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Executive Leadership in the United States The Basics of THE PRESIDENCY Executive Leadership in the United States The Basics of THE PRESIDENCY

Basics § Must be a Natural-born citizen § Must be 35 years of age Basics § Must be a Natural-born citizen § Must be 35 years of age – T. Roosevelt Youngest 42 then Kennedy 43 § Must be a 14 year resident of the U. S. § 12 th Amendment-election 1800 President/VP on same ticket § Four-Year term § 22 nd Amendment (1951) limits terms to two (2)

Continued § Vice Prez ascends if Prez leaves office – death, resignation, impeachment, temporary Continued § Vice Prez ascends if Prez leaves office – death, resignation, impeachment, temporary inability to govern – Presidential Succession Act (1967): succession after V. P. § Speaker of the House, President Pro Temp of Senate, Sec. of State – 25 Am. : Prez appoints V. P. if office becomes vacant § Senate approves § Good Benefits! – White House, Camp David, Air Force One, Helicopters, Cars, Health Care, Travel and Entertainment, Secret Service, Permanent 50% pension

Electoral College § Created by Article II of the constitution – Limiting power of Electoral College § Created by Article II of the constitution – Limiting power of “mobocracy” § Electors are chosen by State Legislatures (no law requiring they be cast the way of the popular vote) § Total of 538: # of Electors per state = 2 + # of members in House of Reps § 23 rd Amendment added 3 votes for D. C.

§ Vote of Electoral College mirrors the popular vote in the state as WINNERTAKE-ALL § Vote of Electoral College mirrors the popular vote in the state as WINNERTAKE-ALL (except in Maine and Nebraska – proportional) § Winner must get 270 (majority) § If no candidate gets 270, the House of Representatives decides The Prez

Problems with Electoral College § The distribution of Electoral College votes is not in Problems with Electoral College § The distribution of Electoral College votes is not in line with popular vote given the WINNER-TAKE-ALL system – Ex. a candidate could possibly get 49. 9% of the vote and not get even one (1) electoral vote (excluding Maine/Nebraska) § Electors are not bound by constitution or statute to vote the same way as the state’s popular vote

Historical Controversies § 1800 – Revolution of 1800 § 1824 – Andrew Jackson wins Historical Controversies § 1800 – Revolution of 1800 § 1824 – Andrew Jackson wins a plurality of popular and electoral votes – John Quincy Adams voted President by the House of Reps – The famous “corrupt bargain” between JQA and Henry Clay § 1876 – Hayes/Tilden § 1888 – Grover Cleveland wins a plurality of popular vote – Benjamin Harrison wins Electoral College vote

Problems Continued § 2000 – Albert Gore wins a plurality of popular vote – Problems Continued § 2000 – Albert Gore wins a plurality of popular vote – George W. Bush wins Electoral College vote § Extraordinary involvement of the Supreme Court

Should we keep the Electoral College? § “KEEP!” – Tradition! – People are no Should we keep the Electoral College? § “KEEP!” – Tradition! – People are no more “enlightened” today than in 1787 – Keeps candidates concerned with small states and rural populations because they need their state’s electoral votes (remember the map of 2000 votes by county? )

“ABANDON” § Unfair to win Popular Vote and lose election – Winner-take-all is unfair “ABANDON” § Unfair to win Popular Vote and lose election – Winner-take-all is unfair to minority vote – Virtually impossible for a 3 rd party candidate – “Only nation on Earth that does it this way!”

Roles of the President § Chief of State – Representative of the Nation – Roles of the President § Chief of State – Representative of the Nation – Symbol of America § Exaggerated § Cuts both ways! – Host to distinguished visitors and delegations

cont. § Chief Executive and Administrator – Enforce Laws – Head the Bureaucracy – cont. § Chief Executive and Administrator – Enforce Laws – Head the Bureaucracy – Execute enumerated powers – Presidential Signing Statements – Implement policy through Executive Orders § FDR – intern Japanese § HT – desegregate the armed forces

Continued – Impound funds § TJ – refuse to build new frigates for navy Continued – Impound funds § TJ – refuse to build new frigates for navy § RN – refuse to spend money on education – Solicit opinions from executive officials – Appoint major executive officials

– Grant pardons, reprieves, commutations, and amnesty – Emergency powers § Chief Legislator – – Grant pardons, reprieves, commutations, and amnesty – Emergency powers § Chief Legislator – Present the State of the Union – Recommend bills to Congress – Present the annual budget to Congress – Call special sessions of Congress – Power to veto bills

§ Commander-in-Chief – Civilian control of the army – Assign troops with Congressional declaration § Commander-in-Chief – Civilian control of the army – Assign troops with Congressional declaration of war § Field decisions delegated to military commanders – Send troops without formal declaration of war § Note: War Powers Act (1973)

§ Chief Diplomat – Make treaties with advice/consent of 2/3 of the Senate – § Chief Diplomat – Make treaties with advice/consent of 2/3 of the Senate – Recognize and Establish diplomatic relations with foreign nations – Receive foreign diplomats – Make Executive Agreements

§ Party Leader – Shape the party platform – Demand loyalty of party members § Party Leader – Shape the party platform – Demand loyalty of party members in Congress – Campaign for party’s candidates – Mobilize public opinion

Executive Office of the President § § § § Chief of Staff NSC Domestic Executive Office of the President § § § § Chief of Staff NSC Domestic Policy Council OMB Council of Economic Advisors U. S. Trade Representative Chief Council to the President Executive Privilege

Ranking the Presidents By the Wall Street Journal § GREATS-Lincoln, Washington, FDR § Near Ranking the Presidents By the Wall Street Journal § GREATS-Lincoln, Washington, FDR § Near Greats-Jefferson, Jackson, T. Roosevelt, Wilson, Truman § Average-Tyler, Taylor, Fillmore, Coolidge § Never Was-Pierce, Grant, Harding, Hoover, Nixon § G. W. Bush? ?

The President’s Speak § Jefferson- “Five more weeks will relieve me from a drudgery The President’s Speak § Jefferson- “Five more weeks will relieve me from a drudgery to which I am no longer equal. ” § Hoover- the presidency is “compound Hell. ” § Truman- I have to “go upstairs and go to work and contemplate the prison life of a president. ” § Kennedy- “If they want this job, _ _ ‘em They can have it, it’s no great joy to me. ”