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FIREWALLS & NETWORK SECURITY with Intrusion Detection and VPNs, 2 nd ed. 3 Security FIREWALLS & NETWORK SECURITY with Intrusion Detection and VPNs, 2 nd ed. 3 Security Policies, Standards, and Planning By Whitman, Mattord, & Austin © 2008 Course Technology

Learning Objectives ¨ Upon completion of this material, you should be able to: – Learning Objectives ¨ Upon completion of this material, you should be able to: – Define management’s role in the development, maintenance, and enforcement of information security policy, standards, practices, procedures, and guidelines – Describe an information security blueprint, identify its major components, and explain how it is used to support a network security program – Discuss how an organization institutionalizes policies, standards, and practices using education, training, and awareness programs – Explain contingency planning and describe the relationships among incident response planning, disaster recovery planning, business continuity planning, and contingency planning Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 2

Introduction ¨ To secure its network environment, organization must establish a functional and well-designed Introduction ¨ To secure its network environment, organization must establish a functional and well-designed information security program ¨ Information security program begins with creation or review of organization’s information security policies, standards, and practices ¨ Selection or creation of information security architecture and development and use of detailed information security blueprint will create plan for future success ¨ Without policy, blueprints, and planning, organization’s security needs will not be met Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 3

Information Security Policy, Standards, and Practices ¨ Management must consider policies as basis for Information Security Policy, Standards, and Practices ¨ Management must consider policies as basis for all information security efforts ¨ Policies direct how issues should be addressed and technologies used ¨ Security policies are the least expensive control to execute but the most difficult to implement ¨ Shaping policy is difficult because policy must: – Never conflict with laws – Stand up in court, if challenged – Be properly administered through dissemination and documented acceptance Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 4

Information Security Policy, Standards, and Practices (continued) For a policy to be considered effective Information Security Policy, Standards, and Practices (continued) For a policy to be considered effective and legally enforceable: ¨ Dissemination (distribution): organization must be able to demonstrate that relevant policy has been made readily available for review by all employees ¨ Review (reading): organization must be able to demonstrate that it disseminated document in intelligible form, including versions for illiterate, non -English reading, and reading-impaired employees Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 5

Information Security Policy, Standards and Practices (continued) ¨ Comprehension (understanding): organization must be able Information Security Policy, Standards and Practices (continued) ¨ Comprehension (understanding): organization must be able to demonstrate that employees understand requirements and content of policy ¨ Compliance (agreement): organization must be able to demonstrate that employees agree to comply with policy through act or affirmation OR ELSE ¨ Uniform enforcement: organization must be able to demonstrate policy has been uniformly enforced Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 6

Definitions ¨ Policy is set of guidelines or instructions an organization’s senior management implements Definitions ¨ Policy is set of guidelines or instructions an organization’s senior management implements to regulate activities of members of organization who make decisions, take actions, and perform other duties ¨ Policies are organizational laws ¨ Standards, on the other hand, are more detailed statements of what must be done to comply with policy ¨ Practices, procedures, and guidelines effectively explain how to comply with policy Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 7

Figure 3 -1 Policies, Standards, & Practices Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. Figure 3 -1 Policies, Standards, & Practices Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 8

Enterprise Information Security Policy (EISP) ¨ EISP is also known as general security policy, Enterprise Information Security Policy (EISP) ¨ EISP is also known as general security policy, IT security policy, or information security policy ¨ Sets strategic direction, scope, and tone for all security efforts within the organization ¨ Executive-level document, usually drafted by or with CIO of the organization and usually 2 to 10 pages long Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 9

Issue-Specific Security Policy (ISSP) ¨ Guidelines needed to use various technologies and processes properly Issue-Specific Security Policy (ISSP) ¨ Guidelines needed to use various technologies and processes properly ¨ The ISSP: – Addresses specific areas of technology – Requires frequent updates – Contains issue statement on the organization’s position on an issue ¨ Three approaches: – Create several independent ISSP documents – Create a single comprehensive ISSP document – Create a modular ISSP document Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 10

Systems-Specific Policy (Sys. SP) ¨ Sys. SPs frequently codified as standards and procedures used Systems-Specific Policy (Sys. SP) ¨ Sys. SPs frequently codified as standards and procedures used when configuring or maintaining systems ¨ Sys. SPs fall into two groups: – Managerial guidance Sys. SPs: created by management to guide implementation and configuration of technology as well as to regulate behavior of people in the organization – Technical specifications Sys. SPs: technical policy or set of configurations to implement managerial policy Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 11

Systems-Specific Policy (Sys. SP) (continued) ¨ Technical Sys. SPs are further divided into: – Systems-Specific Policy (Sys. SP) (continued) ¨ Technical Sys. SPs are further divided into: – Access control lists (ACLs) consist of access control lists, matrices, and capability tables governing rights and privileges of a particular user to a particular system – Configuration rule policies comprise specific configuration codes entered into security systems to guide execution of the system Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 12

Policy Management ¨ Policies are living documents that must be managed and are constantly Policy Management ¨ Policies are living documents that must be managed and are constantly changing ¨ Special considerations should be made for organizations undergoing mergers, takeovers, and partnerships ¨ To remain viable, security policies must have: – An individual responsible for reviews – A schedule of reviews – A specific policy issuance and revision date Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 13

Frameworks and Industry Standards ¨ Security blueprint is basis for design, selection, and implementation Frameworks and Industry Standards ¨ Security blueprint is basis for design, selection, and implementation of all security program elements including policy implementation, ongoing policy management, risk management programs, education and training programs, technological controls, and maintenance of security program Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 14

Frameworks and Industry Standards (continued) ¨ Security framework is outline of overall information security Frameworks and Industry Standards (continued) ¨ Security framework is outline of overall information security strategy and roadmap for planned changes to the organization’s information security environment ¨ Number of published information security frameworks, including ones from government sources ¨ Because each information security environment is unique, security team may need to modify or adapt pieces from several frameworks Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 15

Benchmarking and Best Practices ¨ Benchmarking and best practices are reliable methods used by Benchmarking and Best Practices ¨ Benchmarking and best practices are reliable methods used by some organizations to assess security practices ¨ Possible to gain information by benchmarking and using best practices and thus work backwards to effective design ¨ Federal Agency Security Practices Site (fasp. nist. gov) designed to provide best practices for public agencies and is adapted easily to private organizations Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 16

Figure 3 -4 Spheres of Security Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Figure 3 -4 Spheres of Security Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 17

Design of Security Architecture ¨ Defense in depth – One of the foundations of Design of Security Architecture ¨ Defense in depth – One of the foundations of security architectures is requirement to implement security in layers – Requires that the organization establish sufficient security controls and safeguards so an intruder faces multiple layers of controls ¨ Security perimeter – Point at which an organization’s security protection ends and the outside world begins – Unfortunately, perimeter does not apply to internal attacks from employee threats or on-site physical threats Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 18

Security Education, Training, and Awareness ¨ As soon as policies exist, policies to implement Security Education, Training, and Awareness ¨ As soon as policies exist, policies to implement security education, training, and awareness (SETA) should follow ¨ SETA is a control measure designed to reduce accidental security breaches ¨ Supplement general education and training programs to educate staff on information security ¨ Security education and training builds on general knowledge that employees must possess to do their jobs, familiarizing them with the way to do their jobs securely Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 19

SETA Elements ¨ SETA program consists of three elements: – Security education – Security SETA Elements ¨ SETA program consists of three elements: – Security education – Security training – Security awareness ¨ Organization may not be capable or willing to undertake all elements but may outsource them Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 20

Security Education ¨ Everyone in an organization needs to be trained and aware of Security Education ¨ Everyone in an organization needs to be trained and aware of information security, but not every member of the organization needs a formal degree or certificate in information security ¨ When formal education for appropriate individuals in security is needed, an employee can identify curriculum available from local institutions of higher learning or continuing education ¨ A number of universities have formal coursework in information security – (See, for example, http: //infosec. kennesaw. edu) Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 21

Security Training ¨ Involves providing members of the organization with detailed information and hands-on Security Training ¨ Involves providing members of the organization with detailed information and hands-on instruction designed to prepare them to perform their duties securely ¨ Management of information security can develop customized in-house training or outsource the training program Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 22

Security Awareness ¨ One of the least frequently implemented but most beneficial programs is Security Awareness ¨ One of the least frequently implemented but most beneficial programs is the security awareness program ¨ Designed to keep information security at forefront of users’ minds ¨ Need not be complicated or expensive ¨ If program is not actively implemented, employees begin to ‘tune out, ’ and the risk of employee accidents and failures increases Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 23

Continuity Strategies ¨ Plans for events of this type are referred to in a Continuity Strategies ¨ Plans for events of this type are referred to in a number of ways: – Business continuity plans (BCPs) – Disaster recovery plans (DRPs) – Incident response plans (IRPs) – Contingency plans ¨ Large organizations may have many types of plans and small organizations may have one simple plan, but most have inadequate planning Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 24

Figure 3 -9 Contingency Planning Timeline Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Figure 3 -9 Contingency Planning Timeline Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 25

Contingency Planning Team ¨ Before any planning begins, a team has to plan the Contingency Planning Team ¨ Before any planning begins, a team has to plan the effort and prepare resulting documents ¨ Champion: high-level manager to support, promote, and endorse findings of the project ¨ Project manager: leads project and makes sure a sound project planning process is used, a complete and useful project plan is developed, and project resources are prudently managed ¨ Team members: should be managers or their representatives from various communities of interest (business, IT, and information security) Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 26

Figure 3 -10 Major Steps in Contingency Planning Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd Figure 3 -10 Major Steps in Contingency Planning Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 27

Business Impact Analysis ¨ Begin with business impact analysis (BIA) – If the attack Business Impact Analysis ¨ Begin with business impact analysis (BIA) – If the attack succeeds, what do we do then? ¨ CP team conducts BIA in the following stages: – Threat attack identification – Business unit analysis – Attack success scenarios – Potential damage assessment – Subordinate plan classification Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 28

Threat Attack Identification and Prioritization ¨ Update threat list with latest developments and add Threat Attack Identification and Prioritization ¨ Update threat list with latest developments and add the attack profile ¨ Attack profile is the detailed description of activities during an attack ¨ Must be developed for every serious threat the organization faces ¨ Used to determine the extent of damage that could result to business unit if attack were successful Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 29

Table 3 -7 Attack Profile Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter Table 3 -7 Attack Profile Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 30

Business Unit Analysis ¨ Second major task within the BIA is analysis and prioritization Business Unit Analysis ¨ Second major task within the BIA is analysis and prioritization of business functions within the organization ¨ Identify functional areas of the organization and prioritize them as to which are most vital ¨ Focus on prioritized list of various functions that the organization performs Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 31

Attack Success Scenario Development ¨ Next, create series of scenarios depicting the impact a Attack Success Scenario Development ¨ Next, create series of scenarios depicting the impact a successful attack from each threat could have on each prioritized functional area with: – Details on method of attack – Indicators of attack – Broad consequences ¨ Attack success scenario details are added to attack profile, including best, worst, and most likely outcomes Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 32

Potential Damage Assessment ¨ From previously developed attack success scenarios, BIA planning team must Potential Damage Assessment ¨ From previously developed attack success scenarios, BIA planning team must estimate cost of best, worst, and most likely cases ¨ Costs include actions of response team ¨ This final result is referred to as an attack scenario end case Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 33

Incident Response Planning ¨ Incident response planning covers identification of, classification of, and response Incident Response Planning ¨ Incident response planning covers identification of, classification of, and response to an incident ¨ Incident is attack against an information asset that poses clear threat to the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of information resources ¨ Attacks are only classified as incidents if they have the following characteristics: – Are directed against information assets – Have a realistic chance of success – Could threaten the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of information resources ¨ IR is more reactive than proactive, with exception of planning and preparation of IR teams Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 34

Incident Planning ¨ Predefined responses enable organization to react quickly and effectively to detected Incident Planning ¨ Predefined responses enable organization to react quickly and effectively to detected incident ¨ This assumes the organization has an IR team and can detect the incident ¨ IR team consists of those individuals needed to handle systems as incident takes place ¨ IR consists of the following four phases: – Planning – Detection – Reaction – Recovery Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 35

Incident or Disaster ¨ When does an incident become a disaster? – The organization Incident or Disaster ¨ When does an incident become a disaster? – The organization is unable to mitigate the impact of an incident during the incident – The level of damage or destruction is so severe that the organization is unable to quickly recover ¨ Difference may be subtle ¨ Up to the organization to decide which incidents are to be classified as disasters and thus receive the appropriate level of response Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 36

Disaster Recovery Planning ¨ Disaster recovery planning (DRP) is planning the preparation for and Disaster Recovery Planning ¨ Disaster recovery planning (DRP) is planning the preparation for and recovery from a disaster ¨ Contingency planning team must decide which actions constitute disasters and which constitute incidents ¨ When situations are classified as disasters, plans change as to how to respond; take action to secure the system’s most valuable assets to preserve value for the longer term even at the risk of more disruption in the immediate term ¨ DRP strives to reestablish operations at the ‘primary’ site Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 37

DRP Steps ¨ There must be a clear establishment of priorities ¨ There must DRP Steps ¨ There must be a clear establishment of priorities ¨ There must be a clear delegation of roles and responsibilities ¨ Someone must initiate the alert roster and notify key personnel ¨ Someone must be tasked with the documentation of the disaster ¨ If and only if it is possible, some attempts must be made to mitigate the impact of the disaster on the operations of the organization Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 38

Crisis Management ¨ Crisis management occurs during and after a disaster and focuses on Crisis Management ¨ Crisis management occurs during and after a disaster and focuses on the people involved and addressing the viability of the business ¨ Crisis management team responsible for managing event from enterprise perspective by: – Supporting personnel and families during crisis – Determining impact on business operations and, if necessary, making disaster declaration – Keeping public informed – Communicating with major customers, suppliers, partners, regulatory agencies, industry organizations, media, other interested parties Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 39

Business Continuity Planning ¨ Business continuity planning outlines reestablishment of critical business operations during Business Continuity Planning ¨ Business continuity planning outlines reestablishment of critical business operations during a disaster that impacts operations ¨ If disaster has rendered the business unusable for continued operations, there must be a plan to allow the business to continue to function ¨ BCP is somewhat simpler than an IRP or DRP ¨ Consists primarily of selecting continuity strategy and integrating off-site data storage and recovery functions into this strategy Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 40

Summary ¨ To effectively secure networks, an organization must establish functional, well-designed information security Summary ¨ To effectively secure networks, an organization must establish functional, well-designed information security program ¨ Information security program creation requires information security policies, standards, and practices; an information security architecture; and a detailed information security blueprint ¨ Management must make policy the basis for all information security planning, design, and deployment in order to direct how issues are addressed and how technologies are used Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 41

Summary (continued) ¨ Policy must never conflict with laws but should stand up in Summary (continued) ¨ Policy must never conflict with laws but should stand up in court if challenged ¨ To be effective and legally enforceable, policy must be disseminated, reviewed, understood, complied with, and uniformly enforced ¨ Information security team identifies vulnerabilities and then develops security blueprint that is used to implement security program Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 42

Summary (continued) ¨ Security framework is outline of steps to take to design and Summary (continued) ¨ Security framework is outline of steps to take to design and implement information security ¨ Purpose of security education, training, and awareness (SETA) is to enhance security by improving awareness of need to protect system resources and teaching users to perform jobs more securely, and to build knowledge to design, implement, or operate security programs Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 43

Summary (continued) ¨ IT and Info. Sec managers must assure continuous availability of information Summary (continued) ¨ IT and Info. Sec managers must assure continuous availability of information systems ¨ Achieved with various contingency plans: incident response (IR), disaster recovery (DR), business continuity (BC) ¨ IR plan addresses identification, classification, response, and recovery from incident ¨ DR plan addresses preparation for and recovery from disaster ¨ BC plan ensures that critical business functions continue if catastrophic event occurs Firewalls & Network Security, 2 nd ed. - Chapter 3 Slide 44