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- Количество слайдов: 59

Figure 7. 1 The Nature of Waves 1

A Beautiful Rainbow 2

When a Strontium salt is dissolved in methanol (with a little water) and ignited, it gives a brillant red flame 3

Fireworks in Washington D. C. 4

Electromagnetic radiation exhibits wave properties and particulate properties 5

A change between two discrete energy levels emits a photon of light 6

Niels Bohr 7

Electronic transitions in the Bohr model for the Hydrogen atom 8

(a)The probability distribution for the Hydrogen 1 s orbital in 3 -D space (b)The probability of finding the electron at varying distances from the nucleus 9

(a) Cross section of the Hydrogen 1 s orbital probability distribution (b) The Radial Probability Distribution 10

Two representations of the Hydrogen 1 s, 2 s, and 3 s orbitals: (a) The Electron probability distribution (b) The surface that contains 90% of the total electron probability (the size of the orbital, by definition) 11

Representation of the 2 p Orbitals: (a) An electron probability distribution (b) Boundary surfaces of all three 2 p orbitals 12

Cross section of the electron probability distribution for a 3 p orbital 13

Comparison of the radial probability distributions of the 2 s and 2 p orbitals 14

Representation of the 3 d Orbitals (a) Electron Density Plots of Selected 3 d Orbitals (b) The Boundary Surfaces of All of the 3 d Orbitals 15

Representation of the 4 f orbitals in terms of their boundary surfaces 16

The angular momentum quantum number (l) and the s, p, d, f notation 17

Quantum numbers for orbitals 1 -4 18

Orbital energy levels for a Hydrogen atom 19

A picture of the spinning electron 20

Energy levels of orbitals for the first 3 principal quantum levels 21

Electron configurations in the last occupied orbital for elements 1 -18 22

Electron configurations for Potassium through Krypton 23

The orbitals being filled for elements in various parts of the periodic table 24

The Periodic Table with partial electron configurations 25

The End 26

27

The values of First Ionization Energy for the elements 28

Trends in Ionization Energies (kj/mol) for the Representative Elements 29

Electron affinity values for selected atoms that form stable ions 30

The Radius of an atom (r) is defined as half the distance between nuclei in a diatomic molecule of identical atoms 31

Atomic radii (in picometers) for selected atoms 32

Properties of five alkali metals 33

First Ionization Energies for alkali metals and noble gases 34

Ionization Energies (k. J/mole) for elements in period 3 35

Electron affinities of the halogens 36

Dmitri I. Mendeleev 37

Mendeleev's early Periodic Table, published in 1872 38

Properties of Germanium predicted by Mendeleev 39

Special names for groups in the Periodic Table 40

Sodium metal 41

Potassium metal in a vial 42

Potassium reacts violently with water 43

Calcium metal 44

Chromium may be used for plating 45

Dr. Glenn Seaborg 46

The End 47

48

Wave-Generating Apparatus 49

Standing waves caused by vibrations of a guitar string 50

(a. ) Diffraction Pattern (b. ) Constructive interference of waves (c. ) Destructive interference of waves 51

The Hydrogen electron visualized as a standing wave around the nucleus 52

(a) The radial probability distribution for an electron in a 3 s orbital (b) Radial probability distributions for 3 s, 3 p, and 3 d orbitals 53

Electrified Pickle 54

Pattern of heat loss from a house 55

The black mamba snake's venom kills by blocking potassium channels in nerve cells 56

Albert Einstein 57

Hydration Energies for Li+, Na+, and K+ Ions 58

Predicted properties of Elements 113 and 114 59