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Facilitation in CMDL Włodzimierz Sobkowiak School of English, AMU Leonardo da Vinci Project Final Facilitation in CMDL Włodzimierz Sobkowiak School of English, AMU Leonardo da Vinci Project Final Meeting, 28 June 2001

Is it an issue? n n n Internet search for facilitation + teaching + Is it an issue? n n n Internet search for facilitation + teaching + language yields 24, 900 hits Different senses: business meeting, speech therapy, formal instruction facilitating natural acquisition “The bent of technology based language learning puts the teacher in a new role: that of a facilitator” (Neufeld & Ravindran 1995) “ The online model consists of three key elements: [. . . ] the facilitator, the curriculum, and the technology” (Bedore 3 2000) “ The students and facilitator can be scattered around the globe” (Bedore 3 2000)

No definition in: Anderson, L. W. 1995. International encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education. No definition in: Anderson, L. W. 1995. International encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Brown, D. 1994. Principles of language learning and teaching [3 rd ed. ] Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice. Hall, Inc. Ellis, R. 1994. The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: OUP. Richards, J. Platt & H. Weber. 1985. Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. London: Longman.

Definition: Facilitation of learning is about: (Winberg 1997) n n focusing on what learners Definition: Facilitation of learning is about: (Winberg 1997) n n focusing on what learners want to learn going beyond the conventional teaching roles raising learners’ critical awareness being flexible Facilitators. . . (Brookefield 1986: 123 - 4). . . assist [learners] to attain a state of self-actualisation or to become fully functioning persons. . . suggest alternatives, point up contradictions, draw attention to relationships of dependence, or prompt painful critical scrutinies of assumptions, value frameworks, or behaviours. [to tutor-related facilitation] [to memento]

Facilitation in CMDL Computer-Mediated Distance Learning n n Context-related Tutor-related Course-related (Peer-related) Facilitation in CMDL Computer-Mediated Distance Learning n n Context-related Tutor-related Course-related (Peer-related)

Facilitation: context-related n n n conduct needs analysis create demand/need/motivation/trust ensure flexibility of access Facilitation: context-related n n n conduct needs analysis create demand/need/motivation/trust ensure flexibility of access (time- and place-wise) ensure affordability of access (money-wise) set up entry requirements and exit objectives ensure technical support (based on Harasim et al. 1995 & ADEC 1999)

Facilitation: tutor-related n n stimulate learner activity and cooperation offer attentive tutor feedback (small Facilitation: tutor-related n n stimulate learner activity and cooperation offer attentive tutor feedback (small group size) establish norms of participation (e. g. netiquette standards) act as facilitator [back to definition] (based on Harasim et al. 1995 & ADEC 1999)

Facilitation: course-related n n n n provide a variety of methods, techniques, media and Facilitation: course-related n n n n provide a variety of methods, techniques, media and resources provide structure (of course and interaction) enhance openness to areas beyond the course allow flexibility of use and learner customisation build in artificial intelligence (e. g. in error feedback) make navigation easy (guide, menu, search) polish the technology (both hard and soft) proof-read, proof-read (based on Harasim et al. 1995 & ADEC 1999)

Course-related facilitation in Ld. V MDEC n n strengths weaknesses Course-related facilitation in Ld. V MDEC n n strengths weaknesses

Course-related facilitation in Ld. V MDEC: strengths n n n variety of resources, tasks, Course-related facilitation in Ld. V MDEC: strengths n n n variety of resources, tasks, delivery methods, testing techniques, modes of interaction both knowledge-based and problem-based learning coherent and well-organised structure (lecture, BB, chat, calendar, etc. ) intuitive navigation (menus, icons, logical flow) good audio recordings

Course-related facilitation in Ld. V MDEC: weaknesses* n n n primum non nocere: orthographic, Course-related facilitation in Ld. V MDEC: weaknesses* n n n primum non nocere: orthographic, grammatical and factual errors (sloppy proof-reading) some courses completely encapsulated missing elements of structure: entry and exit material (e. g. info, diagnosis, certificate) little flexibility or customisation (e. g. no search facilities, strict linearity) rudimentary input check and error feedback software glitches [to conclusion] __________________ * “The trouble with most of us is that we would rather be ruined by praise than saved by criticism” (Norman V. Peale. 1996)

Software glitches >>Nie ma software’u bez bledow, trzeba jednak miec wyczucie kiedy mozna go Software glitches >>Nie ma software’u bez bledow, trzeba jednak miec wyczucie kiedy mozna go „puscic” do klienta<< ( in on-line Ld. V discussion on May 25 th 2001) There’s no software without bugs, but one must feel when it’s fit to be released to the client

Conclusion Facilitation (over)simplification because facilitation is. . . [back to definition] Conclusion Facilitation (over)simplification because facilitation is. . . [back to definition]

Memento We've got three offices next to one another, and our main means of Memento We've got three offices next to one another, and our main means of communication is e-mail and Instant Messages even though we could just speak to each other or bellow to each other in adjacent rooms. We prefer text as our main means of communication because. . well, not sure, really. I guess it allows us to multi-task, so to say, and we can deal with messages when we feel like it, rather than being interrupted in whatever we're doing at the time. Eric Baber, [email protected] CO. UK (on a discussion list)

Questions? Comments? Thank you sobkow@amu. edu. pl http: //elex. amu. edu. pl/~sobkow Questions? Comments? Thank you [email protected] edu. pl http: //elex. amu. edu. pl/~sobkow

Bibliography n n n n n ADEC. 1999. American Distance Education Consortium Guiding Principles Bibliography n n n n n ADEC. 1999. American Distance Education Consortium Guiding Principles for Distance Learning and Teaching. http: //www. adec. edu/ admin/papers/distanceteaching_principles. html. Bedore, G. , M. & G. Jr. 1998. Online education: the future is now. Phoenix, AZ: Socrates Distance Learning Technologies Group. Brookefield, S. D. 1986. Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Clarke, A. 2001. Assessing the quality of open and distance learning. : NIACE. Harasim, L. et al. 1995. Learning networks: a field guide to teaching and learning online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Neufeld, J. & R. Ravindran. 1995. "Implications of education technology for individualised language learning". http: //www. tp. ac. sg/content/lcdstuff/ papers/r&jstets. htm Peale, N. V. 1996. The power of positive thinking. Ballantine Books. Seneca College. Determining the suitability of distance learning courses. http: //cnt. senecac. on. ca/article 4. html Willis, B. 1993. Distance education: a practical guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Winberg, Ch. 1997. How to Teach Adults. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta & Company Ltd. [back]