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Federal Aviation Administration ADS-B Operational Approvals (now and in the future) By: Dennis Mills, Federal Aviation Administration ADS-B Operational Approvals (now and in the future) By: Dennis Mills, AFS-220 FAA Flight Standards Air Carrier Operations - New Technology OSWG First Quarter 2011 Date: January 19, 2011

Overview • • What ADS-B is and isn’t Current Op. Spec Future Op. Specs Overview • • What ADS-B is and isn’t Current Op. Spec Future Op. Specs Current Applications Future Applications Ops Approval Process International Harmonization • Part 129 Considerations OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 2

ADS-B vs ADS-C ADS-B : Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast • Surveillance application which transmits and ADS-B vs ADS-C ADS-B : Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast • Surveillance application which transmits and receives such things as position, track G/S etc by data link at specific intervals • Data delivered air to air, ground to air and ground to ground • ADS-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an extended squitter message using a transponder protocol ADS-C : Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract • Communications Contract between the Operators & A/C and the controller • Data link info transmitted automatically from A/C to Controller – not Pilot • Part of Fans 1/A data link/ CPDLC equipage • Not Transponder based OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 3

Introduction to ADS-B • Automatic – Periodically transmits information with no pilot or operator Introduction to ADS-B • Automatic – Periodically transmits information with no pilot or operator input required • Dependent – Position and velocity vector are derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS) • Surveillance – A method of determining position of aircraft, vehicles, or other assets • Broadcast – Transmitted information available to anyone with the appropriate receiving equipment OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 4

Why ADS-B? Air-to-Air • Improved Separation Standards • Improved Low-Visibility Approaches • Enhanced See Why ADS-B? Air-to-Air • Improved Separation Standards • Improved Low-Visibility Approaches • Enhanced See and Avoid • Enhanced Operations for En Route Air-to-Air Ground-to-Ground • Improved Navigation on Taxiways • Enhanced Controller Management of Surface Traffic OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Air-to-Ground • Surveillance Coverage in Radar / Non-Radar Airspace Ground-to-Air & Self-Contained • Weather and SSR Traffic to the Cockpit Federal Aviation Administration 5

ADS-B OUT NAS Ops Approval? • Not Required by the new Rule Title 14 ADS-B OUT NAS Ops Approval? • Not Required by the new Rule Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part § 91. 225, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS B) OUT equipment and use § 91. 227, Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS B) OUT equipment performance requirements • No Specialized Training Requirements for Operators, aircrew or dispatchers • Necessary hardware must be installed by TC/STC • Crew cannot monitor output – either it is on or off (Will be notified by ATC most likely? ) OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 6

AC 90 -ADS-B (Spring 2011) Operational Approval is required only for certain ADS-B applications: AC 90 -ADS-B (Spring 2011) Operational Approval is required only for certain ADS-B applications: 1. ADS-B OUT – 2. Canadian Controlled Airspace - NRA • ADS-B OUT – Off-shore Routes • ADS-B IN – In Trail Procedures - ITP • Numerous Future applications: Interval Management (IM), SURF, ATSA… …and many more in development OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 7

Inspector Guidance/Op. Spec Requirements? • Available information for the applicant if desired • Under Inspector Guidance/Op. Spec Requirements? • Available information for the applicant if desired • Under construction and nearly ready-Spring 2011 • Vetted at Op. Spec Working Group (OSWG) - 2010 ADS-B OUT applications U. S. NAS – Presently no intent to require a formal authorization. More of a compliance requirement with Certification Standards and Continuing Airworthiness requirements like other avionic equipment. Non-Rule Airspace such as Gomex and possibly the WATRS area will require Op. Spec due to specific Operational advantages and reduced separation without radar (NRA) Canadian Controlled Airspace OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 8

Inspector Guidance/Op. Spec Requirements (con’t) ADS-B IN applications - Require future Ops approval • Inspector Guidance/Op. Spec Requirements (con’t) ADS-B IN applications - Require future Ops approval • No rule in place to lay out the requirement for Operators • Applications will require specific training, aircraft equipment and ICA requirements • There will be operational benefit and thus additional requirements if Operator chooses to equip. • Voluntary but highly likely to derive operational/cost benefit • Meets expectation of “Best equipped, Best served” OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 9

Standards and Guidance • Advisory Circulars – One means of compliance – AC 20 Standards and Guidance • Advisory Circulars – One means of compliance – AC 20 -165 Airworthiness Approval of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Out Systems, 5/21/2010, as amended – AC 90 -ADSB Operational approval of ADS-B, Spring 2011 • Inspector Guidance – 8900. 1, Inspector Handbook – Developed in conjunction with AC 90 • AIM/AIP – General pilot information and guidance OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 10

Op. Spec/MSpec/LOA A 353 Authorization Approval Process • Certificate Holder / Operator completes application Op. Spec/MSpec/LOA A 353 Authorization Approval Process • Certificate Holder / Operator completes application package and submits to local FAA field office • POI reviews application for compliance with regulatory requirements • Local FAA field office forwards application package to HQ through their Regional Office 220 Next. Gen Branch. • HQ evaluates package-if acceptable Concurrence Memo • HQ has quick turn around process • POI issues the Op. Spec OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 11

ADS-B Authorization Web. OPSS Job Aid designed to assist POI with adding an ADS-B ADS-B Authorization Web. OPSS Job Aid designed to assist POI with adding an ADS-B OUT/IN authorization(s) in Web. OPSS for a specific aircraft or aircraft fleet type operated under FAR Part 91, 91 K, 121, 125 M, or 135. OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 12

ADS-B Operation Approval Canadian Controlled Airspace Application Package Checklist OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Operation Approval Canadian Controlled Airspace Application Package Checklist OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 13

Current Op. Spec A 353: “ADS-B Out Operations in the Hudson Bay Area, Canada” Current Op. Spec A 353: “ADS-B Out Operations in the Hudson Bay Area, Canada” Applicable to Parts 91, 91 K, 121, 125 M, and 135 Only addresses Hudson Bay airspace FL 350 – FL 400 Regulatory EASA AMC 20 -24 Transport Canada AC 700 -009 NAVCANADA AIC 21/09 OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 14

A 353 Ops. Spec - Hudson Bay (Canadian Controlled Air Space) • • Created A 353 Ops. Spec - Hudson Bay (Canadian Controlled Air Space) • • Created at the request of Transport Canada Cites Canadian and EASA requirements Canada’s Requirement is an ADS-B OUT approval Op. Spec is NOT required unless U. S. operator wants to utilize Canadian Controlled ADS-B Special Airspace OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 15

Working Forward • Current form A 353 will qualify operator for all of Canadian Working Forward • Current form A 353 will qualify operator for all of Canadian Controlled ADS-B Airspace • Operator MUST provide 24 -bit address to NAVCANADA to utilize services Current ADS-B coverage in Canadian Controlled Airspace (CCA) displayed on next slide OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 16

OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 17 OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 17

Applicant Issues A 353 – H. Bay • Operational: – Misunderstanding/confusion between ADS-B & Applicant Issues A 353 – H. Bay • Operational: – Misunderstanding/confusion between ADS-B & ADS-C. – Flight manuals must address system configuration & control (e. g. if you turn off transponder, you also disable ADS-B and TCAS) – Loss of capability; Emergency Codes – AFM compliance statement • Training: – ADS-B phraseology – Specific training for Dispatch, Pilots and Maintenance personnel OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 18

Applicant Issues A 353 - H. Bay • Maintenance: – Establishment of periodic checks/inspections Applicant Issues A 353 - H. Bay • Maintenance: – Establishment of periodic checks/inspections for the installed system – Procedures for checking ADS-B message elements during initial/periodic inspection • Dispatch: – Contingency procedures must be addressed in operations manuals (loss of ADS-B, position source disparity). . . getting better with every application OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 19

New Op. Spec: “ADS-B Operations” • Will still remain A 353 • New Title: New Op. Spec: “ADS-B Operations” • Will still remain A 353 • New Title: “ADS-B Operations” Part 1 - Expanding Canadian ADS-B Airspace Part 2 - ADS-B IN Operations - In-Trail Procedures (ITP), Interval Management (IM), and more • Will allow for future ADS-B applications within the U. S. • Future developments • Will be “user friendly” for the POI’s • Forecasted publication date: Spring 2011 OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 20

ADS-B IN - applications Active development In Trail Procedures (ITP) OSWG First Quarter 2011 ADS-B IN - applications Active development In Trail Procedures (ITP) OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 21

Motivation for ADS-B ITP Desired Altitude FL 360 FL 350 Standard Separation FL 340 Motivation for ADS-B ITP Desired Altitude FL 360 FL 350 Standard Separation FL 340 NEED Q CHALLENGE Altitude Changes Q required for better fuel economy, winds, and ride quality OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B = The combination of locally dense traffic and large separation minima limits altitude changes OPPORTUNITIES Q Use airborne ADS-B applications to enable altitude changes otherwise blocked by conventional operations Federal Aviation Administration 22

ADS-B ITP ADS-B In-Trail Procedures (ITP) - ADS-B enabled climbs and descents through altitudes ADS-B ITP ADS-B In-Trail Procedures (ITP) - ADS-B enabled climbs and descents through altitudes where current non-ADS-B separation standards would prevent desirable altitude changes ADS-B Transceiver and Onboard Decision Support System ADS-B Out (required) No ADS-B capabilities required Desired Altitude FL 360 Standard Separation FL 350 ITP Separation Standard FL 340 ADS-B ITP Q ADS-B separation standard based on exchange of ADS-B data between the reference aircraft and the ITP aircraft Q Controller separates aircraft using information derived from cockpit sources and relayed by the flight crew to the controller Q No airborne monitoring during climb required OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 23

Developing Applications: Interval Management (IM) OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration Developing Applications: Interval Management (IM) OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 24

What is Interval Management • Precise management of intervals between aircraft whose trajectories are What is Interval Management • Precise management of intervals between aircraft whose trajectories are common or merging • Two major components – Ground-based Interval Management (GIM) – Flight deck-based interval Management (FIM) • Two separation responsibility paradigms – Spacing (-S) – Delegated Separation (-DS) • FIM-S is the FAA’s CURRENT FOCAL POINTS OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 25

Service Availability Prediction Tool (SAPT) - under construction • Pre-flight check to determine if Service Availability Prediction Tool (SAPT) - under construction • Pre-flight check to determine if system can support performance requirements • Baseline NAC 8/NIC 7 can be met with TSO C 145/146 equipment in all Domains • When system will not meet performance of C 145/146 avionics, ATC will issue NOTAM to waive ADS-B requirement OR Alter route, alter departure time, request waiver (Refer to Draft A 353 8900. 1 guidance – Section 1 for detailed explanation of SAPT) OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 26

Future Applications OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 27 Future Applications OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 27

International Harmonization • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) • Aeronautical Surveillance Panel (ASP) • International Harmonization • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) • Aeronautical Surveillance Panel (ASP) • Separation and Airspace Safety Panel (SASP) • Eurocontrol • CASCADE: ADS-B is main focus of CASCADE, standardization, trials and implementation activities are being funded, and it is the largest EUROCONTROL partner in terms of budget and staff • Requirements Focus Group (RFG) • Joint RTCA / EUROCAE Working Group • Recurring Coordination Meetings • Transport Canada • Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) of Australia • Eurocontrol / EASA OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 28

What Part 129 and DOT 375 AOC Certificate Holders need to know about ADS-B What Part 129 and DOT 375 AOC Certificate Holders need to know about ADS-B Operations? OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 29

ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, number 3. 1. 2: ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, number 3. 1. 2: "An operator shall ensure that all pilots are familiar with the laws, regulations, and procedures, pertinent to the performance of their duties, prescribed for the areas to be traversed, the aerodromes to be used, and the air navigation facilities relating thereto. The operator shall ensure that other members of the flight crew are familiar with such of these laws, regulations, and procedures as are pertinent to the performance of their respective duties in the operation of the aeroplane. " OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 30

Part 129 Operators must • Must meet specific equipment and performance requirements after January Part 129 Operators must • Must meet specific equipment and performance requirements after January 1, 2020. The requirement to conduct operations within Class A airspace is unique and harmonized for operations by foreign operators. This includes: 1) The ADS-B equipment meet requirements of TSO-C 166 b (as amended), Extended Squitter ADS-B and Traffic Information Service–Broadcast (TIS-B) Equipment Operating on the Radio Frequency of 1090 Megahertz (MHz). 2) OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Meet the equipment performance requirements of 14 CFR Part § 91. 227. Federal Aviation Administration 31

DOT-375 Approvals – Navigation of Foreign civil aircraft within the United States. Part 375 DOT-375 Approvals – Navigation of Foreign civil aircraft within the United States. Part 375 approvals are granted by DOT subject to: 1. All applicable requirements of 14 CFR Part 375; 2. All applicable requirements of the FAA – CFR’s and all applicable orders; 3. All applicable ICAO Standards Annexes: Annex 1, personnel Licensing; Annex 6 part 1, Operations of Aircraft; Annex 8, and Airworthiness of Aircraft; 4. All applicable U. S. Government requirements concerning security. OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 32

Future ADS-B IN applications FAR Part 129/US Operators should anticipate requirement of an Op. Future ADS-B IN applications FAR Part 129/US Operators should anticipate requirement of an Op. Spec/LOA to conduct ADS-B IN operations within the NAS. DOT 375 AOC holders will comply with the notification procedures established by the DOT. OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 33

Contact Information Dennis Mills, AFS-220 Flight Standards Air Transport Division dennis. mills@faa. gov Phone: Contact Information Dennis Mills, AFS-220 Flight Standards Air Transport Division dennis. [email protected] gov Phone: 202 -493 -4901 Backup – Ricky Chitwood Flight Standards Air Transport Division ricky. [email protected] gov Phone: 816 -858 -5258 OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 34

Questions OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 35 Questions OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 35

 • UAL Agreement ITP Agreements – FAA and United Airlines (SOPAC operator) plus • UAL Agreement ITP Agreements – FAA and United Airlines (SOPAC operator) plus avionics vendor(s) selected by United – Equip a portion of UAL 747 -400 fleet with certified ITP systems – Gather data on use of systems in SOPAC for a year starting in 2011 – UAL responsible for installing equipment and conducting flight evaluation • Honeywell Agreement – Development of certified ITP avionics – Goodrich: provide certified EFB • ASPIRE Agreement Partners – Air Services Australia – Airways Corp. New Zealand OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 36

 ITP Currently Purpose: Provide operational benefits in non-surveillance airspace by enabling “in-trail” climbs/descents ITP Currently Purpose: Provide operational benefits in non-surveillance airspace by enabling “in-trail” climbs/descents at reduced separation distances Goal: Employ ITP in oceanic air carrier operations (revenue service) by 2011 Objectives: Validate operational performance and economic benefits of ITP Develop and validate ADS-B ITP MOPS material Partners: United Airlines, Honeywell, Goodrich, Airservices Australia, Airways Corp NZ FL 360 Desired Altitude Standard Separation FL 350 ITP Separation Standard Complete FL 340 Not Yet Started In Progress UAL OTA Signed August 2009 TCAS & EFB STCs Approved Dec 2010 OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Controller Procedures Developed UAL 747 ITP STC Approved Dec 2010 May 2011 Operational Flight Trial Approval Begins May 2011 June 2011 Federal Aviation Administration 37

Expected IM Benefits • Consistent, low variance spacing within aircraft pairs at specific point Expected IM Benefits • Consistent, low variance spacing within aircraft pairs at specific point • Continued Optimized Profile Descent (OPD) operations, with the associated benefits in medium density environments • Reduced ATC interventions and workload – Without unacceptable increase in flight crew workload OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Federal Aviation Administration 38

Interval Management FIM-S Flight Deck Based Interval Management – Spacing Purpose: Precisely manage intervals Interval Management FIM-S Flight Deck Based Interval Management – Spacing Purpose: Precisely manage intervals between aircraft whose trajectories are common or merging Partners: US Airways, ACSS, UPS FIM-S SPR Dec 2010 Flight Trials Validation FIM-S MOPS Feb 2013 Sept 2012 OSWG First Quarter 2011 – ADS-B Approve Validated MOPS In Progress Unfunded June 2013 Federal Aviation Administration 39