- Количество слайдов: 18
FDR & Shadow of War 1933 -1938 n Good Neighbor Policy – Toward other nations in Western Hemisphere… 1) Prompted a non-interventionist course in Latin America (no more dollar diplomacy since we were broke) 2) Seeked cooperation in defending this region from potential fascist dictators
Good Neighbor Policy Cont. Pan-American Conferences – 1933 in Uruguay (7 th one); U. S. pledged to never again interfere in Latin American affairs. (Totally against Teddy’s policies) n 1936 Conference, FDR personally pledged arbitration of future disputes and told Germany “watch out” we’re united against you! n 1934 FDR persuaded Congress to nullify Platt Amendment in Cuba, only keeping Guantanamo. n 1938 Mexico seized oil properties owned by U. S. corporations – FDR reacted by telling U. S. companies to negotiate a settlement (this would’ve been grounds for war before) n
Economic Diplomacy (It was all about the $) n London Economic Conference 1933 – FDR w/drew support from this, thought their attempts to stabilize currency would hurt U. S. ; conference ended w/no agreement. n 1933 FDR (unlike Rep. pres. before) granted recognition of Soviet Union – to increase U. S. trade/boost economy. n Philippines too costly for U. S. so FDR convinced Congress to pass Tydings-Mc. Duffie Act 1934 granting them independence/removal of U. S. military presence n Reciprocal Trade Agreements – Favored Lower Tariffs to increase international trade; 1934 Congress passed plan giving president power to reduce tariffs by up to 50% w/nations that reciprocated lower tariffs w/us…
Abroad – Fascism/Aggressive Militarism Abide n Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community [capitalist dictators]; people should glorify their nation/race through aggressive show of force – became dominant ideology of European dictators in 1930 s. n Axis Powers – Japan, Italy, Germany signed alliance in 1940.
Italy – Benito Mussolini “Il Duce” (The Leader) n 1922 seized power; followers dressed in black shirts. n Attracted dissatisfied WWI vets, nationalists, & those afraid of communism.
Adolf Hitler – Nazi Germany n Rose in 1920 s due to bad economic conditions after WWI & resentment over Treaty of Versailles blaming Germany… n Hitler used bullying tactics against Jews (scapegoats for all Germany’s problems) n His “brown shirts” who were anti-Semitic took control of Congress in 1933.
Japan’s Empire n 1920 s/1930 s nationalists/militarists convinced the Emperor to invade China & Southeast Asia… n Why? Due to bad economy, wanted access to raw materials (oil, tin, iron)…also wanted to create the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere…aka Japanese Empire!
Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy 8
Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Winston Churchill British Prime Minister 9
Major Leaders Joseph Stalin Russian Leader Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President 10
Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U. S. 2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent) 3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty 11
America Remained Isolationists Disillusioned w/ WWI American nationalists wanted us to never again enter foreign war…Strongest in Mid-west/Republicans n Revisionist history of WWI – Sen. Gerald Nye’s committee in 1934 concluded that we got into war for bankers & arm manufacturers. n Neutrality Acts – Isolationists held majority in Congress through 1938. So passed: n 1) 2) 3) Neutrality Act 1935 – prohibited arms shipment and forbid U. S. citizens from traveling on ships of aggressive nations. Neutrality Act 1936 – forbid extension of loans/credits to these countries. Neutrality Act 1937 – forbid shipment of arms to either side in Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War 1936 n Fascist, General Fancisco Franco battled against Republicanism and won. FDR & most Americans sympathized w/ Loyalists n But hands tied due to neutrality acts… 1939 Franco beat loyalists…est. military dictatorship.
Policies of Appeasement n France, Britain, & U. S. hoping to avoid conflict w/Germany (who was growing stronger by day) – allowed Hitler to get away w/small acts of aggression/expansion…looked the other way. 1) Ethiopia 1935 – Mussolini invaded it to show off military might. Rhineland 1936 – Hitler ordered German troops to march into Western Germany, violating Treaty of Versailles which called for it to remain a demilitarized zone. China 1937 – Japan invaded China starting full-scale war; Japanese even bombed/sunk U. S. gunboat (they apologized/we quickly accepted) FDR tried speech to “quarantine” Japan but reaction negative by Americans… Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) 1938 - Germany insisted it had right to take over this strip of land where most spoke German; At Munich conference British/French agreed to let Hitler do it… 2) 3) 4)
From Neutrality to War U. S. prepared just in case we got invaded (not to attack); 1938 Congress at FDR’s request increased military/naval budgets by 2/3… n March 1939 Hitler took over all of Czech so Britain/France woke up from trance; pledged to fight if Poland attacked… n Meanwhile Soviet Union secretly signed Non. Aggression Pact w/Germany – so they could divide Poland between them. n Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland – WW II had begun! n
FDR Helps Britain; Crucial to U. S. Security n Cash and Carry – 1939 FDR persuaded Congress to ease up on Neutrality Act allowing Britain to buy U. S. arms as long as used on ships to transport weapons and paid cash for them. n Selective Service Act 1940 – Registered all American men between 21 -35 and for training of 1. 2 million troops in 1 year! A peacetime draft opposed by isolationists – but now outnumbered by public opinion. n Destroyers-for-bases deal – by Sept. 1940 Britain under constant attacks by German air raids (Blitz) and their submarines threatened British control of Atlantic; FDR couldn’t outright sell U. S. destroyers to the British so instead gave them 50 older U. S. destroyers in exchange for bases in British islands in Caribbean.
rd 3 FDR wins Term & Moves Away from Neutrality n n 1) 2) 3) Won for an unprecedented 3 rd term due to 1) strong economic recovery 2) fear of war causing voters to stay w/more experienced leader [Rep. nominee Wendell Willkie never ran before for public office] Dec. 1940 Fireside Chat – said we need to be “great arsenal of democracy”: Four Freedoms – proposed lending $ to Britain to protect our freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. Lend-Lease Act March 1941 – Ending cash-and-carry giving Britain all U. S. arms it needed on credit; like lending a neighbor a garden hose to put out fire. Atlantic Charter – Secret meeting between FDR & Churchill aboard ship off coast of Newfoundland; drew up peace objectives once war ended (self determination for all people, no territorial expansion, free trade)
U. S. Fighting Undeclared Naval War on Germany Shoot-on-sight passed: n Pres. Ordered U. S. navy to escort British ships carrying lend-lease materials from U. S. n Sept. 4, U. S. destroyer Greer attacked by German submarine – FDR ordered Navy to attack all German ships on sight! n