Скачать презентацию Features of a Good Model 1 It should Скачать презентацию Features of a Good Model 1 It should

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Features of a Good Model 1. It should account for observed data. 2. It Features of a Good Model 1. It should account for observed data. 2. It should allow for new data. If a revision is necessary of the model to allow for new data, it should be a natural extension rather than a complete rewrite. 3. It should predict new phenomena. 1

Chomsky's Levels of Adequacy of a Chomsky's Levels of Adequacy of a "Grammar" - 1 OBSERVATIONAL: Should generate / describe / allow for all the phonology, semantics, syntax of the language and disallow things NOT in the language. E. g. , this is a good word, sentence, etc. in English; that is not. (NEED RULES. ) DESCRIPTIVE: Ditto. PLUS: Rules or representations (e. g. , trees) should reflect speaker's intuition about the language. E. g. , should reflect that speakers split sentences between subject and predicate, that we recognize certain sentences as ambiguous, that some sentences are related. 2

Chomsky's Levels of Adequacy of a Chomsky's Levels of Adequacy of a "Grammar" - 2 EXPLANATORY: Ditto. PLUS: (1) Principles that would help us to choose between 2 different descriptively adequate grammars; (2) an indication of how a child could acquire this grammar. Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, p. 35. 3

Grammar of 123 Artificial Language List-Based Grammar 123 213 321 231 312 132 Rule-Based Grammar of 123 Artificial Language List-Based Grammar 123 213 321 231 312 132 Rule-Based Grammar 1. Every "sentence" must contain three elements. 2. These elements range over 1, 2, 3. 3. No element can be repeated. 4

IPA Phonetic Chart Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, IPA Phonetic Chart Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. ix. 5

American English Consonants Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language, sixth edition. American English Consonants Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language, sixth edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998, p. 233. 6

Simple Set of Phrase. Structure Rules PS 1 S NP VP PS 2 NP Simple Set of Phrase. Structure Rules PS 1 S NP VP PS 2 NP det (adj) N PS 3 VP V NP PS 8 VP V S PS 4 N swimmer, medal, horse, child, man PS 5 V accepted, returned, are, eat, thinks, left PS 6 adj young, silver, beautiful, eating PS 7 det a, the Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, p. 25 f. 7

The House that Jack Built - 1 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 1 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 2 This is the house that Jack built. 3 This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 4 This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 8

The House that Jack Built - 2 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 2 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 5 This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 6 This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 9

The House that Jack Built - 3 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 3 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 7 This is the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 8 This is the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 10

The House that Jack Built - 4 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 4 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 9 This is the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 11

The House that Jack Built - 5 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 5 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 10 This is the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 12

The House that Jack Built - 6 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 6 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 11 This is the cock that crowed in the morn that waked the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 13

The House that Jack Built - 7 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: The House that Jack Built - 7 (The Real Mother Goose. 1994. New York: Scholastic Inc. , pp. 69 -70. ) 12 This is the farmer sowing the corn that kept the cock that crowed in the morn that waked the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 14

Morpheme Types Aadapted from Parker, Frank & Kathryn Riley. 1994. Linguistics for Non-Linguists. Boston: Morpheme Types Aadapted from Parker, Frank & Kathryn Riley. 1994. Linguistics for Non-Linguists. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, p. 95. 15