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For a sociology of intercultural irritation Anthony Pym © Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira For a sociology of intercultural irritation Anthony Pym © Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira i Virgili

© Intercultural Studies Group © Intercultural Studies Group

The research n n n n EC Directorate General for Translation Addresses six main The research n n n n EC Directorate General for Translation Addresses six main questions Survey of surveys 98 experts and informants 139 associations (103 in EU Member States) In-depth analysis of SFT survey Asymmetric information theory Theory of adverse selection © Intercultural Studies Group

Angels? © Intercultural Studies Group Angels? © Intercultural Studies Group

Transaction costs over time © Intercultural Studies Group Transaction costs over time © Intercultural Studies Group

Degrees and training? v v v Translation is an “unprotected title” except in Slovakia. Degrees and training? v v v Translation is an “unprotected title” except in Slovakia. Employers recognize the IOL Diploma and Diplom-Überstetzer status. Most employers (including intergovernmental organizations) do their own testing. © Intercultural Studies Group

Authorised/sworn translation? v v Most countries have “authorized/sworn translator” as a protected title not Authorised/sworn translation? v v Most countries have “authorized/sworn translator” as a protected title not delivered by an academic institution. In five countries access to the title can be via an academic institution. In seven countries, translations are certified by notaries or legal professionals, if at all. Greece is in flux. © Intercultural Studies Group

Authorized/sworn translation? This distribution does not correspond to Common vs. Statutory law. © Intercultural Authorized/sworn translation? This distribution does not correspond to Common vs. Statutory law. © Intercultural Studies Group

Cross-border recognition? I have done a translation (FR>EN) of a diploma from a Belgium Cross-border recognition? I have done a translation (FR>EN) of a diploma from a Belgium university and now the client asks for it to be sworn. I am English and live in England, client is Belgian living in Belgium (I guess), and I got the work via a Swedish agency. Needless to say I do not know the client. © Intercultural Studies Group

Associations? Many and varied: v Certification (CIOL, ATA) v Unionization / political representation v Associations? Many and varied: v Certification (CIOL, ATA) v Unionization / political representation v Information / training v Job agency v Protection of degrees from particular institutions (Greece, Cyprus, Estonia) © Intercultural Studies Group

Associations? 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1874 1894 1914 1934 1954 1974 Associations? 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1874 1894 1914 1934 1954 1974 © Intercultural Studies Group 1994 2014 2034

Fragmentation of the market 1950 s-1960 s: Large prestigious associations 1970 s: Literary translators Fragmentation of the market 1950 s-1960 s: Large prestigious associations 1970 s: Literary translators separate 1970 s: Interpreters separate 1970 s-1980 s: Separate associations for sworn and legal translators 1980 s: Separate associations for regional langauges 1990 s: Audiovisual translators separate 2000 s: Small interactive groups, incorporating job markets (decreasing signaling power) © Intercultural Studies Group

Associations? 333, 000 professional translators and interpreters in the world (not 700, 000) © Associations? 333, 000 professional translators and interpreters in the world (not 700, 000) © Intercultural Studies Group

Associations Oversupply = weak signals © Intercultural Studies Group Associations Oversupply = weak signals © Intercultural Studies Group

Employers? v v Employers expect translators to have a university degree, although not necessarily Employers? v v Employers expect translators to have a university degree, although not necessarily in translation. They give slightly more weight to experience. They tend to run their own tests for new recruits. The field of technical translation and localization shows relatively few signs of market disorder. © Intercultural Studies Group

Press clippings 40 police in Malaga interrogated for corruption 2 interpreters arrested, one of Press clippings 40 police in Malaga interrogated for corruption 2 interpreters arrested, one of them accused of selling information © Intercultural Studies Group

Press clippings 3 police interpreters sentenced for falsifying nationality of immigrants © Intercultural Studies Press clippings 3 police interpreters sentenced for falsifying nationality of immigrants © Intercultural Studies Group

Press clippings 2 sworn translators arrested for relations with money forgery operation © Intercultural Press clippings 2 sworn translators arrested for relations with money forgery operation © Intercultural Studies Group

Press clippings Trial suspended because Chinese translator does not know Spanish © Intercultural Studies Press clippings Trial suspended because Chinese translator does not know Spanish © Intercultural Studies Group

Press clippings Trial suspended because the only translator of Chinese was the accused © Press clippings Trial suspended because the only translator of Chinese was the accused © Intercultural Studies Group

Recommendations v v v Address paraprofessionals and “immigrant” languages. Address languages of export and Recommendations v v v Address paraprofessionals and “immigrant” languages. Address languages of export and negotiation. Ensure payment by the main beneficiaries. Seek cross-border recognition of qualifications and certifications; Coordinate with certification systems operative in the United States, Canada, Australia and China. Be wary of granting automatic professional certification on the basis of academic degrees alone. © Intercultural Studies Group

Modes of employment? Approximately how many translators are part-time, inhouse or freelance? v v Modes of employment? Approximately how many translators are part-time, inhouse or freelance? v v v Part-time: about 60 percent (shared with teaching, interpreting, editing, writing) Freelance: about 74 percent, with much variation Women: 70 percent or above © Intercultural Studies Group

© Intercultural Studies Group © Intercultural Studies Group

Bourdieu - Habitus (people learn) Accumulation and conversion of capitals (behaviorist psycho-sociology of the Bourdieu - Habitus (people learn) Accumulation and conversion of capitals (behaviorist psycho-sociology of the workplace) Field (A sterile debate) The defense of society? (Simeoni: Bourdieu and Toury on the state) © Intercultural Studies Group

Bourdieu © Intercultural Studies Group Bourdieu © Intercultural Studies Group

Luhmann - Boundary maintenance systems (Talcott Parsons) Systems as communication Between systems, “irritation” – Luhmann - Boundary maintenance systems (Talcott Parsons) Systems as communication Between systems, “irritation” – which makes theory unsuited to translation? © Intercultural Studies Group

Luhmann - - The concept of irritation […] refers to the form with which Luhmann - - The concept of irritation […] refers to the form with which a system is able to generate resonance to events in the environment, even though its own operations circulate only within the system itself and are not suitable for establishing contact with the environment (which would have to mean, of course, that they are functioning partly inside and partly outside). This concept of irritation explains the two-part nature of the concept of information. The one component is free to register a difference which marks itself as a deviation from what is already known. The second component describes the change that then follows in the structuring of the system, in other words the integration into what can be taken to be the condition of the system for further operations. (The Reality of the Mass Media 2000: 22) © Intercultural Studies Group

Luhmann - Irritation is a part of all aesthetic experience: the play of forms Luhmann - Irritation is a part of all aesthetic experience: the play of forms functions as an irritation (118); order “emerges from selfirritation” (147); one “takes delight in sheer irritation and provocation” (201); this refers back to the classical topos of θαυμαστόν or admiratio (265) Art as a Social System (2000: 352) © Intercultural Studies Group

A sociology of translation? n n The question is not which sociologist to apply A sociology of translation? n n The question is not which sociologist to apply to translation. It should be how translation, as a cross-border activity, transfigures sociological models. © Intercultural Studies Group