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From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity The challenges of putting theory and policy into practice York University March 14, 2013 Karen R. Mock, Ph. D. , C. Psych.
I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant
What ARE the Challenges?
Where have we been? (before Multiculturalism) 2 “founding” nations i. e. the 2 largest “minority” groups 1960’s – the Quiet Revolution – the Bilingual and Bicultural Commission (B & B Report) - a “third voice” heard! - multiculturalism acknowledged as a reality within the bilingual framework
National and International Obligations l 1970’s -hate laws adopted as amendments to criminal code, hate propaganda a criminal offense - Canadian Human Rights Act - Canada ratifies the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD adopted by the UN in 1965, signed by Canada in 1966)
March 21 st l The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21 March. On that day, in 1960, police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, against the apartheid "pass laws". Proclaiming the Day in 1966, the General Assembly called on the international community to redouble its efforts to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination (resolution 2142 (XXI)).
Multiculturalism Policy 1971 l Multiculturalism declared an official policy of Canada l Support provided for : - heritage languages - ethnocultural community activities - settlement and integration - “Celebrating our Differences” l
Ontario Education Leads the Way… “Now is Not Too Late” – Walter Pitman “ We are all Immigrants to this place” – Toronto Board - Report on Multiculturalism - Report on Race Relations (development of policies to promote equality in the system, procedures for handling inter-ethnic tensions and racial incidents when they occur)
Charter, Codes and Commissions l 1980’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms Ontario Human Rights Code “Equality Now!” Task Force “Employment Equity” Commission “Who Gets the Work? ” +Urban Alliance on Race Relations, Ontario Multicultural Association, Ontario Multicultural Anti-Racist Educators’ Network, Local, Provincial and Federal Advisory Committees and Councils, etc….
The challenge of putting policy into practice Evaluation of implementation of multiculturalism and race relations policies disappointing by mid ’ 80’s l Resistance to organizational change l Marginalization of staff and advocacy leaders – parents and community groups l Backlogs as harassment and violence against minorities increase l
Further Studies and Reports l “Towards a Model Race Relations Policy” (1986) (OHRC/Citizenship and Culture/Education) l l l “Access to Government Services by Racial Minorities” (1987) “Race Relations Training Manual” (1988) “Implementing Race and Ethnocultural Equity Policy in Ontario School Boards” (1989) Task Force on Race Relations and Policing Ongoing Curriculum, Resources and Policy Development
From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity l l l l Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1988 Anti-Racism Secretariat Employment Equity Policy Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Departments Stephen Lewis Commission (1992) Memorandum 119 (1993). . . . more challenges in practice
From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity ? 40 years later…. Why aren’t the ISms WASms? (CRRF/TDSB, 2003)
Backtracking l l l l Feelings of frustration, anger, betrayal Fiscal restraint – cutbacks on “soft” areas Recession leads to ethnocentrism Backlash and scapegoating of minorities and immigrants repeal of key legislation! Changing demographics (Ethnic Diversity Survey) International rise in racism and violence Increasing divisiveness between and within communities
l Protection, Prevention and Partnerships gave way to l Competition, Contention and Controversy!
Multiculturalism, Race Relations and Equity Issues - Four Broad Areas - 1) Attitudes and Beliefs 2) Interpersonal Relations on the Job 3) Customer or Client Service 4) Institutional Barriers to Equality/Equity
Inclusion “Inclusion is not bringing people into what already exists, it is making a new space, a better space for everyone” Dr. George Safa Dei (OISE)
MULTICULTURALISM DO UNTO OTHERS AS THEY WOULD HAVE YOU DO UNTO THEM Marg Norquay (Ryerson) RACE RELATIONS …
ANTI-RACISM (Anti-discrimination) A perspective that permeates all company policies & practices, aimed at eradicating racism in all its various forms. Systemic discrimination stereotyping prejudice racism
Equity A term used to denote fair, inclusive and respectful treatment of all people, with regard to age, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, creed and the other grounds of prohibited discrimination in the human rights code, as well as any other similar factor. * Equity programs are designed to remove barriers to equality by identifying and eliminating discriminatory policies and practices. *Any other similar factor is to be interpreted in a manner similar to ‘analogous grounds’ in Section 15(1) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
FOUR ASPECTS OF RACISM and all the isms and phobias… SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION BELIEFS, ATTITUDES policies, practices DISCRIMINATION Racism, sexism, antisemitism, islamophobia, homophobia, etc. PREJUDICE “pre-judge” STEREOTYPING “set Image” Adapted from B. Thomas and C. Novogrodsky (1983) Combatting Racism in the Workplace BEHAVIOUR, ACTION
CLARIFYING TERMINOLOGY l Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. It is the combination of racial prejudice + institutional power that is used to deny or grant people and groups of people rights, respect, representation and resources based on their race, colour or ethnicity. Racism is manifested through individual action and/or institutional policies and practices. It extends beyond prejudiced beliefs to actions (whether intended or not) that maintain and ensure the continuation of privilege relationships and support the racial status quo.
l Antisemitism Coined in the late nineteenth century, the term antisemitic was applied directly to hatred of Jews and not of all Semitic peoples. Today, antisemitism refers to latent or overt hostility or hatred directed towards individual Jews or the Jewish people -- anti-Jewish oppression -- leading to social, economic, institutional, religious, cultural or political discrimination. Antisemitism has also been expressed through individual acts of harassment, physical violence, vandalism, the organized destruction of entire communities and genocide.
l Islamophobia A term recently coined to refer to expressions of negative stereotypes, bias, oppression or acts of hostility towards individual Muslims or followers of Islam in general. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, there have been heightened attacks and violence on individuals who identify as Muslim or are thought to be followers of Islam. Individuals of South Asian or Arab descent, whether they are Muslim or not, have been the targets of harassment, racial profiling, prejudice and discrimination. Some attacks have been directed at places of worship, and stereotyped media portrayal often equates Islam with terrorism.
l Heterosexism/Homophobia An ideological system and/or patterns of individual or institutionalized oppression which deny, denigrate and stigmatize any non-heterosexual form of behaviour, identity, relationship or community (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-Spirited, Queer, Questioning - LGBTQ)
CIRCLE OF ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS STEREOTYPE PREJUDICE SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION
How Can You Identify Discrimination?
HUMAN RIGHTS CODE: PROHIBITED GROUNDS l l l l RACE ANCESTRY PLACE OF ORIGIN COLOUR ETHNIC ORIGIN CITIZENSHIP CREED SEXUAL ORIENTATION HANDICAP AGE MARITAL STATUS FAMILY STATUS RECORD OF OFFENCES RECEIPT OF ASSISTANCE
HARASSMENT Ø Any comment or conduct by a supervisor or co-worker which is intimidating, ongoing hurtful or malicious in intent. Ø Persistent, uncalled for an unwelcome disparaging behaviour by one person towards another. Ø A course of vexatious comment or conduct that is known or ought reasonably known to be unwelcome. Ø Unwanted sexual solicitations or advances made by a person in a position to confer, grant or deny a benefit because an advance has been refused.
SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCLUDES: Ø UNNECESSARY TOUCHING OR PATTING Ø SUGGESTIVE OR OTHER SEXUALLY AGGRESSIVE REMARKS Ø LEERING (SUGGESTIVE STARING) AT A PERSON’S BODY The Ø DEMANDS FOR SEXUAL FAVOURS Ø COMPROMISING INVITATIONS Ø PHYSICAL ASSAULT
RACIAL/ ETHNIC/ RELIGIOUS HARASSMENT INCLUDES: Ø UNWELCOME REMARKS, JOKES, INNUENDOS, OR TAUNTS ABOUT A PERSON’S RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND, COLOUR, PLACE OF BIRTH, CITIZENSHIP, OR ANCESTRY Ø THE DISPLAY OF RACIST, DEROGATORY, OR OFFENSIVE PICTURES OR MATERIAL Ø REFUSAL TO CONVERSE OR WORK WITH AN EMPLOYEE BECAUSE OF THAT EMPLOYEE’S RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND Ø USING INSULTING FEATURES OR PLAYING PRACTICAL JOKES WHICH, BECAUSE THEY ARE BASED ON RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC GROUNDS, CAUSE EMBARRASSMENT OR AWKWARDNESS Ø PHYSICAL ABUSE Ø PERSISTENT, ON-GOING COMMUNICATION (IN ANY FORM) OF NEGATIVE ATTITUDES, BELIEFS OR ACTIONS TOWARDS AN INDIVIDUAL GROUP WITH THE INTENTION OF PLACING THAT IN A DISPARAGING ROLE
RACISM IN THE WORKPLACE Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Racial jokes, slurs, verbal abuse Graffiti Interracial conflicts / harassment by co-workers Grouping / isolation Under-employment Ghettoization in job categories Promotion problems (performance review, the glass ceiling, the sticky floor) Under-representation of racial minorities at the executive level in the unions ‘No problem’ syndrome
HANDLING INCIDENTS Racial/Homophobic/Antisemitic/Islamophobic, etc Ø DON’T LET A SLUR PASS UNCHALLENGED Ø DON’T OVERREACT WITH ANOTHER PUT-DOWN Ø DON’T EMBARRASS THE OFFENDER PUBLICLY Ø DON’T MAKE OTHERS SCAPEGOATS FOR YOUR FRUSTRATIONS Ø DON’T LET INTANGIBLE FEARS BLOCK YOUR ABILITY TO ACT Ø DO VALUE THE FEELINGS OF OTHERS BY ACTIVE LISTENING Ø DO REMEMBER ATTACKERS FEEL THEMSELVES VICTIMS TOO Ø DO SUPPORT THE VICTIM, AND GIVE CONSEQUENCES/COUNSELLING TO THE ATTACKER AND BYSTANDER(S) Adapted from: Slurs, Stereotypes and Prejudice Stern, D. , Mackenzie, H.
RACIAL/ETHNIC JOKES Consider all racial or ethnic jokes: “ Did you hear about the (Black Jew, Newfie, Polok Scotsman, Chinaman, Catholic)…? All racial/ethnic jokes contain a slur, i. e. an insult toward those who are members of a particular racial or ethnic group.
All racial/ethnic jokes are based on a stereotype describing a characteristic that all members of the group supposedly have: This stereotyped label is associated with a fixed image which is usually negative. Stereotyping and labelling can promote prejudice (a judgment based on insufficient, inappropriate and/or false information) and discrimination (the activation of prejudice) Racism – the expression of a negative prejudice towards a specific group. Promotes hatred towards the targeted group. Someone who already dislikes a certain group has those feelings strengthened. and Someone who has no knowledge of the group may accept this version and develop a negative feeling towards them without any direct experience. G. Guttentag Race Relations Directorate Ministry of Citizenship
ASK YOURSELF Ø WOULD YOU SAY IT IN FRONT OF YOUR MATE, SON OR DAUGHTER? Ø WOULD YOU SAY IT IF THE QUOTE WAS GOING TO APPEAR ON THE FRONT PAGE OF THE NEWSPAPER? Ø WOULD YOU SAY IT TO A MEMBER OF THE SAME SEX IN EXACTLY THE SAME WAY? Ø WHY DOES IT NEED TO BE SAID? WHAT BUSINESS OF THE SCHOOL/PROFESSION/SERVICE IS FURTHERED?
SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION IS: l l l USUALLY UNINTENTIONAL UNIVERSALLY APPLIED ENTRENCHED IN ORGANIZATION’S POLICIES AND PRACTICES SCREENS OUT ENTIRE GROUPS OF PEOPLE FOR NON JOB-RELATED REASONS MAY RESULT IN INAPPROPRIATE PROGRAMS AND INSENSITIVE SERVICE DELIVERY CONTRARY TO HUMAN RIGHTS LEGISLATION
EXAMPLES OF SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND/OR SERVICE DELIVERY l l l l CREDENTIALISM NON-VALID TESTS LENGTHY EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS NON-JOB-RELATED QUALIFICATIONS UNNECESSARY PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS LACK OF ACCESS LANGUAGE BARRIERS INADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF TRADITIONS AND VALUES
Where are We Now? Post 9/11 climate (2001 ff) l Rights, Freedom and Responsibilities l Safe Schools ! l Hate Crime Community Working Group l Falconer Report l OPS Diversity Initiatives l Energizing Ontario Education (2008) – Reach Every Student ! l “Equity and excellence go hand in hand. ”
Where are we going? Anti-oppressive Practice! Realizing the Promise of Diversity -Ontario’s Inclusive Education Strategy (2009 - 2012) “Equity and excellence go hand in hand!”
Ontario Human Rights Commission April 16, 2012
l Ojibway? Mohawk? Sioux? ? ? . . . . “Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in his moccasins…” Whose shoes? ? ? . . .
Chinese Proverb Those who say it cannot be done Should not interrupt the people doing it! African Proverb If you want to go fast, go alone If you want to go far, go together
What is an Ally? An ally is a member of the agent social group who takes a stand against social injustice directed at target groups (Whites who speak out against racism, men who are anti-sexist). l An ally works to be an agent of social change rather than an agent of oppression. l When a form of oppression has multiple target groups, as do racism, ableism, heterosexism and faithism, target group members can be allies to other targeted social groups they are not part of (e. g. lesbians can be allies to bisexual people, African Canadians can be allies to Aboriginal Peoples, Jewish people can be allies to Muslims). l
l Characteristics of an Ally l Feels good about own social group membership; is comfortable and proud of own identity Takes responsibility for learning about own and target group heritage, culture and experience, and how oppression works in everyday life. Listens to and respects the perspectives and experience of target group members Recognizes that unlearning oppressive beliefs and actions is a lifelong process, not a single event, and welcomes each learning opportunity Is willing to take risks, try new behaviours, act in spite of own fear and resistance from other agents l l
l More Characteristics of an Ally l Takes care of self to avoid burnout Acts against social injustice out of a belief that it is in her/his own self-interest to do so Is willing to make mistakes, learn from them, and try again Is willing to be confronted about own behaviour and attitudes and consider change Is committed to taking action against social injustice in own sphere of influence Understands own group and response patterns and when she/he is on a learning edge Understands the connections among all forms of social injustice l l l
l Even More Characteristics of an Ally l Believes she/he can make a difference by acting and speaking out against social injustice l Knows how to cultivate support from other allies Excerpt from Adams, M. , Bell, L. and Griffin, P. (1997) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice
“Knowing too much about other people puts you in their power, they have a claim on you, you are forced to understand their reasons for doing things, and then you are weakened. ” Margaret Atwood Cat’s Eye
Together We’re Stronger Together We CAN make a difference! Together We can overcome challenges! Together We WILL achieve equity!
Thank you! Karen Mock [email protected] ca