- Количество слайдов: 21
Families, Friends & Communities: Strengthening prisoners’ and ex-offenders’ positive relationships Restorative Justice in Practice Sir Charles Pollard QPM Chairman, Restorative Solutions CIC Chief Constable, Thames Valley Police 1991 -2002 Board Member, Youth Justice Board 1998 – 2006
Agenda • What is Restorative Justice & Restorative Conferencing? • The Evidence – When & How Does RJ Work? • The RJ Applications
Myths about RJ • • • Only used with young people Only deals with minor crimes Resource intensive Soft option for offenders Already doing it
Anglo Saxon Justice
Modern Restorative Justice “Don’t steal the conflict” Nils Christie “Conflicts as Property” British Journal of Criminology January 1977, Volume 17 “Reintegrative shaming” John Braithwaite “Crime, Shame and Reintegration” Cambridge University Press 1989
Victim Benefits Having a voice & finding out what happened Material reparation Emotional restoration & apology Reduces their fear of crime Reduces desire for vengeance Reduces Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome Savings to Health Service & other public services
Govt RJ Trials 2001 -04 Restorative Conferences for serious/violent crime • 85% of victims satisfied • 72% would recommend RJ to others • 27% av reduction in frequency of re-offending • 33% less re-offending for those leaving prison • 55% less re-offending in community punishments • Reduced desire for violent revenge • 1 -for-1 return on investment within CJS • 9 -to-1 return on investment in reduced costs of crime
About the Process 1 Brings victims, offenders and their supporters together with a trained facilitator to: • Find out what happened • How people were affected • What can be done to make things better – Reach agreement on reparation either to victim or community or both • Provide opportunity for community reintegration
About The Process 2 • All must agree to attend • All must be carefully prepared • Risk assessed • Trained facilitator using scripted process • Reparation agreement must be supervised • Tell the community what happened
Applications of RJ • Neighbourhood Policing & Social Housing – tackling hotspots, anti-social behaviour, nuisance & community disputes more effectively • Integrated Offender Management (IOM) – tackling prolific & persistent offenders in prison or in the community, by engaging offenders & reducing reoffending • Youth Justice System – potential use in all interventions • Childrens’ Homes – improving behaviour & reducing police call -outs • Schools & Pupil Referral Units – improving behaviour, increasing attendance & reducing exclusions • Potentially whereever there is conflict!
Programme Vision • Give victims & communities a better service by tackling anti-social behaviour, nuisance & community disputes more effectively • Nipping it in the bud - reduce re-offending and repeat incidents • Use by police but others too – social landlords, care homes, schools, PRUs … • Hold PPOs to account on return to the locality • Involve community volunteers in delivering RJ & reparative interventions • Reduce demands on police resource • Create safer communities for everyone
New national target Supporting police to achieve national & local targets: • Increasing public confidence by 15% to 60% by 2012 • Satisfaction with services delivered - PSA 24 • Local concerns & perceptions about ASB – PSA 23 • Dealing with drunken & rowdy behaviour – PSA 25 • Reducing first time offenders in cjs – PSA 14 • Dealing with PPOs – PSA 23
Restorative Approaches • Instant Restorative Intervention – dealing with specific minor incivilities & ASB on the street that require action but not arrest • Restorative Conference – dealing with neighbourhood offenders & their victims, PPOs returning to the area • Community Conference – tackling major community concerns, hotspots & repeat incidents over ASB, local crime & incivilities
Instant Restorative Intervention: • Minor ASB & incivilities requiring action but not arrest • Offence admitted • Dealt with by trained officer through ‘instant RI’ on the street or by taking home • Recorded in pocket book • Cost-effective ‘nipping it in the bud’ • If aged 10 -17, these count as Youth Restorative Interventions (YRD) as per HO pilots (YRD to count as equivalent to s/detections)
Relative CJS Costs for Interventions or Court • Shop Theft or Criminal Damage o Arrest and Subsequent CJ Process - 19 hours 39 minutes o Street RJ - up to 1 hour • Street RJ saves 18 hours of police time !
Victim Satisfaction & Reducing Fear of Crime • 92% of public satisfied with restorative intervention, compared to 67% satisfied with conventional disposal • Before and after Before RI After RI Scared of Offender 18% 0% Felt safe 45% 73% !
Community Conference: • Major community concerns, hotspots & repeat incidents over ASB, local crime & incivilities • Involves offenders & perpetrators • Large (15 -40) meeting, high emotions managed & used positively, leading to outcome agreement (needs careful preparation & team facilitation) • Brings reduced crime & incidents, improved community satisfaction & big savings in police time • Can lead to further SDs
Lessons learned so far • Informed, sustained leadership & support from senior managers • Middle managers to lead implementation • Neighbourhood managers to manage delivery • Training in ‘instant’ RJ for NPTs and partner agency workers • Training in conferencing for RJ leaders • Building in-house capacity ‘Training the Trainers’ Nothing much happens without consistent, firm and inspired local leadership & management
- a National Project • Lancashire, Cheshire & Leicestershire • Met – 4 London Boroughs • North Wales, South Wales, Thames Valley, Avon & Somerset, West Midlands • Others using RJ (Norfolk & Devon/Cornwall) • Part of National Neighbourhood Policing Programme • Nat Police Improvement Agency, ACPO & Government Depts