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Freedom House: Assessment (Measurement) of Freedom in Global Comparison David F. J. Campbell University Freedom House: Assessment (Measurement) of Freedom in Global Comparison David F. J. Campbell University of Klagenfurt, Austria / iff Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies / Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education Research (WIHO) / http: //www. uni-klu. ac. at/wiho david. [email protected] ac. at Presentation: November 23 & 30, 2011

Table of Contents n n n What is Freedom House? Freedom in the World Table of Contents n n n What is Freedom House? Freedom in the World Freedom of the Press Freedom in the World: Empirical Results Further Challenges & Research Questions References

What is Freedom House? (1) n http: //www. freedomhouse. org/ 19. 03. 2018 david. What is Freedom House? (1) n http: //www. freedomhouse. org/ 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 3 von 41

What is Freedom House? (2) 19. 03. 2018 david. campbell@uni-klu-ac. at / Freedom House: What is Freedom House? (2) 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 4 von 41

What is Freedom House? (3) 19. 03. 2018 david. campbell@uni-klu-ac. at / Freedom House: What is Freedom House? (3) 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 5 von 41

What is Freedom House? (4) n n n “Freedom House is an independent watchdog What is Freedom House? (4) n n n “Freedom House is an independent watchdog organization that supports the expansion of freedom around the world. Freedom House supports democratic change, monitors freedom, and advocates for democracy and human rights. ” “Since its founding in 1941 by prominent Americans concerned with the mounting threats to peace and democracy, Freedom House has been a vigorous proponent of democratic values and a steadfast opponent of dictatorships of the far left and the far right. Eleanor Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie served as Freedom House’s first honorary co-chairpersons. ” http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=2 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 6 von 41

What is Freedom House? (5) n Mission Statement: n n n “Freedom House, an What is Freedom House? (5) n Mission Statement: n n n “Freedom House, an independent nongovernmental organization, supports the expansion of freedom in the world. Freedom is possible only in democratic political systems in which the governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, and belief, as well as respect for the rights of minorities and women, are guaranteed. ” “Freedom ultimately depends on the actions of committed and courageous men and women. We support nonviolent civic initiatives in societies where freedom is denied or under threat and we stand in opposition to ideas and forces that challenge the right of all people to be free. Freedom House functions as a catalyst for freedom, democracy and the rule of law through its analysis, advocacy and action. ” http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=2 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 7 von 41

What is Freedom House? (6) n n What is Freedom House’s definition of “freedom”? What is Freedom House? (6) n n What is Freedom House’s definition of “freedom”? “Freedom is the opportunity to act spontaneously in a variety of fields outside the control of the government and/or other centers of potential domination. Freedom House measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. Political rights enable people to participate freely in the political process through the right to vote, compete for public office and elect representatives who have a decisive impact on public policies and are accountable to the electorate. Civil liberties allow for the freedoms of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy without interference from the state. ” 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 8 von 41

What is Freedom House? (7) n n n What is Freedom House’s definition of What is Freedom House? (7) n n n What is Freedom House’s definition of “freedom”? (continuation) “Freedom House’s definition of freedom is derived in large measure from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. The rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration include freedom of religion, expression, and assembly; freedom from torture; and the right to take part in the government of his or her country. These standards apply to all countries and territories, irrespective of geographical location, ethnic or religious composition, or level of economic development. ” http: //freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page =265#1 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 9 von 41

What is Freedom House? (8) n Key “products” (tools) of Freedom House: n http: What is Freedom House? (8) n Key “products” (tools) of Freedom House: n http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=1 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 10 von 41

Freedom in the World (1) n n Map of Freedom in the World: 2011 Freedom in the World (1) n n Map of Freedom in the World: 2011 edition = refers to the calendar year 2010 (etc. ) http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=363&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 11 von 41

Freedom in the World (2) n Map of Freedom in the World: focuses on Freedom in the World (2) n Map of Freedom in the World: focuses on … n n countries or territories (e. g. , Palestinian Authority. Administered Territories or Nagorno. Karabakh). 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 12 von 41

Freedom in the World (3) n Peer review process or assessment by experts: For Freedom in the World (3) n Peer review process or assessment by experts: For the 2001 edition of the freedom in the world … n n 52 contributing authors, 18 academic advisers and other experts; http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=351& ana_page=381&year=2011 Reference to selected sources such as publications (broadcasts) and (national and international) organizations. http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=351& ana_page=380&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 13 von 41

Freedom in the World (4) n n Checklist Questions and Guidelines: Experts provide assessment Freedom in the World (4) n n Checklist Questions and Guidelines: Experts provide assessment and rating for the countries and considered territories. http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=351&ana_page=374&year=2011 n POLITICAL RIGHTS CHECKLIST n CIVIL LIBERTIES CHECKLIST 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 14 von 41

Freedom in the World (5) n POLITICAL RIGHTS CHECKLIST: n n A. ELECTORAL PROCESS Freedom in the World (5) n POLITICAL RIGHTS CHECKLIST: n n A. ELECTORAL PROCESS (3 main Qs plus sub-Qs); B. POLITICAL PLURALISM AND PARTICIPATION (4 main Qs plus sub-Qs); C. FUNCTIONING OF GOVERNMENT (3 main Qs plus sub-Qs); ADDITIONAL DISCRETIONARY POLITICAL RIGHTS QUESTIONS. 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 15 von 41

Freedom in the World (6) n CIVIL LIBERTIES CHECKLIST: n n D. FREEDOM OF Freedom in the World (6) n CIVIL LIBERTIES CHECKLIST: n n D. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND BELIEF (4 main Qs plus sub-Qs); E. ASSOCIATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL RIGHTS (3 main Qs plus sub-Qs); F. RULE OF LAW (4 main Qs plus sub-Qs); G. PERSONAL AUTONOMY AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS (4 main Qs plus sub-Qs). 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 16 von 41

Freedom in the World (7) n SCORE GUIDE FOR CHECKLIST QUESTIONS: Experts assign to Freedom in the World (7) n SCORE GUIDE FOR CHECKLIST QUESTIONS: Experts assign to every question a numerical score from 0 to 4. 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 17 von 41

Freedom in the World (8) n CONVERSION OF SCORES INTO RATINGS: 19. 03. 2018 Freedom in the World (8) n CONVERSION OF SCORES INTO RATINGS: 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 18 von 41

Freedom in the World (9) n CONVERSION OF SCORES INTO RATINGS: (continued) 19. 03. Freedom in the World (9) n CONVERSION OF SCORES INTO RATINGS: (continued) 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 19 von 41

Freedom in the World (10) n n Comparative and historical data: http: //www. freedomhouse. Freedom in the World (10) n n Comparative and historical data: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=15 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 20 von 41

Freedom in the World (11) n Comparative and historical data: (continued) n http: //www. Freedom in the World (11) n Comparative and historical data: (continued) n http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=439 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 21 von 41

Freedom in the World (12) n n “Country status and ratings overview, FIW 1973 Freedom in the World (12) n n “Country status and ratings overview, FIW 1973 -2011”: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/images/File/fiw/historical /FIWAll. Scores. Countries 1973 -2011. xls 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 22 von 41

Freedom in the World (13) n n Aggregate and subcategory scores: http: //www. freedomhouse. Freedom in the World (13) n n Aggregate and subcategory scores: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=276 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 23 von 41

Freedom in the World (14) n n Aggregate and subcategory scores: (continued) http: //www. Freedom in the World (14) n n Aggregate and subcategory scores: (continued) http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=276 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 24 von 41

Freedom in the World (15) n n Aggregate scores: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/images/File/fiw/histori cal/Aggregate. Freedom in the World (15) n n Aggregate scores: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/images/File/fiw/histori cal/Aggregate. Scores_FIW 2003 -2011. xls 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 25 von 41

Freedom in the World (16) n n Sub-category scores (e. g. , 2011 edition): Freedom in the World (16) n n Sub-category scores (e. g. , 2011 edition): http: //www. freedomhouse. org/images/File/fiw/histori cal/2011 Sub-Category. Scores-Website. xls 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 26 von 41

Freedom of the Press (1) n n Map of Press Freedom: 2011 edition = Freedom of the Press (1) n n Map of Press Freedom: 2011 edition = refers to the calendar year 2010 (etc. ) http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=251&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 27 von 41

Freedom of the Press (2) n n Peer review process or assessment by experts: Freedom of the Press (2) n n Peer review process or assessment by experts: Experts assess countries (and specified territories) in reference to checklist questions. http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=350&ana_page=376&year=2011 n Survey team of the 2011 edition: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page =350&ana_page=377&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 28 von 41

Freedom of the Press (3) n CHECKLIST OF METHODOLOGY QUESTIONS 2011: n n n Freedom of the Press (3) n CHECKLIST OF METHODOLOGY QUESTIONS 2011: n n n “Each country is ranked on a scale of 0 to 100, with 0 being the best and 100 being the worst. ” “A combined score of 0 -30=Free, 31 -60=Partly Free, 61 -100=Not Free. ” “Under each question, a lower number of points is allotted for a more free situation, while a higher number of points is allotted for a less free environment. ” “The sub-questions listed are meant to provide guidance as to what issues are meant to be addressed under each methodology question; it is not intended that the author necessarily answer each one. ” http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=350&ana_p age=376&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 29 von 41

Freedom of the Press (4) n CHECKLIST OF METHODOLOGY QUESTIONS 2011: continued n n Freedom of the Press (4) n CHECKLIST OF METHODOLOGY QUESTIONS 2011: continued n n “As a general guideline, the index is focused on ability to access news and information (which predominantly means print and broadcast media but can also including blogs, social media, and other forms of digital news dissemination) and providers of news content, which predominantly means journalists but can also include citizen journalists and bloggers, where applicable. ” http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=350&ana_p age=376&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 30 von 41

Freedom of the Press (5) n n Historical data: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? Freedom of the Press (5) n n Historical data: http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=16 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 31 von 41

Freedom of the Press (6) n n Historical data: (continued) http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. Freedom of the Press (6) n n Historical data: (continued) http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=274 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 32 von 41

Freedom of the Press (7) n n Historical data (1980 -2008): (continued) http: //www. Freedom of the Press (7) n n Historical data (1980 -2008): (continued) http: //www. freedomhouse. org/uploads/fop/historical/ 2008/Scores%20 and%20 Status-Global_2008. xls 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 33 von 41

Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (1) n Map of Freedom 2011 (= 2010) Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (1) n Map of Freedom 2011 (= 2010) n http: //www. freedomhouse. org/template. cfm? page=363&year=2011 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 34 von 41

Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (2) 19. 03. 2018 david. campbell@uni-klu-ac. at / Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (2) 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 35 von 41

Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (3) 19. 03. 2018 david. campbell@uni-klu-ac. at / Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (3) 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 36 von 41

Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (4) 19. 03. 2018 david. campbell@uni-klu-ac. at / Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (4) 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 37 von 41

Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (5) n http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Freedom_House 19. 03. Freedom in the World: Empirical Results (5) n http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Freedom_House 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 38 von 41

Further Challenges & Research Questions (1) n n To which extent are the ratings Further Challenges & Research Questions (1) n n To which extent are the ratings and scores of Freedom House determined by the specific expert composition of the survey teams? (Different experts, different ratings? ) To which extent does Freedom House reflect (represent) the mainstream (foreign policy) view of the United States of the rest of the world? 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 39 von 41

Further Challenges & Research Questions (2) n n n Are there ways of validating Further Challenges & Research Questions (2) n n n Are there ways of validating the scores of Freedom House? For example, are there alternative indicators that could “test” the scoring and rating of Freedom House? Could freedom be conceptualized (and measured) different to the approach of Freedom House? Is there enough competition in the international field of freedom measurement? 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 40 von 41

Further References n n Pickel, Susanne / Gert Pickel (2006). Politische Kultur- und Demokratieforschung. Further References n n Pickel, Susanne / Gert Pickel (2006). Politische Kultur- und Demokratieforschung. Grundbegriffe, Theorien, Methoden. Eine Einführung. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften (Seiten 209 -221). Gastil, Raymond Duncan (1993). The Comparative Survey of Freedom: Experiences and Suggestions, 21 -46, in: Alex Inkeles (ed. ): On Measuring Democracy. Its Consequences and Concomitants. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. 19. 03. 2018 david. [email protected] at / Freedom House: Measuring Freedom 41 von 41