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EXPERIENCES IN OUTCOME BASED ENGINEERING EDUCATION & ACCREDITATION IN MALAYSIA Azlan Abdul Aziz, Universiti EXPERIENCES IN OUTCOME BASED ENGINEERING EDUCATION & ACCREDITATION IN MALAYSIA Azlan Abdul Aziz, Universiti Putra Malaysia & Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor, Malaysia Japan Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia PEC 1‐Day Workshop, 23 February 2014 Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), Karachi 1

International Agreements / Networks EDUCATION PRACTICE WASHINGTON ACCORD SYDNEY ACCORD DUBLIN ACCORD 2 FEANI International Agreements / Networks EDUCATION PRACTICE WASHINGTON ACCORD SYDNEY ACCORD DUBLIN ACCORD 2 FEANI / EUR‐ACE / ENAEE (EUROPE) NABEEA (ASIA) UPADI (CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA) ENGINEERS MOBILITY FORUM APEC ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGISTS MOBILITY FORUM INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING ALLIANCE (IEA) / formerly INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING MEETING (IEM)

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS In Malaysia, Purpose of accreditation – graduates of accredited degree are able INTRODUCTORY REMARKS In Malaysia, Purpose of accreditation – graduates of accredited degree are able to register with the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC), a body delegated by BEM to conduct accreditation of engineering programmes. EAC has representatives from BEM, IEM, Malaysian Quality Authority (MQA) and Public Services Dept. (PSD) 3

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Focus of EAC Ensuring the expected engineering education level is maintained (breadth INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Focus of EAC Ensuring the expected engineering education level is maintained (breadth and depth) Outcome‐based engineering education (OBE) programme is practised Continual Quality improvement (CQI) on Programmes applied Quality Management System practised 4

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Accreditation History WA license due for renewal 2015. Expected visit by WA INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Accreditation History WA license due for renewal 2015. Expected visit by WA Reviewers as observers on accreditation exercise to Institutions of Higher Learning in late 2014/early 2015 Expectation 1999‐ 2005: 2006‐ 2012: 2013‐ 2019: 2020 Sufficient if IHL have OBE plans and infancy implementation Implement OBE in a systems approach. Full WA signatory 2009 Efficacy/ Efficiency/ Effectiveness of OBE systems OBE at IHL is de rigueur 5

ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Schedule a visit after application from IHL. 6 months before final exams ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Schedule a visit after application from IHL. 6 months before final exams of first graduating cohort. Accreditation Cycle: 5 years Provide Self Assessment Report (SAR) in accordance to criteria and as specified in manual. Accreditation Visit (2 days incl. nightly meetings), not limiting to: Meeting with prog. admin. , staff, students, alumni and employers; visit facilities and check documents. 6

ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE VISIT DAY Visit include (1) Opening Meeting: led by EAC evaluators & ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE VISIT DAY Visit include (1) Opening Meeting: led by EAC evaluators & followed by IHL ‘short’ presentation (2) Evaluation: Evidence‐based through interviews, checking documents and records, and observation (‘triangulation’) (3) Closing/Exit Meeting for clarification or correction of factual inaccuracies. No arguments nor solutions are requested. 7

ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Professionalism during Visit Day Short and concise briefing from both evaluators and ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Professionalism during Visit Day Short and concise briefing from both evaluators and IHL (Note: SAR is self‐explanatory and comprehensive). IHL should concentrate on what is NEW and focus on NICHE of programmes Organised Punctual – keep to provided and prepared schedule Courteous Not argumentative Well dressed Not over friendly. Be formal 8

ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Professionalism during Visit Day (Ctd…) Working lunch/teas in evaluation room among panel ACCREDITATION PROCEDURE Professionalism during Visit Day (Ctd…) Working lunch/teas in evaluation room among panel evaluators only Do not provide tokens/gifts to evaluators Provide name tags, signage, computer and printing facilities Ensure right persons/ guides available at the appointed time EAC Schedules Accreditation Decision Meeting in April, August and December every year. Submission deadline of SAR and planned visit by January 31 every year. 9

Students 3 Ps (Players, Process, Paper) PDCA Accreditation Criteria and Qualifying Requirements Staff Facilities Students 3 Ps (Players, Process, Paper) PDCA Accreditation Criteria and Qualifying Requirements Staff Facilities PEO & PO Curriculu m QMS 10

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Programme Objectives (PEO) and Programme Outcomes (PO) PEOs are specific goals consistent with the Programme Objectives (PEO) and Programme Outcomes (PO) PEOs are specific goals consistent with the vision & mission of IHL Published statements of PEO Clear linkages between PEO and PO Involvement of constituents/ stakeholders Expected to be achieved/analysed a few years after graduation (usually for about 5 years of employment) POs are statements that describe what students are expected to know and be able to perform or attain by the time of graduation 12

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW based on IEA WA (2012) (i) ability to acquire Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW based on IEA WA (2012) (i) ability to acquire and apply knowledge of science and engineering fundamentals; (i) Engineering Knowledge ‐ Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals and an engineering specialisation to the solution of complex engineering problems; (ii) acquire in‐depth technical competence in a specific engineering discipline; (ii) Problem Analysis ‐ Identify, formulate, research literature and analyse complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences; (iii) ability to undertake problem identification, formulation and solution; 13

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) (v) understanding of the principles of design for sustainable development; Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) (v) understanding of the principles of design for sustainable development; NEW (2012) (iii) Design/Development of Solutions ‐ Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems, components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for public health and safety, cultural, societal, and environmental considerations; 14

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) (iv) ability to utilise systems approach to design and evaluate Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) (iv) ability to utilise systems approach to design and evaluate operational performance; NEW (2012) (iv) Investigation ‐ Conduct investigation into complex problems using research based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of information to provide valid conclusions; 15

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (v) Modern Tool Usage ‐ Create, select and Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (v) Modern Tool Usage ‐ Create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modelling, to complex engineering activities, with an understanding of the limitations; 16

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (vi) understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities and Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (vi) understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities and commitment to them; (vi)The Engineer and Society ‐ Apply reasoning informed by contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to professional engineering practice; (ix) understanding of the social, cultural, global and environmental responsibilities of a professional engineer; and (vii) Environment and Sustainability ‐ Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable development; 17

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (vi) understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities and Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (vi) understanding of professional and ethical responsibilities and commitment to them; (viii) Ethics ‐ Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of engineering practice; (vii) ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers but also with the community at large; (ix)Communication ‐ Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions; 18

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (viii) ability to function effectively as an individual Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (viii) ability to function effectively as an individual and in a group with the capacity to be a leader or manager ; (x)Individual and Team Work – Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams and in multi‐disciplinary settings; (x) recognising the need to undertake life‐long learning, and possessing/acquiring the capacity to do so. (xi) Life-long Learning ‐ Recognise the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life‐ long learning in the broadest context of technological change. 19

Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (xii)Project Management and Finance Demonstrate knowledge and understanding Programme Outcomes OLD (2007) NEW (2012) (xii)Project Management and Finance Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments; 20

Depth of Knowledge Required Complex Problems (Engineer) Requires in-depth knowledge that allows a fundamentalsbased Depth of Knowledge Required Complex Problems (Engineer) Requires in-depth knowledge that allows a fundamentalsbased first principles analytical approach Broadly Defined Problems (Technologist) Well defined Problems (Technician) Requires knowledge of principles and applied procedures or methodologies Can be solved using limited theoretical knowledge, but normally requires extensive practical knowledge 21

Definition of Complex Problem Solving (IEA WA) The range of complex problem solving as Definition of Complex Problem Solving (IEA WA) The range of complex problem solving as required by the Programme Outcomes in Section 4. 0 is defined as follows: Attributes Complex Problems 1. Preamble Engineering problems which cannot be resolved without in‐depth engineering knowledge, much of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of the professional discipline, and have some or all of the following characteristics listed below: 2. Range of conflicting requirements Involve wide‐ranging or conflicting technical, engineering and other issues. 3. Depth of analysis required Have no obvious solution and require abstract thinking, originality in analysis to formulate suitable models. 22

Definition of Complex Problem Solving Attributes Complex Problems 4. Depth of knowledge required Requires Definition of Complex Problem Solving Attributes Complex Problems 4. Depth of knowledge required Requires research‐based knowledge much of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of the professional discipline and which allows a fundamentals‐based, first principles analytical approach. 5. Familiarity of issues Involve infrequently encountered issues 6. Extent of applicable codes Are outside problems encompassed by standards and codes of practice for professional engineering. 7. Extent of stakeholder involvement and level of conflicting requirements Involve diverse groups of stakeholders with widely varying needs. 23

Definition of Complex Problem Solving Attributes Complex Problems 8. Consequences Have significant consequences in Definition of Complex Problem Solving Attributes Complex Problems 8. Consequences Have significant consequences in a range of contexts. 9. Interdependence Are high level problems including many component parts or sub‐problems. 24

Definition of Complex Engineering Activities The range of complex engineering activities is defined as Definition of Complex Engineering Activities The range of complex engineering activities is defined as follows: Attributes Complex Activities 1. Preamble Complex activities means (engineering) activities or projects that have some or all of the following characteristics listed below: 2. Range of resources Involve the use of diverse resources (and for this purpose, resources include people, money, equipment, materials, information and technologies). 3. Level of interaction Require resolution of significant problems arising from interactions between wide ranging or conflicting technical, engineering or other issues. 25

Definition of Complex Engineering Activities Attributes Complex Activities 4. Innovation Involve creative use of Definition of Complex Engineering Activities Attributes Complex Activities 4. Innovation Involve creative use of engineering principles and research‐based knowledge in novel ways 5. Consequences to society and the environment Have significant consequences in a range of contexts, characterised by difficulty of prediction and mitigation. 6. Familiarity Can extend beyond previous experiences by applying principles‐based approaches. 26

Knowledge Profile (Curriculum) The curriculum shall encompass the knowledge profile as summarised in the Knowledge Profile (Curriculum) The curriculum shall encompass the knowledge profile as summarised in the table below: Knowledge Profile A systematic, theory‐based understanding of the natural sciences applicable to the discipline (e. g. calculus‐based physics) Conceptually‐based mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and formal aspects of computer and information science to support analysis and modelling applicable to the discipline A systematic, theory‐based formulation of engineering fundamentals required in the engineering discipline Engineering specialist knowledge that provides theoretical frameworks and bodies of knowledge for the accepted practice areas in the engineering discipline; much is at the forefront of the discipline Knowledge that supports engineering design in a practice area 27

Knowledge Profile (Curriculum) Knowledge Profile Knowledge of engineering practice (technology) in the practice areas Knowledge Profile (Curriculum) Knowledge Profile Knowledge of engineering practice (technology) in the practice areas in the engineering discipline Comprehension of the role of engineering in society and identified issues in engineering practice in the discipline: ethics and the professional responsibility of an engineer to public safety; the impacts of engineering activity: economic, social, cultural, environmental and sustainability Engagement with selected knowledge in the research literature of the discipline 28

Outcome Based Education OBE is a process that involves assessment and evaluation practices in Outcome Based Education OBE is a process that involves assessment and evaluation practices in education to reflect the attainment of expected learning outcomes and showing mastery in the programme area OBE in a Nutshell What do you want the students to have or able to do? How can you best help students achieve it? How will you know what they have achieved? How do you close the loop 29

Strategy of OBE Top down curricula design Appropriate Teaching & Learning Methods Appropriate Assessment Strategy of OBE Top down curricula design Appropriate Teaching & Learning Methods Appropriate Assessment & Evaluation Methods 30

Characteristics of OBE curricula It has programme objectives, programme outcomes, course learning outcomes and Characteristics of OBE curricula It has programme objectives, programme outcomes, course learning outcomes and performance indicators. It is centered around the needs of the students and the stakeholders. It is objective and outcome driven, where stated objective and outcomes can be assessed and evaluated. Suitable tools and methods are used to measure and evaluate attainment of the outcomes Results from evaluation are used for CQI 31

Institutional Mission Statement Stakeholders Interest Programme Objectives Programme Outcomes (Knowledge, skills, attitudes of graduates) Institutional Mission Statement Stakeholders Interest Programme Objectives Programme Outcomes (Knowledge, skills, attitudes of graduates) Outcome-Related Course Learning Objectives (Ability to: explain, calculate, derive, design) Assessment of Attainment Level Continual Improvement 32

Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge (list) Comprehension (explain) Application (calculate, solve, determine) Analysis (classify, predict, model, Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge (list) Comprehension (explain) Application (calculate, solve, determine) Analysis (classify, predict, model, derived) Synthesis (design, improve) Evaluation (judge, select, critique) 33

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lower order Intermediate Higher order 35 lower order Intermediate Higher order 35

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Learning Style Model Perception Input Modality Sensing Visual Processing Active Understanding Sequential Intuitive Verbal Learning Style Model Perception Input Modality Sensing Visual Processing Active Understanding Sequential Intuitive Verbal Reflective Global 37

Visual (Vs) Learners § “Show me” Verbal (Vb) Learners § “Explain it to me” Visual (Vs) Learners § “Show me” Verbal (Vb) Learners § “Explain it to me” - pictures - spoken words - diagrams - written words, symbols (seen, but translated by brain into their Oral equivalents) - sketches - schematics - flow charts - plots 38

Active (A) Learners Reflective (R) Learners 8 Tend to process actively (doing something physical Active (A) Learners Reflective (R) Learners 8 Tend to process actively (doing something physical with presented material, then reflecting on it) 8 Tend to process reflectively (thinking about presented material, then doing something with it) 8 Think out loud 8 Work introspectively 8 “let’s try it out and see how it goes” 8 “Let’s think it through and then try it” 8 Tend to jump in prematurely 8 Tend to delay starting 8 Like group work 8 Like solo or pair work 39

Sequential (Sq) Learners Global (G) Learners 2 Built understanding in logical 2 Absorb information Sequential (Sq) Learners Global (G) Learners 2 Built understanding in logical 2 Absorb information randomly, sequential steps then synthesize the big picture 2 Function with partial 2 Need the big pictures understanding of information (interrelations, connections to other subjects and personal experience) in order to function with information 2 Make steady progress 2 Large leaps in understanding with little progress between them 2 Explain easily 2 Can’t explain easily 2 Good at analytical thinking (the 2 Synthesis, holistic thinking (the trees) forest) 40

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Student-Centered Learning 42 Student-Centered Learning 42

ASSESSMENT: Processes that identify, collect, use and prepare data for evaluation of achievement of ASSESSMENT: Processes that identify, collect, use and prepare data for evaluation of achievement of programme outcomes or educational objectives. EVALUATION: Processes for interpretation of data and evidence from assessment practices that determine the program outcomes are achieved or result in actions to improve programme. 43

Course Coverage & Assessment When assessing, an instructor must consciously assess and evaluate the Course Coverage & Assessment When assessing, an instructor must consciously assess and evaluate the applicable elements (Knowledge, Skills, Attitude). An activity may be used to examine all the three elements Model A Model B Competencies Knowledge Skills Attitude 44

Course Outcomes (CO) Contribution to Programme Outcomes (PO) Life Long Learning Teach students about Course Outcomes (CO) Contribution to Programme Outcomes (PO) Life Long Learning Teach students about learning styles and help them identify the strength and weakness of their styles and give them strategies to improve Use active learning methods to accustom them to relying on themselves Give assignments that requires library and www searches Anything done to fulfil criteria on: (a) understanding ethical and professional responsibility and (b) understanding societal and global context of engineering solutions, will automatically satisfy this 45

Assessment/Evaluation tools Exit surveys, Exit interviews (P) Alumni surveys and interviews (P) Employer surveys Assessment/Evaluation tools Exit surveys, Exit interviews (P) Alumni surveys and interviews (P) Employer surveys and interviews (P) Job offers, starting salaries (relative to national benchmark) (P) Admission to graduate schools (P) Performance in group and internship assignments and in PBL situation (P, C) Assignments, report and tests in capstone design course (P, C) Standardized tests (P, C) P: Program C: Course 46

Assessment tools (cont) Student surveys, individual and focus group interviews (P, C) Peer-evaluations, self Assessment tools (cont) Student surveys, individual and focus group interviews (P, C) Peer-evaluations, self evaluations (P, C) Student portfolios (P, C) Behavioral observation (P, C) Written tests linked to learning objectives (C) Written project reports (C) Oral presentation, live or videotape (C) Research proposals, student-formulated problems (C) Classrooms assessment Techniques (C) 47

CONCLUDING REMARKS Since the introduction of OBE & OBA, many initiatives have been undertaken CONCLUDING REMARKS Since the introduction of OBE & OBA, many initiatives have been undertaken by M’sian IHL and other institutions: q Training by EAC/ My. SET/ IEM on OBE q Training by Higher Education Leadership Academy, AKEPT on active learning delivery methods: Problem Based Learning (PBL), Project Oriented PBL, Case Study Method, etc q Software development to ‘close the loop’ 48

THANK YOU 49 THANK YOU 49