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Experienced Emotion Izzard, 1977: Fig. 37. 1: To identify the emotions present from birth, she analyzed the facial expressions of infants, concluding that there are ten basic emotions (m 492 c f 12. 14 476). Tracey & Robins (2004) added pride as a distinct emotion, based on a change in body posture. (m 492 c 475) Fig. 37. 2: Emotions can be measured as variations of two dimensions: arousal and valence. (m 493 c f 12. 15 476) Anger has a genetic basis--fight or flight--but profound cultural variations. Cultures that value interdependence see anger as a threat to group harmony. In Western cultures, the catharsis hypothesis holds sway: the belief that releasing aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges. Geen & Quanty, 1977: this holds true only if the counter-attack appears justifiable, and the target is not intimidating. (m 494 c 477)
Happiness Mauss et. al. , 2011: Happy people live healthier, more energized and satisfied lives. (m 495 c 479) Diener, 2002: Happy U. S. college students in 1976, and then at age 37, had gone on to earn significantly more money than their less-than -happy peers. ((m 495 c 479) Salovey, 1990: The feel-good, do-good phenomeon: a moodboosting experience makes people more likely to exhibit helping behaviors. (m 495 c 479) This quantifies as subjective well-being: the ratio of positive to negative feelings. Fig. 37. 4: When psychologist David Watson (2000) sampled 4500 mood reports from 150 people, he found a pattern of variation from the average levels of positive and negative emotions. (m 496 c f 12. 17 480) Fig. 37. 7: Ever more money does not yield greater happiness; there is a diminishing returns phenomenon. (Diener, 2009 m 498 c 482).
Adaptation Levels The adaptation-level phenomenon describes our tendency to judge various stimuli in comparison with our past experiences. Feelings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, success and failure are judgments made on the basis of prior experience. This is balance by relative deprivation (Lyubomirsky, 2001 m 499 c 483)). Once people reach a moderate income level, further increases buy little more happiness, because they compare themselves with local peers above their income level. (Zell & Alicke, 2010 m 500 c 483). Table 37. 1: Happiness Summarized. (m 500 c t 12. 2 484) It has real-world effects: Fig. 37. 8 Declining experiences of well-being in Egypt and Tunisia led to revolts against the standing governments. (m 502 c f 12. 21 485)