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Family, Society, and Culture Fogel, Chapter 8 Created by Ilse De. Koeyer-Laros, Ph. D. Family, Society, and Culture Fogel, Chapter 8 Created by Ilse De. Koeyer-Laros, Ph. D.

Overview Chapter 8 ¢ The Transition to Parenthood ¢ Cultural Differences in Infant Care Overview Chapter 8 ¢ The Transition to Parenthood ¢ Cultural Differences in Infant Care Practices ¢ Peer Relationships ¢ Sibling Relationships

The Transition to Parenthood The Transition to Parenthood

The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy Signs of pregnancy absence of The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy Signs of pregnancy absence of menstruation l breast changes l nausea (about 50% of women) l • usually in the morning • typically passes after 8 weeks • may be adaptive fatigue l frequency of urination l

The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy ¢ Proper health care during The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy ¢ Proper health care during pregnancy l l reduces the rate of premature births, and l ¢ prevents many environmentally caused birth defects reduces prenatal mortality & health risks for mother & fetus Due to poverty, fear, or unwanted or teen pregnancy, l as many as 20% of women in the U. S. do not receive prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy

The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy The placenta l forms within The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy The placenta l forms within the uterus l secretes hormones that nurture the fetus & prepare the mother’s body for birth l enhances the exchange of nutrients & other substances between the mother’s and the fetus’s blood supply

The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy Other physical changes in the The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy Other physical changes in the mother l the breasts become ready for lactation • colostrum may be secreted by the 4 th month of pregnancy l digestive & eliminative systems work harder l discomfort • such as, leg cramps, varicose veins, temporary changes in skin pigmentation, stretch marks, shortness of breath, lethargy, indigestion, constipation, and moodiness • more night waking & sleep is less deep • severity of symptoms depends upon body structure, nutritional status, fatigue, and psychological sense of well-being

The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy ¢ The mother and fetus The Transition to Parenthood Physical Changes Associated with Pregnancy ¢ The mother and fetus comprise a unique biological system in which feedback between them accounts for their mutual development ¢ As the fetus changes, the mother’s body changes in response • continued changes in her body and its functioning provide the nourishment and biological support necessary for fetal growth and development

The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation The birth of an infant is both The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation The birth of an infant is both a physical and a psychological point of no return l Pregnancy & childbirth constitute a break from one’s own childhood (to some extent) • once people have a child of their own, they stop being only a child of their parents • the new mother moves toward greater independence and a greater sense of identification with her mother • the new mother’s parents may be encouraged to renew or readjust their feelings about their daughter

The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation Pregnancy is not entirely free of difficulties The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation Pregnancy is not entirely free of difficulties l stress of carrying a child & adapting to the changes of one’s body l psychological conflicts attached to the awareness of inevitable, impending parenthood l many women in North America become preoccupied with their weight gain • mothers who were ambivalent about their pregnancies and who were concerned about their appearance and behavior, however, eventually adapted to the parenting role

The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation Successful adaptation to pregnancy is related to The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation Successful adaptation to pregnancy is related to l knowledge of pregnancy & childbirth l the presence of the father l marital satisfaction l low levels of family stress l social support from family and friends l ability to remain active l emotional well-being

The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation ¢ On average, marital satisfaction slightly declines The Transition to Parenthood Mothers’ Psychological Adaptation ¢ On average, marital satisfaction slightly declines during the first few years of parenthood ¢ Parents who were more likely to report that their marriages were satisfying l were less likely to experience a decline in feelings of tenderness & less likely to quarrel. l their infants were more securely attached at 12 months

The Transition to Parenthood Fathers’ Psychological Adaptation ¢ Fathers often identify with their partners’ The Transition to Parenthood Fathers’ Psychological Adaptation ¢ Fathers often identify with their partners’ changes & act in supportive roles ¢ Some have difficulties adapting to the pregnancy l may feel emotionally distant, engage in extramarital sex, or even abuse • about 1 in 6 pregnant women in the U. S. l risk for abuse increases with factors such as • teenage pregnancy, low social support, low income, unmarried status, unplanned pregnancy, drug & alcohol abuse, and poor prenatal care

The Transition to Parenthood Fathers’ Psychological Adaptation to pregnancy is supported by l knowledge The Transition to Parenthood Fathers’ Psychological Adaptation to pregnancy is supported by l knowledge of pregnancy & childbirth l social support l marital satisfaction l low levels of family stress l emotional well-being Picture from www. healthcoop. bm

The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth ¢ The perinatal period is a major developmental The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth ¢ The perinatal period is a major developmental transition for the family as the pregnancy ends and a new person is born ¢ Childbirth itself is an event full of powerful human emotions: l parents are filled with excitement and fear when the baby first appears l can turn into overwhelming joy or crushing despair and sadness if the baby has birth defects or suffers from a perinatal trauma or prematurity

The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth ¢ In general, the moods of men and The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth ¢ In general, the moods of men and women after childbirth are stable & positive l l ¢ most women adjust to the birth of their children rapidly and without long-term psychological effects most fathers maintain positive attitudes and show a desire to be involved in the nurture of the newborn Post-partum blues are normal & last only a few hours or days

The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth 8 -15% of mothers suffer from postpartum depression The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth 8 -15% of mothers suffer from postpartum depression l dysphoric mood, disturbances of sleep or appetite, fatigue, feelings of guilt, & suicidal thoughts l linked to prenatal factors • e. g. , life stresses, perceived lack of support, poor marital adjustment, depressed mood, & history of psychiatric illness l need greater emotional support from their partners & have lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to nondepressed women

The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth 2 -10% of mothers may experience childbirth as The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth 2 -10% of mothers may experience childbirth as traumatic and suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), l intrusive thoughts, fears, nightmares, and heightened arousal l causes include: feelings of loss of control, fear of harm to self or infant during labor and delivery, having an induced labor and/or epidural anesthesia • similar to those of any traumatic surgical event l in most cases, women recover from these feelings after several weeks

The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth If there is a predisposition to other forms The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth If there is a predisposition to other forms of mental illness, such symptoms may appear in the post-partum period • especially for first-time mothers: greater risk for being hospitalized for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression • the greatest risk is between 10 -19 days after birth • hospitalization for mental illness during this period can have consequences • not only for mother and baby, but also on the rest of the family who must step in to provide interim care

The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth Boy or girl – does it matter? l The Transition to Parenthood After Childbirth Boy or girl – does it matter? l Researchers examined 386 birth announcements in Canadian newspapers between 2002 and 2004 • announcements for males more often used the words “pride” and “proud” – those for females were more likely to use words expressing “happiness” l Subtle differences in parent’s gender attitudes may alter their responses to each individual child regardless of that child’s actual behavior or preferences

The Transition to Parenthood The Father’s Role with Newborns Fathers spend 20 -35% as The Transition to Parenthood The Father’s Role with Newborns Fathers spend 20 -35% as much time as mothers in direct infant care l participation in parenting depends on social support, esp. from partners l men who adjust better to parenthood • have more knowledge about children & better relationships with their wives • in women, predictors include selfesteem, identification with the mothering role & adaptation to pregnancy

The Transition to Parenthood The Father’s Role with Newborns ¢ Father-infant and mother-infant interaction The Transition to Parenthood The Father’s Role with Newborns ¢ Father-infant and mother-infant interaction can be enhanced by specific interventions to orient parents to their newborns l e. g. , 12 -week-old infants whose fathers had been trained in massage & bathing were more likely to interact with their fathers & fathers were more likely to be involved with their infants than non-trained fathers Picture from: www. childways. co. uk

The Transition to Parenthood The Father’s Role with Newborns ¢ Parenting occurs within a The Transition to Parenthood The Father’s Role with Newborns ¢ Parenting occurs within a family system l l ¢ working mothers who left their newborn infants with fathers compared to other infant-care providers reported less anger, depression, and anxiety, families in which the fathers are more involved have wives who show more interest and affection toward the neonate Fathers do play an important role, even in the newborn period l they may not do as much as mothers overall, but with some encouragement and training, they are able to become competent caregivers.

The Transition to Parenthood Firstborns & Laterborns Firstborn newborns receive more caregiving interaction than The Transition to Parenthood Firstborns & Laterborns Firstborn newborns receive more caregiving interaction than laterborns. Possible explanations: l firstborns are more passive and nonresponsive (perhaps due to birth medication) l mothers of firstborns are less skilled as caregivers l first-time mothers are more anxious

The Transition to Parenthood In summary, ¢ adults & infants seem ready to interact The Transition to Parenthood In summary, ¢ adults & infants seem ready to interact with each other and have feelings & behaviors that mutually complement ¢ any adult can interact successfully with a newborn and with enough exposure to the baby can develop a lasting attachment l the emotional tie between adults and infants does not seem to depend on a particular experience or a particular starting time

The Transition to Parenthood Developmental Tasks of Early Parenthood Family systems theory: each member The Transition to Parenthood Developmental Tasks of Early Parenthood Family systems theory: each member of the family is a part of a feedback system with every other family member l If it is a first birth, the married couple must adjust to becoming a three-person system • a new baby creates disequilibrium and necessitates an adjustment by each of the other family members l Developmental changes occur in all members of a family, including the adults and older siblings Picture from: www. canamcryo. com

The Transition to Parenthood Developmental Tasks of Early Parenthood New parents must address four The Transition to Parenthood Developmental Tasks of Early Parenthood New parents must address four type of problems l The energy demands associated with infant care, such as loss of sleep & extra work resulting in fatigue l New parenthood places stress on the marital relationship l The responsibility of caring for and rearing a child l Parents must cope with the additional costs of raising a child, in the form of food, clothing and education

The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success ¢ Adult developmental factors: l ¢ the The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success ¢ Adult developmental factors: l ¢ the adults’ relationships with their own parents, prior experience with child care, self-esteem and belief in self-efficacy as a parent & readiness to have children Concurrent factors: l the marital relationship, other family members, the amount of social support available to the parents, & nonfamily factors, such as income and job satisfaction

The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success Marital quality l Predicted by prenatal marital The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success Marital quality l Predicted by prenatal marital quality: couples who have the most conflicts prenatally also have the most postnatally l Equality of role relationships before childbirth predicts marital satisfaction after birth l Positive & warm relationship with one’s own parents l A postbirth experience that is not more difficult than anticipated

The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success ¢ Mothers’ ability to parent & to The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success ¢ Mothers’ ability to parent & to cope with child rearing is predicted by high level of marital satisfaction & the amount of father involvement ¢ For fathers, marital satisfaction is associated with more positive attitudes toward the parenting role and with more time spent with the infant l Men’s involvement in infant care depends primarily on social factors, such as marriage, job, and social acceptability of parenting Picture from: www. flickr. com/photos/[email protected] 00/154159152/

The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success ¢ For men l l ¢ a The Transition to Parenthood Predictors of Success ¢ For men l l ¢ a good relationship with their own fathers personality traits traditionally associated with femininity (affiliation, warmth, nurturance) For women l higher self-esteem l a less egocentric orientation l women who have children later in life show higher caregiving responsibility & more satisfaction with parenthood

The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment In 2001, 64% of U. S. mothers with The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment In 2001, 64% of U. S. mothers with children under the age of 6 were in the work force l mothers also do a substantial amount of unpaid work (e. g. , child care, household work), estimated to be worth about $27, 000 per woman per year l

The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment ¢ In general, infant-mother attachment is not seriously The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment ¢ In general, infant-mother attachment is not seriously altered by maternal employment ¢ If attachment is going to be affected, it is most likely to decline between employed mothers and their infant sons rather than their daughters l boys are perceived as more independent and as requiring less parental nurture and attention than girls, who are seen as more vulnerable l there is a correlation between a son’s insecure attachment and a mother’s perceived level of stress

The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment The important variable is the mother’s desire to The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment The important variable is the mother’s desire to work l problems with coping, dissatisfaction with life, depression, & loneliness are higher in young mothers who do not work outside the home than in those who do l there are higher levels of functioning in families in which the mothers are employed

The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment ¢ Whether mothers work by choice or necessity, The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment ¢ Whether mothers work by choice or necessity, they typically end the day fatigued because role overload ¢ Role overload increases if the child has a difficult (age 1) or hostile aggressive (age 3) temperament l in this case, mothers a more likely to perceive themselves as less competent in both the parenting and work roles, and are more likely to feel depressed

The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment ¢ When women work, fathers can also experience The Transition to Parenthood Maternal Employment ¢ When women work, fathers can also experience a form of role overload l l ¢ such fathers show more negative behavior with their infants during the first year after the first year, they are just as sensitive to their infants as other husbands When women remain at home, fathers can choose when & how to become involved with their infants l these fathers show more positive emotion toward their infants and are more attuned to the infants’ needs, especially if the infants are boys

The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies ¢ Inflexible work schedules leave little time The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies ¢ Inflexible work schedules leave little time to be involved in the family ¢ Some alternatives exist, but they are not widespread l more flexible work schedules (flextime) began to be instituted in Europe in the early 1960 s l Swedish workers are entitled to maternity and paternity leaves l Swedish women earn about 90% the wages men do for similar jobs; 86% of women with young children are in the workforce

The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies In 1993, the U. S. Congress enacted The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies In 1993, the U. S. Congress enacted the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which established a family leave policy l provides unpaid leave from employment for up to 12 weeks without loss of rank or position in the workplace in businesses with more than 50 employees l applies to both mothers and fathers as well as to nonpregnancy-related illnesses l unfortunately, 95% of businesses are exempt from the FMLA because they have fewer than 50 employees

The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies ¢ Mothers are more likely to take The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies ¢ Mothers are more likely to take a parental leave l l ¢ on average, about 3 months mothers who take shorter leaves are more likely to feel stress & symptoms of depression, show negative emotions toward their infants & spouses, and to have less interest in their infants The average length of leave for fathers was 6. 5 days, with 71% of fathers taking 5 or fewer days l fathers who took shorter leaves worked for employers who were did not have a positive reaction to the employee’s fatherhood, were less involved with their infants, and had less communication with their spouse about the infant

The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies ¢ Compared to other industrialized countries, the The Transition to Parenthood Parental Leave Policies ¢ Compared to other industrialized countries, the United States is not a nation that fully supports children & families ¢ With little opportunity to take time off from work l mothers cannot breast feed for as long as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (for 12 months) l mothers may choose drug-assisted childbirth or C-sections, even if they would have preferred a natural birth, to get back to work sooner

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care National Institute of Child Health and Human The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) study of early child care l l began in 1991 studied 1, 364 children nationwide 76% Caucasian Americans; 13% African Americans; 6% Hispanic Americans; 5% other minorities • from a wide range of income and education levels • Picture from: http: //www. solopop. com/daycare 2. jpg • using a wide variety of child care, including center child care, child care homes, and in-home care from relatives or nannies

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care NICHD study results l on average 33 The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care NICHD study results l on average 33 hours of nonmaternal care per week l most infants placed into care prior to 4 months l when they first entered care, half of the infants were with the father or grandparent, 20% were in child care homes, and 8% were in a child care center l mothers with higher incomes and those who had an economic need to work were most likely to place their children in child care l after the first year, there an increasing number of children in center care

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care The effects of child care depend on The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care The effects of child care depend on the quality of care l the quality of the family environment l Picture from www. tallaghtcreche. ie/our-rooms/baby-room. asp

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ High-quality child care l l ¢ The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ High-quality child care l l ¢ low ratios, trained caregivers, good facilities, etc. (Table 8. 3) better caregiving from staff Correlated with successful outcomes for children l children are more securely attached to their caregivers & their mothers and more competent with peers & with adults than are children in low-quality care l children score better on school readiness & on cognitive and linguistic abilities, have fewer behavior problems

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care The quality of the family environment l The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care The quality of the family environment l Children in high-quality child care under age 1 did better in school at 8 & 13 years than others, but this was partly due to the fact that children who entered child care early had two professional parents l An Israelian study found that preschoolers’ social competence & communicative skill were more related to positive parentchild interaction than to early child care experience l NICHD study: if mothers were depressed and/or not contingently responsive to children, childcare children had lower scores on social & cognitive tests, and had more behavior & attachment problems

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care Conclusions from research: l l for children The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care Conclusions from research: l l for children who come from supportive & loving families, placement in high-quality child care does not adversely affect development & may even enhance it child care after 12 months is not harmful & might be beneficial • child care infants are more cognitively & socially advanced and are more likely to show independence in compliance to rules • infants older than 12 months are able to adjust to repeated separations from their mothers

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care A number of research studies have reported The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care A number of research studies have reported that l infants are more likely to be insecurely attached when they have been in child care for at least 4 months before their first birthday (more than 20 hrs/week) l in early child care samples, the proportion of secure attachments across all studies is 57% (vs. 65 -75% in the U. S. on average) l the difference in security between early child care & home care infants is small but statistically significant

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ Most at risk for insecure attachments The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ Most at risk for insecure attachments are boys who l l are insecure-avoidant l ¢ are difficult and/or fussy have mothers who have strong career orientations, work full time, and express less anxiety about being separated from their infants In general, the quality of the mother-infant relationship is a stronger predictor of insecure attachments than the child care situation l insensitive mothering coupled with low-quality child care accounts for most of the reported insecurity of attachment

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ When the mother is insensitive, a The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ When the mother is insensitive, a high-quality child care experience can be beneficial l ¢ social and emotional competence in preschool is predicted by the security of attachment to the substitute caregiver and/or the quality of the early care, not by security of attachment to the mother This was found for infants in the U. S. and in Israeli kibbutzim in which the child’s primary attachment is with the metapelet

The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ Attachment l ¢ Under the age The Transition to Parenthood Nonparental Child Care ¢ Attachment l ¢ Under the age of 1 year, infants appear to be more sensitive to the effects of child care quality & the availability of attachment figures within the child care setting More hours in child care under age 1 is related to lower school readiness scores at age 5 l hours in child care after the age of 1 year is related to higher school readiness at age 5 Picture from: http: //www. babies-and-sign-language. com/images/daycare-communicate-eachother. jpg

The Transition to Parenthood Child Care Policy & Practice ¢ The U. S. is The Transition to Parenthood Child Care Policy & Practice ¢ The U. S. is one of the world’s wealthiest nations, but subsidizes child care for less than 10% of children under 6 years l ¢ compared to 100% in Sweden, 90% in France, and 50% in Israel and Hungary More than half of young children in the U. S. are in second-rate child care situations l substandard facilities, poor staff training, & high staff turnover l licensed child care facilities account for only 25% of out-ofhome care

The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants Interest and ability to care for babies The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants Interest and ability to care for babies l is present in young boys and girls l will continue in both if fostered by the environment

The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants ¢ In one study, l l ¢ The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants ¢ In one study, l l ¢ girls approached a baby more than did boys once the children were near the baby, both boys and girls spoke to, reached out for, and touched the baby equally In another study, l boys and girls approached babies equally l at 2 and 3 years, boys were more likely to approach male babies, girls were more likely to approach female babies

The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants Preschoolers’ speech to babies l both boy The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants Preschoolers’ speech to babies l both boy and girl preschoolers modify their speech to babies to make it sound more like motherese l most preschoolers rarely asked questions of the baby (question asking is a major form of adult speech to infants) l 25% of preschoolers used endearing terms toward the baby and asked soliciting questions (Are you hungry? Are you getting frustrated? )

The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants ¢ Girls aged 8 to 14 interact The Transition to Parenthood Nurturance Toward Infants ¢ Girls aged 8 to 14 interact more with babies and ignore them less than boys do l l ¢ boys and girls are equally physiologically aroused or unaroused by the sight of an infant differences in male vs. female interest in babies continue through high school but seem to vanish for college students & young adults Parents vs. nonparents l the most responsive group is usually new mothers l men’s child-rearing status does not affect their responsiveness to babies

The Transition to Parenthood: Mothers versus Fathers ¢ Mothers tend to be more accurate The Transition to Parenthood: Mothers versus Fathers ¢ Mothers tend to be more accurate in identifying the type of cry (pain, distress, etc. ) than fathers ¢ Both mothers and fathers can distinguish their own infant’s cry from cries of unfamiliar infants Picture from: http: //www. julienna. com/pictures/Dad%20 and%20 Baby%20 on%20 Slide. jpg

The Transition to Parenthood: Mothers versus Fathers ¢ Father-infant interaction l l l ¢ The Transition to Parenthood: Mothers versus Fathers ¢ Father-infant interaction l l l ¢ used to be less contingently responsive than mothers; but no differences were found in recent studies play and interaction are more directive & show abrupt changes of activity cultural differences in the amount of father involvement Mother-infant interaction l l games are quieter & depend more on the infant’s pace engage in more caregiving

The Transition to Parenthood Grandparents ¢ Grandparents of infants were more responsive to babies The Transition to Parenthood Grandparents ¢ Grandparents of infants were more responsive to babies than were parents of adolescents or of grown children l l ¢ grandmothers were more responsive than grandfathers were more responsive than men at other ages Grandmother-infant attachment at 1 year l when grandmothers spend much time with the baby, mothers & grandmothers are nearly interchangeable as attachment figures l the more time a grandmother spends with the baby, the more secure the attachment relationship

The Transition to Parenthood Grandparents ¢ In the 1990 s, mothers and grandmothers were The Transition to Parenthood Grandparents ¢ In the 1990 s, mothers and grandmothers were generally in agreement over beliefs l ¢ mothers were more accepting of messiness and nudity indoors, more relaxed about when to begin toilet training, and less rigid in differentiating sex roles in child play Some studies have shown that African-American grandmothers are more involved with their infant grandchildren than Caucasian-Americans l extended family is important in the reduction of family stress, esp. for low-income, teenage, and single mothers