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Focus on Education. The real and the ideal. Innovation 2008 April 14 -15, 2008 - Breckenridge, Colorado Let Me Learn with My Peers Online!: Foreign Language Learning Through Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Rayanne Deckhinet Keith Topping David Duran Silvia Blanch
Let Me Learn with My Peers Online!: Foreign Language Learning Through Reciprocal Peer Tutoring 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INTRODUCTION IMPLEMENTATION INVESTIGATION RESULTS CONCLUSIONS
1. INTRODUCTION Previous considerations Highlights of the project Aims
Previous considerations § Technological tools are now almost indispensable foreign language teaching (Sotillo 2000) § Technology for language learning must offer opportunities to practice the language in authentic contexts and userfriendly environments allowing language learners to communicate with native speakers § Interest to assess the pedagogical value of reciprocal peer-tutoring methodologies via the Internet
Highlights of the project § The project is based on the use of reciprocal peer tutoring for learning a foreign language through information and communication technology (ICT) § The project was implemented during the summer term 2006 in two primary schools in Catalonia and Scotland.
LET ME LEARN WITH MY PEER ONLINE § The programme is based on peer tutoring: pairs, where neither of the two of them are a professional teacher of the other, who learns languages through a structured activity § The tutor learns, because to teach is one of the best ways to learn, and the tutee, because gets the permanent and adjusted assistance of his pair tutor
Why Peer Tutoring ? As a cooperative learning method promotes: § Significant learning: promoted by well structured interaction between pupils organized by the teacher § Structured interactions: The pupils offer pedagogical help prescribed interactions that enable adjustment and personalizing § Opportunity to cooperate: constitutes a key competence for the democratic society of the knowledge (Ritchen & Salvanik, 2003) § Instructional strategy for the inclusive education: recognizes the differences among pupils and it benefits from them in a pedagogic sense, understanding the difference as a positive element (Ainscow, 1991)
Aims of the project • To establish a managed on-line learning environment to act as a vehicle for peer feedback from a peer tutor to develop modern language capability. • To evaluate the pedagogical value of online reciprocal peer tutoring for language learning. • To provide opportunities to engage in real, meaningful conversation with peers who are native speakers of the target language. • To provide an opportunity for tutor and tutee to assist each other in learning a foreign language.
Sample Primary 6/7 ; 10 -11 years old • Catalunya: 24 Students • Scotland: 25 Students
2. INTERVENTION Before • During (8 sessions over 8 weeks) • After • Mesures •
Prerequisites of the project § § § A computer room equipped with a sufficient number of posts and IT support. Network: 56 K (sufficient), broadband (better) or local area network (best). Platform: Windows 95, 98, 2000, NT, ME or XP; Mac OS 9 or Mac OS X. Hardware: 64 MB of RAM, 1 G of free disk space. Browser: Internet Explorer 6 for Windows and Safari for Mac. Java. Script & cookies must be enabled. In some cases, Java Virtual Machine must be downloaded. Browser Plugins: These may have to be downloaded and activated on the client (local).
Intervention BEFORE Researchers • Arranging the pairs DURING • Observations AFTER • Post test • Interviews • Initial test • Support • Data analysis • Teacher training Teachers (English and Spanish) Children • Training the children • Initial test • Training • Supervision and assistance • Using the English and Spanish lessons to improve both languages • Interviews • Writing messages in modern language • Correcting messages in their own language • Post test • Interviews
Before Arranging the pairing (the children were matched on the basis of attainment in Spanish and English) § Previous training on how: § Ø To prepare their messages and to assist their peers Ø To provide corrections to their peers using a text-correction template. Ø The use of the available resources (peers, teacher, dictionaries, online tools. . . ) Ø To provide positive and encouraging comments to their peers. Ø To use the website
During the intervention 1. Write a draft of the text (Version 1) Read the suggested activity (or propose some alternative theme) Think about ideas Write a draft using support (dictionary, grammar book, help form your partner, other peers or teacher) 2. In front of the computer Type the text Use the computer tools (Spelling and grammar, synonymous…) Proof-read the text and send it (Version 1) 3. Receive your peer tutor’s comments Carefully read the comments Think about how you could improve your text Ask your teacher/peers if you need further information or help correcting errors 4. Write a new version of your text and send it again (Version 2)
Measures. Preliminary analysis Observations during the sessions Discourse analysis (writing development in Spanish) ØText analysis (Fluency, accuracy and complexity). Wolfe-Quintero, Shunji, and Hae-Young (1998) ØPatterns of use by pupils ( longitudinal analysis; cross-sectional comparaison) End-project interviews (children and teachers)
First Outcomes. Data analysis (Spanish text) Ø The results has highlight the improvement in the quantity of text (Fluency) produced (also pupils' and teachers' perceptions). Show the potential of the project for language learning. Ø The messages showed a progressively consolidation of the Spanish composition. Ø Cross-sectional comparison of the messages of a single student revealed an increase in the amount and complexity of foreign language produced Ø The text showed a nonlinear progression ( IT problems, Themes) but a progressive acquisition of the underlying rules of Spanish grammar
Outcomes. Interviews An improvement on the writing skills of foreign language learners. Ø Tutoring peers also helped students improve their knowledge of their own language Ø Both Scottish and Catalonian students reported more positive attitudes towards language learning. Ø In all schools there was scope for teachers to improve their group work practice. Ø
Conclusions The programme has have a positive influence in: • Children learning in both roles, as tutors and tutees • The children’s improvement in linguistic competences, in both languages • The improvement in the children’s attitudes towards languages • The benefit of working and learning thanks to other peers • Teachers attitudes towards peer tutoring and the use of ICT as a learning tool • Reinforcing the knowledge of cultural aspects between European citizens.
Thank you for your attention Grup de Recerca sobre Aprenentatge entre Iguals (GRAI) http: //antalya. uab. es/ice/aprenentatgeentreiguals _________________________ Silvia Blanch: David Duran: Keith Topping: Silvia. Blanch@uab. cat david. duran@uab. cat K. J. Topping@dundee. ac. uk Rayanne Deckhinet: R. Dekhinet@dundee. ac. uk
[ Copy and paste your partner’s text. Read the text, whenever you see that there is something wrong with a particular language, place the cursor on it, then go to insert in the bar menu, click on comment and type the correction. Do this only with mistakes you think are serious. Hello Kirsty! I love Christmas!When is Christmas i put christmas balls the christmas tree and decorate my bedroom and the house of Christmas. In christmas holidays I go with my mum and dad to “Andalucía” and I visit “Málaga”, “Córdova” “Almería”, . . . a countries of it. I like very much Christmas holidays! I spend Christmas with my family but we doesn't go to the church. In Christmas dinner we eat “galets”soup and turky. To desserd we eat “neules i torrons”. Thats very good!!!How do you prepare for Christmas? Bye friend!!! k 1]Muw It is [k 2]Muw Decorations on the tree [k 3]Delete of christmas [k 4]What do you mean by this? [k 5]MUT do not [k 6]Sp turkey [k 7]muw for dessert
FINAL REFLEXIONS Can we take advantage of the difference among pupils, from different countries, for learning ? Can a child act as a teacher of his first language to another peer who is learning it? Can children improve their first language by correcting the text written by another child who is learning it? It is possible to do that without using ICT?
Fluency in this system is measured based on three criteria: number of words per sentence (W/S), number of words per error-free sentence (W/EFS), and number of words per compound, complex, and compoundcomplex sentence (W/CS). Accuracy also has three standards of measurement: number of error-free sentences in a message (EFS/M), number of error-free compound, complex, and compoundcomplex sentences per the total number of compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences (EFCS/TCS), and number of errors per sentence (E/S). Complexity was also measured using three formulas: number of compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences per message (CS/M), number of clauses per sentence (C/S), and number of sentences per message (S/M).