Скачать презентацию Factors influencing the choice and implementation of methods Скачать презентацию Factors influencing the choice and implementation of methods

99cd68693d0213347657afcf50be15b2.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 40

Factors influencing the choice and implementation of methods and learning tools - Ethical Reflection Factors influencing the choice and implementation of methods and learning tools - Ethical Reflection and Moral Learning in ESD David Kronlid (1963 -) Dr Theology and Ethics Department of Teacher Education, UU (www. did. uu. se) Centre for Environment and Development Studies (www. cemus. uu. se) NTNU, Trondheim, Norway (www. ntnu. no) The Institute

Projects and Publications n n Sustainable Development – a Matter of Gender? (FRN 1998 Projects and Publications n n Sustainable Development – a Matter of Gender? (FRN 1998 -2000) Mobilities in Technological Space (NTNU 2003 -2006) Encounters with Nature (VR 20052007) Climate Capabilities (FORMAS 2008 -2010) 2007 -05 -22 n n n Ecofeminism and Environmental Ethics: an Analysis of Ecofeminist Ethical Theory (ACTA) Environmental Ethics in Praxis: 8 Cases from Swedish Environment and Development History (Only in Swedish) and Coming chapters in several research anthologies david. [email protected] uu. se 2

Today I would like to… 1. Clarify the importance of ethical theory and ethical Today I would like to… 1. Clarify the importance of ethical theory and ethical reflection in working with moral values in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 3

Factors 1. What does ESD Require? (SOU 2004: 104) n n Many multifaceted illustrations Factors 1. What does ESD Require? (SOU 2004: 104) n n Many multifaceted illustrations of economic, social and environmental conditions and processes should be dealt with in an integrated manner by using interdisciplinary working methods. Conflicting objectives and synergies between different needs and interests should be clarified. 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 4

Content should have a long-term perspective extending from the past to the future, from Content should have a long-term perspective extending from the past to the future, from the global to the local. n Democratic working methods should be used so that students can influence the design and content of educational programmes. n 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 5

n n n Learning should be reality-based with close and frequent contact with nature n n n Learning should be reality-based with close and frequent contact with nature and society. Learning should focus on problem solving and stimulate critical thinking and readiness to act. Both the process and the product of education are important. 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 6

Factors 2. Traditions of Environmental Education in the Swedish School Facts oriented environmental education Factors 2. Traditions of Environmental Education in the Swedish School Facts oriented environmental education Normative environmental education Education for Sustainable Development Objective: that the student will have knowledge of environmental crisis based on facts. Objective: that the student will actively develop environmentally friendly values based on scientifically founded arguments. Objective: that the student will develop his/her abilities to critically evaluate different perspectives on environment- and development issues. Vantage Points: Objectivist epistemology, the environmental crisis is a matter of knowledge Vantage Points: Constructivist epistemology, the environmental crisis a matter of right values, specific attitudes and lifestyles are normative. Vantage Points: Critical epistemology, a complex and conflict oriented perspective on the environment- and development crisis. 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 7

What is Environmental Ethics? n Systematic reflection on moral values, norms, attitudes, and reactions What is Environmental Ethics? n Systematic reflection on moral values, norms, attitudes, and reactions • • 1. 2. 3. 4. n n Ethics is not moral values, not policies, not rules of conduct etc. Ethics is a process, not only and foremost a product Scientific dimension Social and economic dimension Value and/or normative dimension Judicial dimension The third dimension of environment- and development issues (Stenmark, 2003) What is, from a perspective of a sustainable development (a) a rightful act, (b) a good person, (c) a just and fair society? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 8

Environmental Ethics n n Social ethics n Animal ethics n Nature ethics 2007 -05 Environmental Ethics n n Social ethics n Animal ethics n Nature ethics 2007 -05 -22 Environmental/ sustainability Ethics david. [email protected] uu. se 9

In the current environment- and development moral landscape… …the moral distances are diminishing n In the current environment- and development moral landscape… …the moral distances are diminishing n between generations n n n between places n n between species 2007 -05 -22 The moral values of sustainable development (Sthlm 1972, Brundtland) Global moral values (Fair Trade, Ethical consumption, Global Responsibility, etc. ) Nonanthropocentric values (Ethical veganism and vegetarianism, etc. ) david. [email protected] uu. se 10

How can we deal with these moral challenges in school in the context of How can we deal with these moral challenges in school in the context of what is expected from ESD? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 11

Our immediate reactions are often that we ought to n … teach the students Our immediate reactions are often that we ought to n … teach the students what we believe is the correct moral values, for example, that we should: • • Respect the elderly Take care of our family Be grateful for what is given to us Do unto others what we want others do unto us Take responsibility for future generations Not eat meat Eat meat Not buy clothes that are produced in shops where the workers are oppressed • Limit our greenhouse gas emissions, etc. 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 12

However, teaching values in ESD means to trust the power of critical and constructive However, teaching values in ESD means to trust the power of critical and constructive thinking and discussions in the classroom

Our informed reaction should be that we ought to n … help the students Our informed reaction should be that we ought to n … help the students reflect on the reasons for their own and other peoples environmental moral values; why do we believe that certain moral values are correct? What are the arguments? Are the arguments reasonable? • • Respect the elderly Take care of your family Be grateful for what is given to you Do unto others what you want them to do unto you Take responsibility for future generations Do not eat meat Eat meat Do not buy clothes that are produced in shops where the workers are oppressed 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 14

Teaching certain moral values as the correct ones… …is not ESD 2007 -05 -22 Teaching certain moral values as the correct ones… …is not ESD 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 15

So my message today is that n n The teacher should act ethically, With So my message today is that n n The teacher should act ethically, With the help of Practical Ethical Reflection (PER), In order to help the students to develop their moral capabilities, i. e. to argue, critically assess, and cope with moral dilemmas, and To know when to reflect and when to act… 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 16

In using practical ethical reflection 1. 2. 3. We will provide methods needed in In using practical ethical reflection 1. 2. 3. We will provide methods needed in order for the students to systematically and critically reflect on one’s own and other’s moral values We will take the student’s moral experiences and reactions into consideration in doing this, thus Establish a common personal yet not private language in which the ethical reflection can continue… 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 17

practical ethical reflection continued… 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. PER is case oriented PER practical ethical reflection continued… 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. PER is case oriented PER takes off in the student’s moral reactions from e. g. a movie, a newspaper article, a meal, clothes, using various didactic methods. PER will help the students to understand the basis for their own and other’s moral values PER helps the students to sort their moral values and reactions on the basis of ethical theory PER results in increased abilities to be engaged in ethical conversations and decide on certain moral issues and dilemmas 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 18

In sum… n PER is a teaching method that aims to • Respect the In sum… n PER is a teaching method that aims to • Respect the student’s moral outlooks • Provide the students with systematic ethical concepts; systematic researchbased ethical reflection • Foster morally mature individuals; not moral copy-cats 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 19

I can stop here… Questions? 2007 -05 -22 david. kronlid@did. uu. se 20 I can stop here… Questions? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 20

Ethical situations in School (Leif Östman, UU, Johan Öhman, ÖU) NORMS Moral Reactions Norms Ethical situations in School (Leif Östman, UU, Johan Öhman, ÖU) NORMS Moral Reactions Norms ETHICAL REFLECTION Ethical Reflections 2007 -05 -22 MORAL REACTIONS david. [email protected] uu. se 21

Break 30 min 2007 -05 -22 david. kronlid@did. uu. se 22 Break 30 min 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 22

So far… n n n Ethical reflection vs. moral values The value dimension of So far… n n n Ethical reflection vs. moral values The value dimension of ESD is about learning how to reflect ethically The moral landscape is getting crowded; temporal, spatial and species moral distances Teachers should be ethical rather than moral Case-oriented practical ethical reflection 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 23

What is so important about ethics? n Hypothesis 1: • The global ecological, social, What is so important about ethics? n Hypothesis 1: • The global ecological, social, and economical systems are breaking down… n Hypothesis 2: • Moral values and ideals are what drives humankind forward… n Hypothesis 3: • We need ethical skills…we need future adults who can be both critical and constructive… 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 24

Practical Ethical Reflection Case “We buy, who pays? ” 2007 -05 -22 Moral Reactions Practical Ethical Reflection Case “We buy, who pays? ” 2007 -05 -22 Moral Reactions Your moral reactions? Ethical Theory Eight aspects of “moral responsibility” david. [email protected] uu. se 25

Let’s watch a movie n n n ”We buy, who pays? ” A documentary Let’s watch a movie n n n ”We buy, who pays? ” A documentary about Western companies producing clothes and shoes in developing countries Factories in India 25 min. Pay attention to your own reactions concerning ”responsibility” 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 26

Spontaneous reactions? 2007 -05 -22 david. kronlid@did. uu. se 27 Spontaneous reactions? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 27

1. Holder of responsibility (Per Ariansen, 1 -7) n n Identify the actors in 1. Holder of responsibility (Per Ariansen, 1 -7) n n Identify the actors in the case Who of these actors are morally responsible? • Ex. work two and two or three and three • Appoint a secretary • Discuss in three minutes – make a list of actors 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 28

2. The foundation for responsibility? n What are the basis for holding the actors 2. The foundation for responsibility? n What are the basis for holding the actors morally responsible? Empathy, love, care Solidarity with the people/ workers The classroom • Ex. four corner exercise • Pick a corner – talk to a friend – discussion in full group 2007 -05 -22 Human rights principles david. [email protected] uu. se Other 29

3. Who can claim the actors to be responsible? n n Who claims or 3. Who can claim the actors to be responsible? n n Who claims or who can claim the actors to be responsible? Are there different ”responsibilityclaimers” for different actors? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 30

4. The objects of responsibility? n What or who is it that the actors 4. The objects of responsibility? n What or who is it that the actors are responsible for? • people, animals, plants, ecosystems, etc. ? n Ex. Line practice • Stand on the line • Talk to a friend about why you are standing at your spot • Discussion in full class People 2007 -05 -22 Animals plants ecosystems david. [email protected] uu. se 31

5. The condition of responsibility? n What conditions are the actors responsible for upholding 5. The condition of responsibility? n What conditions are the actors responsible for upholding or preventing for the object of responsibility? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 32

6. The area of responsibility? n What are the boundaries for the responsibility? Local 6. The area of responsibility? n What are the boundaries for the responsibility? Local responsibility National responsibility • Local-, national-, regional-, global boundaries? n n Different boundaries for different actors? Our moral embraceexcercise • • • Stand in the room Global dialogue responsibility Full group discussion 2007 -05 -22 Regional responsibility david. [email protected] uu. se 33

7. Responsibility actions? n n n What does it mean for the actors to 7. Responsibility actions? n n n What does it mean for the actors to take their responsibility? Is it possible to have responsibility without taking responsibility? If this is so, under what circumstances? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 34

8. What kind of responsibility are we talking about? n n n Judicial responsibility? 8. What kind of responsibility are we talking about? n n n Judicial responsibility? Moral responsibility? economical responsibility? … … … 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 35

The process of ethical reflection goes on… n n Summarise the discussion – a The process of ethical reflection goes on… n n Summarise the discussion – a map of responsibility Revise our values after the reflection – meta-reflection? Get back to the case – did we miss aspects of responsibility? How can we use these concepts, this reflection on other areas in ESD? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 36

The advantages with PER n n n n You need facts about the case The advantages with PER n n n n You need facts about the case Concrete and contextual environmental ethical reflection – not up in the abstract blue… Puts the student’s moral experiences and reactions in relation to ethical research, thus Creates a space for respectful, yet critical ethical dialogue , which Contributes to the moral development of the students A professional attitude on the dimension of values PER fits mono- and various types of crossdisciplinary ESD. 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 37

To summarize PER! n n Teachers should be ethical rather than moral, thus helping To summarize PER! n n Teachers should be ethical rather than moral, thus helping the student to develop skills for systematic, critical and constructive environmental ethical reflection, which Stimulates critical thinking, decisionmaking, develops the ability to take a stand in moral issues, and illuminates the relationships between moral values and sustainable development. 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 38

General Summary and Conclusions n n n Ethics is systematic reflection on moral vales General Summary and Conclusions n n n Ethics is systematic reflection on moral vales “Ethical” tendencies in school: (a) moral reactions, (b) norms, (c) ethical reflection Teaching ethics in ESD is a matter of trusting critical and constructive thinking 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 39

Questions? 2007 -05 -22 david. kronlid@did. uu. se 40 Questions? 2007 -05 -22 david. [email protected] uu. se 40