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FINANCING for MPAs The Philippine Environmental Governance 2 Project FINANCING for MPAs The Philippine Environmental Governance 2 Project

Workshop Objectives Ø Present costing and revenue elements in the establishment and implementation stages Workshop Objectives Ø Present costing and revenue elements in the establishment and implementation stages of an MPA Ø Present comparative MPA costing of 6 Eco. Gov sites Ø Participants able to do costing exercises based on their respective MPA action plans Ø Orientation on Ring-Fencing and CCIF Financial Model

Expected Output Ø Better understanding of the financial aspects of an MPA Ø Action Expected Output Ø Better understanding of the financial aspects of an MPA Ø Action Plan with corresponding cost items and revenue sources Ø Knowledge on concept of Ring-Fencing and the CCIF Financial Model

Session Outline Part 1 Presentation of Concepts and Case study 45 Minutes Part 2 Session Outline Part 1 Presentation of Concepts and Case study 45 Minutes Part 2 Workshop on Action Plan (identification of activities, costs, and sources of funds) 1 hour & 45 Minutes Part 3 Introduction to CCIF Financial Model 30 Minutes

MPA Costs MPA Costs

Two Types of MPA Costs Ø Establishment Cost • Start-up costs in establishing an Two Types of MPA Costs Ø Establishment Cost • Start-up costs in establishing an MPA Ø Implementation/Recurring Operating Cost • Costs incurred for the operation and maintenance of an MPA

MPA Costs Ø Establishment Cost • Administrative/Organization (MS Mgt Planning Workshop, ground working, action MPA Costs Ø Establishment Cost • Administrative/Organization (MS Mgt Planning Workshop, ground working, action planning, cross visits, Forming and Organizing Enforcement team, etc) • Site Development/Habitat Enhancements (Construction of Guard house, Delineation of Marine Sanctuary and Installation of buoys and markers, posting of signages) • Acquisition of Equipment (Patrol boat, binoculars, paddle boats, diving gears, rechargeable flashlights, hand-held radio, etc)

MPA Costs Ø Establishment Cost • Baseline Survey (Reef and bio-physical Assessments) • Capability MPA Costs Ø Establishment Cost • Baseline Survey (Reef and bio-physical Assessments) • Capability Building (Deputation of Bantay-Dagat, alternative livelihood, monitoring and evaluation, paralegal and Municipal CLE training, IEC, etc. )

MPA Costs Ø Recurring Operating Costs • • Regular coastal clean-up activities Annual Bio-physical MPA Costs Ø Recurring Operating Costs • • Regular coastal clean-up activities Annual Bio-physical monitoring Regular patrolling and guarding IEC activities Regular meetings Repairs and maintenance of buoys and markers Office maintenance and operating cost

MPA Costs Ø Recurring Operating Costs • • • Salaries / Honoraria of personnel MPA Costs Ø Recurring Operating Costs • • • Salaries / Honoraria of personnel Traveling Expenses Fuel and oil Follow-up trainings Supplies and Materials (Office and Other Supplies) Repairs and maintenance of guardhouse, pump boats and other equipment

MPA Fund Sources MPA Fund Sources

MPA Fund Sources Ø LGU Allocations (Mun. / Bgy. / Prov. ) • 20% MPA Fund Sources Ø LGU Allocations (Mun. / Bgy. / Prov. ) • 20% Dev. Fund • General Fund (CRM Regular Allocation, Mayor’s Office and Intelligence Fund) Ø National Government (including PDAF) Ø Fines and Penalties Ø User fees (diving, educational, entrance, etc. ) Ø Fund-Raising activities Ø Grants and Donations • Non-Government Organizations • Private Institutions • Private Individuals

Phases Pilar MPA Program Implementation Phase 1 Establishment Stage (2005) Bio-Physical baseline survey MS Phases Pilar MPA Program Implementation Phase 1 Establishment Stage (2005) Bio-Physical baseline survey MS Mgt Planning Y 1 Action Plan’g Delineation and installation of buoys and markers Acquisition of flashlight, rain-coats & rubber boots Fabrication of billboards and signages Pulong-pulong M& E Training Paralegal Training Fund Raising Activities Fund. Sources Eco-Gov – 72, 503 MLGU-97, 000 Plan Int’l- 93, 694 PO – 1, 500 Indv- 3, 000 Total -267, 697 Phase 2 Transition Phase (2006) Installation of Buoys and Markers Guarding and patrolling Enforcement Planning Paralegal Training and Mun. CLE Planning Admeasurements Training Bio-Physical monitoring Cross-visit to Bohol and Negros Action Planning for Y 2 Const. of floating guardhouse Installation of billboards Fund Raising Activities Fund Sources: MLGU -109, 240 Eco-Gov – 113, 684 Plan Int’l- 44, 626 PO- 74, 404 Private Sector – 4, 000 Total P 345, 954 Implementation Phase (2007) Guarding and patrolling Acquisition of paddle boat Bio-physical monitoring Installation of billboard Marine Camp Fund Sources MLGU-145, 010 BLGU-14, 000 Plan Int. - 100, 000 Eco-Gov-41, 144 PMMP-21, 048 Private Indv. – 760 Total = 321, 962

Sustainability Concerns of MPAs Ø High investment costs Ø Escalating operational and maintenance costs Sustainability Concerns of MPAs Ø High investment costs Ø Escalating operational and maintenance costs Ø Highly subsidized program Ø Limited financing Ø Funds compete with other basic services of government

Tips to MPA financing • Secure buy in of the program from Local leaders Tips to MPA financing • Secure buy in of the program from Local leaders to be prioritized in budget allocation • Prepare Work and Financial Plan • Update local leaders on status of implementation and utilization of fund • Secure external sources of fund

Case Study on MPA Financing Case Study on MPA Financing

Case Study - MS Profile Name of MPA Location PMMP (Sept. 2005) Pilar, Camotes Case Study - MS Profile Name of MPA Location PMMP (Sept. 2005) Pilar, Camotes Villahermosa MS (2004) Tudela, Camotes Bibilik Fish MS (2002) Dumalinao, Zambo Sur Tambunan MS (2003) Tabina, Zambo Sur Talisay MS (2004) Tabina, Zambo Sur Mi. SSTTA (2003) Tukuran, Zambo Sur Area Mgt. Set-up 179 hectares Co-mgt bet. Bgy and MLGU (30 MS; 149 MR) 69. 3 hectares (29. 8 core; 39. 5 buffer) 20 hectares (No take zone) 103 hectares (95 core; 8. 5 mangrove) 32. 8 hectares (19. 8 MS; 13 mangrove) 160 hectares Bgy managed (LGU assisted) Co-mgt bet. Bgy and MLGU Municipality managed Peoples Org. managed Co-mgt bet. Bgy and MLGU

Case Study - MS Profile Name of MPA LGU Class and IRA Ave. Yearly Case Study - MS Profile Name of MPA LGU Class and IRA Ave. Yearly Budget /ha. PMMP 5 th/16. 9 M 125, 000 ($%) 697 Villahermosa MS 5 th/16. 5 M 25, 000(<1%) 361 Bibilik Fish/MS 3 rd/28 M 61, 900 (1%) 3, 095 Tambunan MS 5 th/24. 5 M 435, 000 (9%) 4, 230 Talisay MS 5 th/24. 5 M 0 0 Mi. SSTTA 4 th/33 M 600, 000 (9%) 3, 750

Case Study - Cost Name of MPA Establishment Cost/ha Implementation Cost/ha Total Ave. Cost Case Study - Cost Name of MPA Establishment Cost/ha Implementation Cost/ha Total Ave. Cost /year Ave. Cost / ha. PMMP 05 -06 445, 082 (2, 482/ha) 612, 153 (3, 390/ha) 1057, 035 528, 617 2, 947 Villahermo sa MS 0206 377, 867 (5, 453/ha) 808, 898 (11, 672/ha) 1, 186, 765 237, 353 3, 425 Bibilik Fish /MS 02 -06 799, 159 (39, 958/ha) 1, 427, 326 (71, 366/ha) 2, 226, 485 445, 297 22, 265 Tambunan MS 03 -06 840, 778 (8, 163/ha) 1, 999, 942 (19, 417/ha) 2, 840, 720 710, 180 6, 895 Talisay MS 03 -06 357, 576 (10, 902/ha) 970, 452 (29, 587/ha) 1, 328, 028 332, 007 10, 122 Mi. SSTTA 741, 081 (4, 632/ha) 1, 574, 016 (9, 838/ha) 2, 315, 097 771, 699 4, 823

Case Study - Labor Cost Name of MPA % of Labor Cost to Total Case Study - Labor Cost Name of MPA % of Labor Cost to Total Cost PMMP 26% Villahermosa MS 50% Bibilik Fish/MS 34% Tambunan MS 42% Talisay MS 39% Mi. SSTTA 42%

Insight on Cost • Cost vary with the nature of materials or labor (i. Insight on Cost • Cost vary with the nature of materials or labor (i. e. opportunity cost) • Phase (e. g. establishment, implementation sustaining) and activities of MPA affect cost • Size matters, i. e. large MPAs are more economical to manage than small MPAs (“economies of scale”) • Cost-sharing results in smaller expenditures for each of the parties involved in comanagement

Case Study - Sources of Fund Pilar Marine Park Municipality Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Case Study - Sources of Fund Pilar Marine Park Municipality Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total MPA Revenue 70% 59% 4, 990 15, 851 20, 841 2% 2% 0 11, 000 2% Grants/Dona tion 630, 063 1% Community 427, 159 46% Barangay 202, 904 1% 237, 188 152, 243 389, 431 53% 25% 37% 0 6, 900 1% 1%

Case Study - Sources of Fund Villahermosa MS Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total Municipality Case Study - Sources of Fund Villahermosa MS Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total Municipality 70, 874 19% 22, 937 3% 93, 811 8% Barangay 88, 000 23% 235, 143 29% 323, 143 27% 0 25, 000 3% 25, 000 2% 48, 000 13% 312, 000 2% 360, 000 30% 166, 993 44% 164, 818 20% 331, 811 28% 4, 000 8, 000 Province Community Grants/Donation MPA Revenue

Case Study - Sources of Fund Bibilik Municipality Barangay Province Community Grants/Donation NGA Establishment Case Study - Sources of Fund Bibilik Municipality Barangay Province Community Grants/Donation NGA Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total 497, 240 62% 537, 901 38% 1, 035, 141 46% 25, 691 3% 76, 399 5% 102, 090 5% 0 3, 860. 3% 3, 860. 2% 15, 000 2% 50, 000 4% 65, 000 3% 258, 228 32% 729, 350 51% 331, 811 44% 3, 000 29, 816 8, 000

Case Study - Sources of Fund Tambunan Municipality Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total 548, Case Study - Sources of Fund Tambunan Municipality Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total 548, 685 65% 1, 124, 779 56% 1, 673, 464 59% 1, 053. 2% 29, 853 15% 31, 366 1% 0 2, 250. 1% 1, 500. 2% 9, 000. 5% 10, 500. 4% Grants/Donatio n 278, 290 33% 784, 050 39% 1, 062, 340 37% NGA 10, 8000 50, 000 60, 800 Barangay Province Community

Case Study - Sources of Fund Talisay Municipality Barangay Community Grants/Donatio n Establishment Stage Case Study - Sources of Fund Talisay Municipality Barangay Community Grants/Donatio n Establishment Stage Implementation Stage Total 7, 000 2% 40, 933 4% 47, 933 4% 0 0% 24, 372 3% 24, 372 2% 54, 820 15% 418, 040 43% 472, 860 36% 295, 756 83% 487, 107 50% 782, 863 59%

Case Study - Sources of Fund Mi. SSTA Municipality Barangay Establishment Stage Total 469, Case Study - Sources of Fund Mi. SSTA Municipality Barangay Establishment Stage Total 469, 607 63% 904, 794 57% 1, 328, 028 59% 43, 546 6% 139, 805 9% 183, 351 8% 68, 600 4% 68, 600 3% 460, 817 29% 686, 745 30% NGA Grants/Donatio n Implementation Stage 227, 928 3%

Insight on Fund Sources • Municipalities and barangays tend to allocate more funds to Insight on Fund Sources • Municipalities and barangays tend to allocate more funds to MPAs that they themselves manage or co-manage • MPA share not highly prioritized in municipal and barangay 20% DF • Co-management between barangays and municipalities results in greater total budget for the MPA

Salient Observations • Critical role of external assistance to sustain MPA, at least in Salient Observations • Critical role of external assistance to sustain MPA, at least in the initial phases • NGAs contribute minimally, MPA are functionally largely as local responsibility • High dependency on LGU budget and external funding makes MPAs vulnerable to changes in political leadership and withdrawal of donor support • Revenue generation is as yet at initial stage, but critical to sustainability • Incentives for local resource managers and volunteers key also to sustainability

Ring Fencing Ring Fencing

Ring Fencing - Definition Ring-Fencing means • Separation/isolation or fencing-off of financial accounts of Ring Fencing - Definition Ring-Fencing means • Separation/isolation or fencing-off of financial accounts of specific programs of LGUs to enable – exclusive use of resources earmarked for these programs – retention and plow back of revenues generated by the program for use in implementation or investments

Ring Fencing - Definition • In operational terms, it means either – setting up Ring Fencing - Definition • In operational terms, it means either – setting up a special account for the program under the General Fund of LGUs, with subsidiary accounting system, or – operating as an autonomous economic enterprise

Why Ring-Fence? • General Objectives: • To build a more sustainable and financially viable Why Ring-Fence? • General Objectives: • To build a more sustainable and financially viable program or operations. • To improve governance and promote sound management practices: transparency, accountability, and informed decisionmaking

Legal Basis • The Local Government Code allows LGUs to create special accounts under Legal Basis • The Local Government Code allows LGUs to create special accounts under the General Fund for public utilities and economic enterprises, development projects funded by its internal revenue allotment and other special accounts created by law or ordinance. • Sec. 105, Chapter 6 (Special Accounts) of the New Government Accounting System (NGAS) states that “LGUs shall maintain special accounts in the General Fund for public utilities and other economic enterprises, loans, interests, bond issues, and other contributions for special purposes

Why ring-fence ENR Programs ? • ENR-related activities are assigned to different LGU units Why ring-fence ENR Programs ? • ENR-related activities are assigned to different LGU units especially if LGU has no environment office • program budget/expenses are lodged in various LGU units and are not tracked on a program basis • LGUs are often unable to properly program activities (e. g. , start refo at the right time) or respond immediately to “emergency” needs of programs (e. g. , repair of equipment for solid waste management) • revenues become part of the General Fund and can be used by the LGU for purposes unrelated to ENR • revenue potentials are not fully tapped; revenue collection is also not tracked on a program basis

Why ring-fence ENR Programs? Specific Benefits: • Establishes information on LGU “investments” in the Why ring-fence ENR Programs? Specific Benefits: • Establishes information on LGU “investments” in the ENR sector or a specific ENR program. • Budget allocated by the LGU for the program and revenues generated from related services are kept within the program to sustain/improve operations. • Better monitoring and tracking of the performance of the program through separate and reliable financial reports. • Better and transparent basis for setting fees • Facilitates private sector engagement in the program • Promotes “enterprise” thinking within LGU

Thank You! Thank You!