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Examples of intercultural education from the Western Balkans The Institutional Foundations for Dialogue and Examples of intercultural education from the Western Balkans The Institutional Foundations for Dialogue and Respect Informal conference of European Ministers of Education Oslo, June 5 -6, 2008 Tünde Kovač-Cerović

Overview • Address 3 issues pertinent to intercultural education in the Western Balkans: – Overview • Address 3 issues pertinent to intercultural education in the Western Balkans: – Equitable enrolment – Quality of education – Levels of intervention • Use the case of Roma education as a common but difficult one (www. romaeducationfund. org) • Use successful examples of currently running program types which I saw, evaluated • Lessons learned, Questions suggested to address 2

Ethnic composition in the Western Balkans – Roma in all countries In all countries Ethnic composition in the Western Balkans – Roma in all countries In all countries minorities from neighboring countries + Roma Albanians Macedons Greeks Roma 100. 000 B&H Bosnians Croats Serbs Roma 30. 000 Croatia Croats Italians Hungarians Serbs Kosovo Albanians Serbs Roma 20. 000 Macedonians Albanians Roma 130. 000 MN Montenegrins Albanians Serbia Serbs Roma 30. 000 Turks Roma 20. 000 Hungarians Albanians Roma 450. 000 S/R/R/C

Multi-language instruction in all countries (e. g. Vojvodina): Instruction in basic education provided in Multi-language instruction in all countries (e. g. Vojvodina): Instruction in basic education provided in 6 languages (data 2007) Minority language instruction mostly in 2 language schools Optional language and culture courses offered in 6 languages (Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Ruthenian, Croat and Romanes)

Specific situation of Roma in all countries affects their education chances Admin constraints: • Specific situation of Roma in all countries affects their education chances Admin constraints: • schools not in vicinity of Roma settlements • transportation not provided • lack of identity/ registration papers Poverty constraints: • invisible costs of schooling not affordable for Roma families • lack of parental literacy to support education • parental unemployment Social & cultural constraints: • language barriers • fear of discrimination in schools • lack of prerequisite skills

Issue 1: Intercultural education and living together How to overcome effects of territorial segregation Issue 1: Intercultural education and living together How to overcome effects of territorial segregation on education chances?

Roma face patterns of multiple barriers Low achievement dropout No notification from pre/school Neighbor Roma face patterns of multiple barriers Low achievement dropout No notification from pre/school Neighbor hood preschool? Schools reluctant to accept Roma Overrepresentation in special schools Enrolment from settlement No enforcement of compulsory enrolment Lack of preparation for school Preschool started too late or not at all Lack of financial assistance Distributed funding – who’s responsibility?

Example 1: Facilitating enrolment of Roma children • Macedonia, local Roma NGO • Community Example 1: Facilitating enrolment of Roma children • Macedonia, local Roma NGO • Community work: – house to house data collection – parent informing and motivation – providing school equipment to children • Work with media: – reducing stereotypes, positive framing • Work with schools: – sharing database – ensuring placement of children in integrated classes • Similar project in Bosnia, Tuzla Canton and in many other places

Example 2: Preventing discrimination and segregation of Roma children • Serbia, Human rights Roma Example 2: Preventing discrimination and segregation of Roma children • Serbia, Human rights Roma NGO • NGO: – Monitoring discrimination & segregation – Training inspectors – Preventing placement to special schools (new type of testing, Roma person present) • NGO in cooperation with Mo. E: – Rulebook for inspectors – Negotiating school desegregation plans • International replication considered

Lessons learned • Distribution of housing is hindering the education of Roma • Additional Lessons learned • Distribution of housing is hindering the education of Roma • Additional support and community work needed • There are cases when territorial distribution would best be ignored and deliberately overcome for social outcomes to happen (Roma settlements in Medjimurje, Croatia, Roma settlement Konik in Montenegro, Sutto Orizari in Macedonia, etc. ) • Open questions: – Free choice of schools or neighborhood schooling? – What size of unit? How school catchment areas are/should be organised?

Issue 2: Quality of intercultural education • Intercultural education challenges dominant discourse on education Issue 2: Quality of intercultural education • Intercultural education challenges dominant discourse on education quality • Innovative actions & new concepts required

Key issue: Finding connections between input and process variables which maximize social outcomes and Key issue: Finding connections between input and process variables which maximize social outcomes and reduce group differences in performance input Affirmative action: Enrolment Equipment Teachers process outcomes social performance disagregated performance

Example 3: Scholarship and mentoring program for secondary education • Macedonia, int’l NGO • Example 3: Scholarship and mentoring program for secondary education • Macedonia, int’l NGO • Small stipends (all 1 st year Roma students, after 2 nd year merit based) • Mentoring for all Roma students • Dynamic monitoring of attendance and success, “freezing” scholarships in case of low indicators • Evaluation: – success rate, participation rate – parent motivation – cooperation at school level • Model replicated in other countries: Romania, Serbia (Vojvodina, NIP)

Example 4: Roma parents in school boards • Serbia, local NGO + community + Example 4: Roma parents in school boards • Serbia, local NGO + community + municipality + regional school authorities • Community: ensures election of Roma parents for school representation School: • – involvement of Roma parents in parent councils – school development plan includes their input • Municipality: involvement of parents in school boards • School authority: – endorsement – Guidebook – disseminating practice to other school authorities • NGO: preparing Roma parents for the new roles (training, coaching) • Non-Roma parents request similar training

Example 5: Teacher training and Roma assistants in schools • Bosnia, pilot, teacher training Example 5: Teacher training and Roma assistants in schools • Bosnia, pilot, teacher training NGO • Intense preparation of schools: – Training teachers in child centered methodology changing teachers’ expectations – Equipping schools – Hiring assistants • Community work and work with parents • School improvement, monitoring outcomes • New activities of school: second chance & adult education

Lessons learned: • Not easy: Action on input, process and outcome level needed • Lessons learned: • Not easy: Action on input, process and outcome level needed • Focus on outcome (both closing the performance gap and on social outcomes) requires changes at input and process level - integration of Roma in mainstream schools • Dilemmas of policy makers: what comes first - quality or integration

high quality segregated integrated low quality high quality segregated integrated low quality

Issue 3: Multiple levels of intervention - school or policy Issue 3: Multiple levels of intervention - school or policy

Example 6: Advancing education for Roma studies 2006/07 www. romaeducationfund. org For: • Bulgaria Example 6: Advancing education for Roma studies 2006/07 www. romaeducationfund. org For: • Bulgaria • Czech Republic • Hungary • Macedonia • Romania • Serbia • Slovakia • Croatia • BIH and Montenegro forthcoming Provides: • A lot of data on the education and Roma in each country • Basis for monitoring progress • Basis for comparative analysis • Inventory of policies currently used in the countries with regard of education of Roma

Old policies: Cumulated systemic barriers – felt at school level Special programms Discrimination Special Old policies: Cumulated systemic barriers – felt at school level Special programms Discrimination Special schools Culturally appropriate programms not monitored A, B, C classes Unqualified teachers (segregated classes) Curricula not recognizing Roma Segregated schools Non-conducive financing Early tracking Short VET schools No access to preschool (statutes) Lack of financial support Lack of AA

New policies: Chance for school level success AA in preschool Active Monitoring remedial classes New policies: Chance for school level success AA in preschool Active Monitoring remedial classes discrimination Cross-curricular Parent participation integration Teacher training Desegregation Disaggregated Stipends/mentoring outcome evaluation Roma teachers, Per capita coefficients inspectors Roma mediators

Typical traps in education policies concerning Roma: • The “minority cultural rights” trap – Typical traps in education policies concerning Roma: • The “minority cultural rights” trap – Assimilating into other minority policies • The “poverty” trap – Ignoring discrimination, providing assistance • The “vulnerable group” trap – Not recognizing resiliency, compensating for handicap instead of building on strengths • The “inclusion” trap – Fusion with special needs children • The “school-based-approach” trap – Creating Roma-magnet schools • The “parent involvement” trap – Expanding the role of school above realistic limits • The “quality education” trap – Ignoring integration

Multiple levels of actions required Framework, guidance, funds Curriculum, textbooks, teachers, evaluation Finances, management Multiple levels of actions required Framework, guidance, funds Curriculum, textbooks, teachers, evaluation Finances, management School network Maintenance Where the action is National level Municipal/regional level School level

Example 7: Roma education initiative • Montenegro, national program + school action • National Example 7: Roma education initiative • Montenegro, national program + school action • National framework: – – Co-funding Data collection Monitoring Legitimity • School action: – Roma assistants – Roma mediators connecting school and parents – Teacher training • Similar program in Croatia

Example 8: Preschool program • Serbia, national only - history of failure • New Example 8: Preschool program • Serbia, national only - history of failure • New design: – – community + municipality + preschool institution + Professional support institution • Roma coordinators: parent motivation • Teacher sensitization and coaching • Data/-base • Key factors of success: – preschool institutional capacity – cooperation of teachers, teacher model – municipal committment

Lessons learned • If levels disconnected: Commitment without system (school level) or system without Lessons learned • If levels disconnected: Commitment without system (school level) or system without commitment (national level) • If levels connected: Not easy: living with tensions, unconfortable for all parties • Needed at policy level: – Closer link between national and school policies – Closer link between research and schools – Closer connection of “Roma policies” to “education policies” – Clearer focus on equity in designing new education reform policies • Special look at the schools

Why is the school where the action is: Why is the school where the action is:

Place of human interaction: Teacher/student Student/student Teacher/teacher Teacher/parent Parent/parent Place of development of the Place of human interaction: Teacher/student Student/student Teacher/teacher Teacher/parent Parent/parent Place of development of the Self-concept: Self-regulation Self-efficacy Self-esteem Self-description/attribution Place of intimate social experience: – Learning – Deep understanding – Respect Place of creativity and innovation All depend on the quality of IA in school

Research shows that quality of interaction matters (a small reminder): Self-actualization Esthetic needs • Research shows that quality of interaction matters (a small reminder): Self-actualization Esthetic needs • Place of important barriers/enhancements: Knowledge and understanding Hierarchy of motives Respect • Students’ memories Belonging Expectations of teachers function as selffulfilling prophecies: Safety • Capacity development (Rosenthal & Jacobson) • Motivation (Pelletier & Vallerand) Physiological needs Academic self-expectation (Wigfield)

Schools need a conducive and rich context Resea rch Educa tion Devel opme ntal Schools need a conducive and rich context Resea rch Educa tion Devel opme ntal prioriti es

…and strong connections International instruments Research Education Develop ment Education system solutions in other …and strong connections International instruments Research Education Develop ment Education system solutions in other countries

Conclusions Multitude of success stories in all countries, at a variety of levels • Conclusions Multitude of success stories in all countries, at a variety of levels • Multicultural context is needed for intercultural education to happen, but it is not enough • Quality of intercultural education calls for new mechanisms and revisiting basic concepts • Novel ties between national, local and school policies and actions need to be fostered • Missing link: teacher and school leadership initial education for intercultural education But: • Be aware of “policy traps” • Be aware of, and change teachers’ expectations • Be aware of time: Delay in overcoming barriers increases the gap between Roma and non-Roma

2025 SCHOOL Personal benefits regulated textbooks teachers curriculum Equitable & financing management assessment evaluation 2025 SCHOOL Personal benefits regulated textbooks teachers curriculum Equitable & financing management assessment evaluation Interculturall Research y sensitive participatory accountable efficient Development Policies Social benefits

Thank you! Thank you!

Examples of intercultural education from the Western Balkans The Institutional Foundations for Dialogue and Examples of intercultural education from the Western Balkans The Institutional Foundations for Dialogue and Respect Informal conference of European Ministers of Education Oslo, June 5 -6, 2008 Tünde Kovač-Cerović