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Exodus: the way out Exodus: the way out

Exodus Background u What is Exodus about? 5 things u Birth & Call of Exodus Background u What is Exodus about? 5 things u Birth & Call of Moses u Plagues of Egypt u Crossing of the Reed Sea u Tabernacle u Giving of the Law at Sinai

u Who wrote this stuff? – u Exod. 17: 14; u Exod. 24: 4, u Who wrote this stuff? – u Exod. 17: 14; u Exod. 24: 4, u Jesus says … Jn. 1: 17 u How is it viewed elsewhere in the Bible? Metaphor for deliverance, redemption

Exodus in the Prophets u Hos 11: 1: When Israel was a child, I Exodus in the Prophets u Hos 11: 1: When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt, I called my son. But the more I called Israel the further they went from me.

Exodus in Psalms u Great Hallel (Ps 114 -118) u When Israel came out Exodus in Psalms u Great Hallel (Ps 114 -118) u When Israel came out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of foreign tongue, Judah became God’s sanctuary, Israel his dominion. The sea looked and fled, the Jordan turned back; the mountains skipped like rams, the hills like lambs.

What is Egypt like? u Gift of the Nile u History u Old Kingdom: What is Egypt like? u Gift of the Nile u History u Old Kingdom: Pyramid age 2700 -2100 BC u First Intermediate Period: 2160 -1991 BC u Middle Kingdom: 1991 -1670 BC arts & literature u Second Hyksos u New Intermediate Period: 1670 -1568 BC: Kingdom: 1568 -1085 BC; Expansion to Euphrates

The Exodus The Exodus

Pharoah’s ways of dominating Jews u Taskmasters (Exod 1: 8 -14) u Midwives (Exod Pharoah’s ways of dominating Jews u Taskmasters (Exod 1: 8 -14) u Midwives (Exod 1: 15 -21) u Is it okay to lie sometimes? Ultruistic sinning u Does God bless liars? u Does this mean total relativism? u Throw them into the river u Moses—drawn out

Moses: Stages of life u Pharaoh’s daughter’s son (40 yrs) u Desert Shepherd in Moses: Stages of life u Pharaoh’s daughter’s son (40 yrs) u Desert Shepherd in Midian (40 yrs) u Deliverer (40 yrs) Leading in Desert

What was Moses relationship to God like? u Is it ever alright to resist What was Moses relationship to God like? u Is it ever alright to resist God’s will? u No fitness (Exod 3: 11)—I am with you u No message (Exod 3: 13)--YHWH u No belief (Exod 4: 1) –What’s in hand? u No gift of speech (Exod 4: 10)—Who made u Send someone else (Exod 4: 13)—Aaron, prophet? – 7: 1 f

Burning bush: angel or God? u Exod 3: 2 -6 u On holy ground Burning bush: angel or God? u Exod 3: 2 -6 u On holy ground & holy things

What does “I am” mean? u On names in ANE u Self-existant one: I What does “I am” mean? u On names in ANE u Self-existant one: I am what I am (need nothing) u Sovereignty view: I will be what I will be (you will see) u Covenant keeper: I am what I said I would be (what I promised to the patriarchs)

Exod 6: 3 contradicts Gen 49: 18? u Editors u. J = Jehovah writer Exod 6: 3 contradicts Gen 49: 18? u Editors u. J = Jehovah writer (ca 850 BC) u E = Elohim writer (ca 750 BC) u D = Deuteronomist writer (620 BC) u P = Priestly writer (ca 450 BC) u Simple to complex evolution

What is happening with Zipporah in Ex. 4: 24 -26 u Who did God What is happening with Zipporah in Ex. 4: 24 -26 u Who did God attack? u Why did God attack? u Similar stories: Jacob, Balaam

Circumcision of Gershom: 4 aproaches u B. S. Childs: Boy sick, boy circumcised, etiological Circumcision of Gershom: 4 aproaches u B. S. Childs: Boy sick, boy circumcised, etiological tale on importance of circumcision u Walter Kaiser: Moses sick [incapacitated]; boy circumcised obedience u Ross: Moses sick, boy circumcised, Zipporah (adolescent circumcision); she earlier refused neonate circumcision; she’s upset and leaves

When did Moses cross the Reed sea? u 1445 BC (Early date) – 1 When did Moses cross the Reed sea? u 1445 BC (Early date) – 1 Kgs 6: 1— 480 before Solomon; Jud. 11: 26— 300 years before Jephthah, Merneptah Stele— 1200 Israel in land, Amarna— 1400 BC correspondence u 1260 BC (Late date)—Rameses— 1200 BC, Burn levels (Lachish), 40 yrs. 20 yrs. Generation—shrink 480 yrs.

How many left Egypt? u Exod 12: 37; 38: 26; 600, 000 men u How many left Egypt? u Exod 12: 37; 38: 26; 600, 000 men u 600, 000 women u 1, 200, 000 children (+ cattle) u ---------------u 2, 400, 000 How much is this? water, food, wadis, mid-wives u Shrinking the number: eleph u How do you deal with stuff like this?

Plague Cycles: u 3 Reasons for Plagues: u Judgment on gods of Egypt (Exod Plague Cycles: u 3 Reasons for Plagues: u Judgment on gods of Egypt (Exod 12: 12) u That they/you may know that I am YHWH (Exod 7: 5, 17; 8: 22; 10: 2. . . ) u Lex talionis: Ex. 4: 23: My firstborn, therefore your firstborn

Does God harden people’s hearts? u Who hardened Pharaoh’s heart? u God hardened it Does God harden people’s hearts? u Who hardened Pharaoh’s heart? u God hardened it (Exod 4: 21; 7: 3) u Pharaoh hardened it (8: 15, 32; 9: 34 f)

10 Plagues Chart God’s Announcement God’s Instruction Execution Magicians Pharaoh Responds Moses & God 10 Plagues Chart God’s Announcement God’s Instruction Execution Magicians Pharaoh Responds Moses & God Pharaoh hardens Snake Blood Frogs Gnats Flies Boils Hail Locusts Dark Firstborn

Magicians transition u Opposition to Moses/Aaron u Finger of God—gnats—testimonies of victory of YHWH Magicians transition u Opposition to Moses/Aaron u Finger of God—gnats—testimonies of victory of YHWH -8: 19 u Separation of Goshen— 8: 22 f

First Passover u Events & meal (Exod. 12) u Passover Lamb—blood placement u Bitter First Passover u Events & meal (Exod. 12) u Passover Lamb—blood placement u Bitter herbs u Unleavened bread—leave in haste u Children participate— 12: 26; 13: 14 u NT: Lord’s supper—the lamb, bread and the cup—new Exodus

Where did Moses cross the Reed sea? u God leading Israel by pillar cloud/fire; Where did Moses cross the Reed sea? u God leading Israel by pillar cloud/fire; not through way of the Philistines-13: 21 u North u Middle -- Bitter Lakes/Timsah u Red Sea u Arabia? —Gulf of Aqaba u God as warrior: 14; 15: 3

The Exodus The Exodus

Sabbath? u Why do we keep 9 out of 10 commandments? u On Wisconsin Sabbath? u Why do we keep 9 out of 10 commandments? u On Wisconsin Roads

Sabbath Principles u Remembrance principle u Rhythm/cycles principle u Renunciation u Refreshment u Role Sabbath Principles u Remembrance principle u Rhythm/cycles principle u Renunciation u Refreshment u Role model u Re-evaluation

Tabernacle u Emmanuel concept: Ex. 25: 8 “Then have them make a sanctuary for Tabernacle u Emmanuel concept: Ex. 25: 8 “Then have them make a sanctuary for me, and I will dwell among them. ” u Drawing

Tabernacle 150 ‘ North 45’ 75’ 15’ Holy of Lamp Holies Altar of Incense Tabernacle 150 ‘ North 45’ 75’ 15’ Holy of Lamp Holies Altar of Incense Ark East Laver Table of Shew Bread of the Presence Altar of Burnt Off

On things in the ark u Ten Commandments u Aaron’s budding rod u Pot On things in the ark u Ten Commandments u Aaron’s budding rod u Pot of manna—What is it?

Exod 21: 22 f on fetus as human? u Woman injury -- punishment -- Exod 21: 22 f on fetus as human? u Woman injury -- punishment -- death u Premature birth -- no injury u Premature birth -- with injury -- pay fee u Implications for fetus as human? u Does intent have any effect? u Is the point here abortion?