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FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 The Renewable Portfolio --- Defined FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 The Renewable Portfolio --- Defined & Refined Florida Public Service Commission Workshop July 26, 2007 A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida 1

Definition by Technology v v Absolute method Traditional method Focus on present or near-term Definition by Technology v v Absolute method Traditional method Focus on present or near-term technology Generally exclusive, Specifically inclusive 366. 91(b) "Renewable energy" means electrical energy produced from a method that uses one or more of the following fuels or energy sources: hydrogen produced from sources other than fossil fuels, biomass, solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, ocean energy, and hydroelectric power. The term includes the alternative energy resource, waste heat, from sulfuric acid manufacturing operations. 377. 803(6) "Renewable energy" means electrical, mechanical or thermal energy produced from a method that uses one or more of the following fuels or energy sources: hydrogen, biomass, solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, ocean energy, waste heat, or hydroelectric power. 2

Definition by Attribute v v v Flexible method, emphasis on Results Allows future technologies Definition by Attribute v v v Flexible method, emphasis on Results Allows future technologies Generally inclusive, Specifically exclusive Special “riders” to include a target method Specific “set-aside” for favored attributes For Example: For purposes of this standard, “Renewable Energy" means electrical energy produced (or directly and quantifiably displaced) from a method with: 1] No extraneous limits on the prime energy source, 2] No environmental detriments from prime energy source acquisition, 3] No net release of carbon dioxide or other pollutants. Electric energy derived from “Acoustic Kryptonite Hyperdrive Technology” does not qualify as renewable energy under this standard. Reductions (from 2007) by utilities in system operations energy losses also qualify as renewable energy under this standard. No less than ten percent (20%) of the energy required by this standard shall be 3 derived directly from solar energy.

Attributes: Electric Energy Production Technologies * My opinion Prime Source Constraint? * Net Release Attributes: Electric Energy Production Technologies * My opinion Prime Source Constraint? * Net Release Pollutant? * Generally no issues Photovoltaic Environmental Detriment from Acquisition? * No No No No No No Comb Heat/ Power – “waste electricity” No No No Some issues Technology No Yes No No No ? ? Yes Yes No Ocean Current No ? ? No Nuclear Yes ? ? No Solar (or Waste) Thermal-Electric Wind Photochemical, Photothermal (H 2) Open Loop Biomass/gas Run of River Hydro Landfill Gas Hydro Municipal Solid Waste Closed Loop Biomass/gas IGCC w/ Sequestration 4

Attributes: Electric Energy Displacement Technologies * My opinion Technology Prime Source Constraint? * Environmental Attributes: Electric Energy Displacement Technologies * My opinion Technology Prime Source Constraint? * Environmental Detriment from Acquisition? * Net Release Pollutant? * Solar Thermal Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) No No No Solar Assist Adsorption Chilling No No No Active Solar Thermal Space Heating No No No Solar Process Heat (product drying, etc) No No No 5

Utility Efficiency Technologies Prime Source Constraint? Technology Environmental Detriment from Acquisition? Net Release Pollutant? Utility Efficiency Technologies Prime Source Constraint? Technology Environmental Detriment from Acquisition? Net Release Pollutant? Low-Loss Distr Transf N/A N/A HPS-LED St Light Conv N/A N/A Distributed Generation N/A N/A Attributes not applicable… 6

Renewables Refined “. . . with a strong focus on solar and wind energy. Renewables Refined “. . . with a strong focus on solar and wind energy. . . ” --EXECUTIVE ORDER NUMBER 07 -127 After initial screen, shades of green… 7

Solar Energy: 2020 Quick Calculations - Reasonable Assumptions v v v Single-Family Residential Economic Solar Energy: 2020 Quick Calculations - Reasonable Assumptions v v v Single-Family Residential Economic Installations Only – no subsidies Assumed Net Energy for Load is 340, 000 GWH Solar Thermal (DHW) brings 2% of NEL Solar Photovoltaic (PV) brings 2% of NEL 4% NEL (20% of RPS) is Feasible and Economic! 8

Solar Energy: 2020 -- Other Opportunities v PV Parity expected 2010 -2012 & No Solar Energy: 2020 -- Other Opportunities v PV Parity expected 2010 -2012 & No Real Limits on Land Ø Ø Ø Ø v Commercial PV (Big Box, malls, attractions, etc) State & Local Govt rooftops PV (schools, offices, conv centers) Parking Canopies PV (Shade asphalt for fee, market advantage) Linear PV farms: edge-of Transmission Ro. W Linear PV farms: edge-of & median-barrier, Interstate Highways PV Farms: Restricted-use (airports, brownfields, retention ponds) Rooftop Leasing: the “ 4&20” Plan-individual & utility joint venture Natural Gas continues to climb Ø Ø Ø Solar Thermal- Commercial (hotels, dorms, food processing) Reconfigure Multi-Family: Common SDHW sys, metered to units ST Assist for Adsorption Chilling – BIG potential in FL! More than 10% of NEL is Likely 9

Recommendation (Our Suggested Definition of the Definition Process) v v Statutory and Regulatory Definition Recommendation (Our Suggested Definition of the Definition Process) v v Statutory and Regulatory Definition by Attribute Technology Approval by Simple, Streamlined Regulatory Process Ø Ø Ø v Category or Scenario Approval Appeal & Dispute Resolution, etc. Monitoring, Verification and Reporting by state agency 20% of RPS as Solar Energy Set-Aside 10

Results-Based Realities Awareness and Acceptance of Solar Thermal Energy as a major RPS resource Results-Based Realities Awareness and Acceptance of Solar Thermal Energy as a major RPS resource for Florida 11

PERCEPTION BECAUSE etc, etc… 12 PERCEPTION BECAUSE etc, etc… 12

REALITY 1 KWHT = 1 KWHE BECAUSE 1 KWH = 1 KWH EVERY DAY, REALITY 1 KWHT = 1 KWHE BECAUSE 1 KWH = 1 KWH EVERY DAY, EVERY WAY 13

ENERGY 1 kilowatthour (k. Wh) is the Energy needed to raise the Temperature of ENERGY 1 kilowatthour (k. Wh) is the Energy needed to raise the Temperature of 409 gal of o F Water by 1 14

Given: Result: v Subdivision w/o gas = Electric water heaters v Solar-Thermal WH = Given: Result: v Subdivision w/o gas = Electric water heaters v Solar-Thermal WH = Less electric energy v Metered Solar WH = Measured, verified displacement of electric energy or: 1. 0 k. Wh. STEEEC =* 1. 0 k. Wh. ELEC ! * Actually, 1. 0 k. Wh. STEEEC > 1. 0 k. Wh. ELEC (Ask me why) 15

Equality !! -Consider “Normal” PV: 3060 k. Wh/yr Green Energy D (AC Module) Green Equality !! -Consider “Normal” PV: 3060 k. Wh/yr Green Energy D (AC Module) Green Energy Display Electric Energy from Grid 2940 k. Wh/yr “Green” Energy Thermal Energy Electric Energy Solar Energy PV Panel M 900 k. Wh/yr Electric Energy Water Meter Standby Losses Heater M Electric Energy Meter 6000 k. Wh/yr Thermal Energy to Tap M Thermal Energy Meter 5100 k. Wh/yr 16

Now Place the “Green Shroud”: 3060 k. Wh/yr Green Energy Display Electric Energy from Now Place the “Green Shroud”: 3060 k. Wh/yr Green Energy Display Electric Energy from Grid 2940 k. Wh/yr “Green” Energy Thermal Energy Electric Energy Solar Energy PV Panel M 900 k. Wh/yr Electric Energy Water Meter Standby Losses Heater M Electric Energy Meter 6000 k. Wh/yr Thermal Energy to Tap M Thermal Energy Meter 5100 k. Wh/yr 17 “Pay no attention to the man behind the curtain. . ”

Then Reveal: 3060 k. Wh/yr Green (Undisputed, 100%, Energy Grade A, Prime Choice) Solar Then Reveal: 3060 k. Wh/yr Green (Undisputed, 100%, Energy Grade A, Prime Choice) Solar Energy D S Green Energy Display Electric Energy from Grid 2940 k. Wh/yr “Green” Energy Thermal Energy Electric Energy Thermal Panel 900 k. Wh/yr - Water + Standby Losses Heater M M Electric Energy Meter Thermal Energy Meter 5100 k. Wh/yr Thermal Energy to Tap 18

Submitted for your consideration: “If the Inputs & Outputs are IDENTICAL, any two systems Submitted for your consideration: “If the Inputs & Outputs are IDENTICAL, any two systems are EQUIVALENT-- It doesn’t matter what is in the Black Box…” How do we know they identical? – We Measure the All-Important METER: ( Output Displayed in k. Wh )19

Concept Established– other direct electric offsets v Solar Thermal assist for Adsorption Chilling v Concept Established– other direct electric offsets v Solar Thermal assist for Adsorption Chilling v Solar Thermal space heat v Solar Thermal Process Heat 20

RPS & Solar Water Heating – now 7 states Source: DSIRE, North Carolina Solar RPS & Solar Water Heating – now 7 states Source: DSIRE, North Carolina Solar Center & Interstate Renewable Energy Council 21

Florida Solar Energy Center Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 A Research Institute of the Florida Solar Energy Center Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida 22

For Further Information Bob Reedy, Director – Solar Energy Division reedy@fsec. ucf. edu (321) For Further Information Bob Reedy, Director – Solar Energy Division [email protected] ucf. edu (321) 638 -1470 Philip Fairey, Deputy Director [email protected] ucf. edu (321) 638 -1005 James M. Fenton, Director [email protected] ucf. edu (321) 638 -1002 Main FSEC web site www. fsec. ucf. edu 23

Appendix A: The Language Solar Thermal-to-Electric Energy Equivalency Credit (STEEEC): “A standard unit of Appendix A: The Language Solar Thermal-to-Electric Energy Equivalency Credit (STEEEC): “A standard unit of used and useful thermal energy generated from solar sources, directly displacing thermal energy otherwise generated from electric sources, and equal to the amount of electric energy displaced” 24

When Selling Energy. . . The Meter is Critical !! v Feedback to the When Selling Energy. . . The Meter is Critical !! v Feedback to the Host Ø Ø v Feedback to the Owner (if different) Ø Ø Ø v Detect malfunction Quantify pollution reduction Detect malfunction Verify return on investment Record of generated STEECCs Feedback to the Green Power Market Ø Certify Green Power and Green Tags

the All-Important METER: Important Note: Output Displayed in k. WH !!26 the All-Important METER: Important Note: Output Displayed in k. WH !!26

Meter Costs are falling v No fuel burned Ø Ø v v Utility Scale Meter Costs are falling v No fuel burned Ø Ø v v Utility Scale Volumes Solid State In-line flow meters coming available Ø v v v Allows “no more than” approach Owner choice: more accurate meters for more credit No maintenance, no decline in registration Low Cost Temperature Sensors Read-by-email-digicam method (w/ spot audit) New FSEC Meter Method Ø Ø Ø Modeling of Standby Losses One more Temperature sensor (ambient) Eliminates electric meter of backup source 27