, 1 missing article. This paper report on survey about values. Our English class take the survey last week in UCLA.
Grammar in Writing Error Diagnosis And Correction Error Detection and Correction Exercises - The Second Type Students are given a text with numbered lines and they are told all of the line numbers have a certain type of error. Ex: Identify and correct all of the verb form errors in the following text. Use the guide below to find the errors. 1. The Olympics were hold in Sydney, Australia 2. in 2000. Athletes from all over the world partici 3. pated. The Olympics have inspire many young 4. people to excel in athletics.
Grammar in Writing Error Diagnosis And Correction Error Detection and Correction Exercises - The Third Type It is using sentences that students wrote as the material to focus on one error type.
Grammar in Writing Error Diagnosis And Correction Editing Strategies and Techniques - four kinds of techniques 1) Read-Aloud Technique 2) Pointing to Words 3) “Slow-Down” Techniques 4) Word Processing Grammar Checkers
Grammar in Writing Error Diagnosis And Correction Teacher Feedback on Errors - four guidelines and suggestions for providing feedbacks 1) underlining or highlighting errors 2) major errors 3) frequent errors 4) mini-conference
Grammar in Writing CONCLUSTION An Overview of This Chapter Ponsot and Deen (1982)