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Evolution of Information Technology Infrastructure BA 572 - Week 1 Evolution of Information Technology Infrastructure BA 572 - Week 1

Definitions u Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure: physical facilities, services and management that support computing Definitions u Information Technology (IT) Infrastructure: physical facilities, services and management that support computing resources n Information Technology l Hardware l Software l Database l Telecommunications n IT personnel & Networks

Definitions u Information Systems (IS) Architecture: the “plan” that aligns IT infrastructure with business Definitions u Information Systems (IS) Architecture: the “plan” that aligns IT infrastructure with business needs n Help people effectively fulfill their information needs n Note that the term “Information Architecture” is now being used to describe process of designing web sites

Performance Metrics “ROI” u How does IT add value? u What is purpose of Performance Metrics “ROI” u How does IT add value? u What is purpose of IT applications? n Automate n Facilitate/Informate n Enable

Adapted from Adapted from "Intranets and Middleware", HBR 397 -118.

Evolution of Information Technology Infrastructure Web Services Distributed db Client/Server db db db PC/LAN Evolution of Information Technology Infrastructure Web Services Distributed db Client/Server db db db PC/LAN Mainframe db db

Mainframe Data Processing Era u IT Infrastructure (host-centric processing) n Hardware: Mainframe with text-based Mainframe Data Processing Era u IT Infrastructure (host-centric processing) n Hardware: Mainframe with text-based terminals n Software: Independent functional applications l Served n Data one purpose Storage: independent “files” for each functional application n Telecommunications: Limited support of distributed operations n IT Personnel: technically oriented

Mainframe IS Architecture: Transaction Processing System (TPS) u Emerged n Collect, in the early Mainframe IS Architecture: Transaction Processing System (TPS) u Emerged n Collect, in the early days of IS store, and process transactions l Source n Perform documents are basis for input routine, repetitive tasks n Found in all functions of an organization n If they fail, the whole organization may suffer n Automate “highly structured” decision processes l Payroll

Mainframe IS Architecture: Management Information System (MIS) u Convert/use TPS data to support monitoring Mainframe IS Architecture: Management Information System (MIS) u Convert/use TPS data to support monitoring n Alert managers to problems or opportunities n Provide periodic and routine reports l e. g. , summary reports, exception reports, comparison reports n Provide structured information to support decision making l Resulted in “Information overload”

Mainframe IS Architecture: Centralized Corporate Structure Functional Transaction Processing System Management Information System Executive Mainframe IS Architecture: Centralized Corporate Structure Functional Transaction Processing System Management Information System Executive Managerial Purchasing Sales Inbound Raw Production Finished. Outbound Logistics Materials Goods Logistics Operational

PC/LAN Micro-Computing Era u IT Infrastructure (PC environment) n Hardware: PCs (low cost compared PC/LAN Micro-Computing Era u IT Infrastructure (PC environment) n Hardware: PCs (low cost compared to mainframe) n Software: Individual PC applications n Data storage: Individual files linked to apps n Telecommunications: low-speed LANs n IT Personnel: technically oriented & mainframe biased

PC/LAN db db IS Architecture: Decision Support Systems u Proliferation of desktop applications n PC/LAN db db IS Architecture: Decision Support Systems u Proliferation of desktop applications n Why? l TPS/MIS were not providing information needed to support decisions n “End-user” development l Undocumented n Proliferation spreadsheet models of localized data storage

PC/LAN IS Architecture Functional Transaction Processing System Management Information System Executive Desktop Decision Support PC/LAN IS Architecture Functional Transaction Processing System Management Information System Executive Desktop Decision Support System Managerial Purchasing Sales Inbound Raw Production Finished. Outbound Logistics Materials Goods Logistics Operational

Client/Server db Client/Server Era u IT Infrastructure (distributed computing environment) Hardware: PCs and Specialized Client/Server db Client/Server Era u IT Infrastructure (distributed computing environment) Hardware: PCs and Specialized Servers Software: Facilitating Data storage: Distributed Relational database and centralized warehouse n Telecommunications: high-speed LANs n Network: Client/Server n IT Personnel: technically skilled, business oriented n n n u Information n Systems architecture? Share applications and data within and across functional areas

Client/Server db u Facilitating Software Systems Office automation n IT for “office” employees l Client/Server db u Facilitating Software Systems Office automation n IT for “office” employees l Document tracking, communication, scheduling, etc.

Client/Server Facilitating Software Systems (cont’d) db n Decision Support Systems l Provide information to Client/Server Facilitating Software Systems (cont’d) db n Decision Support Systems l Provide information to support “semi-structured” decision making u Effectiveness n Expert focus Systems l Knowledge-base integrated with DSS l Most are “rule-based” systems that process facts, not numbers u Credit evaluation u Cisco/DELL tech support

Client/Server Database Approaches db u Centralized n All data in one location l Promotes Client/Server Database Approaches db u Centralized n All data in one location l Promotes maintenance and security l Subject to single point of failure

Distributed db db Database Approaches db u Distributed data management n Get data closer Distributed db db Database Approaches db u Distributed data management n Get data closer to applications n Replicated l Complete copies in multiple locations l Significant overhead n Partitioned l Each u Data location has portion of database management becomes an issue l Complex Concurrency Control

Distributed db db db Online Transaction Processing u Transactions used to interact with a Distributed db db db Online Transaction Processing u Transactions used to interact with a relational “client-server” database n For each transaction, OLTP typically deals with a small number of rows from the tables l The transactions are typically highly structured, repetitive and have predetermined outcomes l E. g. , orders, changing customer address, etc.

Client/Server Systems Functional Transaction Processing System Executive db Client/Server System Managerial db Purchasing db Client/Server Systems Functional Transaction Processing System Executive db Client/Server System Managerial db Purchasing db db Sales Inbound Raw Production Finished. Outbound Logistics Materials Goods Logistics Operational

Distributed Computing Middleware db db Network Era (Distributed Computing) u IT Infrastructure (distributed computing Distributed Computing Middleware db db Network Era (Distributed Computing) u IT Infrastructure (distributed computing environment) n Hardware: PCs and high-end Servers n Software: Enabling, enterprise-wide n Data storage: Distributed Relational Database n Telecommunications: high-speed WAN n Network: Middleware n IT Personnel: still technical, but business awareness

Distributed Computing Introduction of Middleware db db u Software that makes it possible for Distributed Computing Introduction of Middleware db db u Software that makes it possible for systems on different platforms to communicate with each other. n Allows applications to talk to each other l Consistent Application Program Interface (API) l Code application to talk to middleware, not underlying resources l Upgrade/modify underlying resources without needing to modify applications

Distributed Computing Middleware db db db u ORB db Object Request Broker (ORB) involves Distributed Computing Middleware db db db u ORB db Object Request Broker (ORB) involves synchronous communication and location/platform transparency. u ORB uses object-oriented programming methods.

Distributed Computing ORB (cont’d) Middleware db db db u ORB db architecture: ORB activate Distributed Computing ORB (cont’d) Middleware db db db u ORB db architecture: ORB activate service locate service establish connection Client Remote Service communicate

Distributed Computing File Sharing Middleware db db u Napster: ORB activate service locate service Distributed Computing File Sharing Middleware db db u Napster: ORB activate service locate service establish connection Request Stored Files communicate

Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Distributed Computing Middleware db db db u Kazaa: db Member Request Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Distributed Computing Middleware db db db u Kazaa: db Member Request Member Member

Distributed Computing Middleware db db db Advantages of ORB Middleware db u Anonymous interaction Distributed Computing Middleware db db db Advantages of ORB Middleware db u Anonymous interaction among applications n Integrate new client/server applications with existing legacy, mission-critical applications u Easier development environment n Reduce cost n Improve time-to-market of applications u Enables distributed data environment u Enables dynamic web applications

Distributed Computing Middleware db db u Switching n Disadvantages of ORB Middleware costs are Distributed Computing Middleware db db u Switching n Disadvantages of ORB Middleware costs are high Upgrade from previous “Middleware” solutions u Requires high technical expertise n Tend to outsource n Lengthy deployment time

Distributed Computing Middleware db db db Unresolved Issues with ORB db u Security u Distributed Computing Middleware db db db Unresolved Issues with ORB db u Security u Scalability n Related u Rapidly to network capacity changing technologies

Distributed Computing Middleware db db db DBMS Applications db u With advent of high-speed, Distributed Computing Middleware db db db DBMS Applications db u With advent of high-speed, distributed architectures, expanded our use of database beyond capturing and storing transaction data n Knowledge l Process Discovery of extracting useful knowledge from volumes of data l Supported by: u Massive data collection (Data Warehouse/Data Marts) u Multiprocessor computing u On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP)/Data mining

Distributed Computing Data Warehouse Middleware db db u Collection of data in support of Distributed Computing Data Warehouse Middleware db db u Collection of data in support of decision making process that is: Subject-oriented: organized by entity, not application n Integrated: stored in one place, even though it originated from a variety of sources n l Crosses functional boundaries of an organization Time-variant: represents a snapshot at one point in time n Nonvolatile: data is read-only n Typically very large n

Distributed Computing Middleware db db db Multidimensional Database db u. OLTP not good when Distributed Computing Middleware db db db Multidimensional Database db u. OLTP not good when doing analysis of data – poor performance u OLAP – on-line analytical processing

“Slice and Dice” an OLAP Cube “Slice and Dice” an OLAP Cube

Distributed Computing Advantages of OLAP Middleware db db u All hierarchical or aggregated values Distributed Computing Advantages of OLAP Middleware db db u All hierarchical or aggregated values can be pre-calculated in the cube rather than accessing the Warehouse n Major u Each n Not reduction in query time cube makes “business sense” normalized data structures

Distributed Computing Middleware db db db u Data Multidimensional Database (cont’d) db marts n Distributed Computing Middleware db db db u Data Multidimensional Database (cont’d) db marts n Scaled-down version of a data warehouse that focuses on a specific area l e. g. , a department, a business process

Distributed Computing Massive Data Analysis Middleware db db db u Data db mining n Distributed Computing Massive Data Analysis Middleware db db db u Data db mining n Provides a means to extract patterns and relationships l Example: Analyze sales data to identify products that may be attractive to a customer u Amazon. com n Two buyer suggestions capabilities l Automated prediction of trends and behaviors l Automated discovery of previously unknown patterns n Example: Shopping cart analysis

Distributed Computing Network Enabling Software Middleware db db Supply Chain Management Enterprise Wide Systems Distributed Computing Network Enabling Software Middleware db db Supply Chain Management Enterprise Wide Systems Supplier Customer Relationship Management Enterprise Wide Systems Customer

Internet Era u IT Infrastructure (Web-enabled) n Hardware: Low-end PC with Browser, high-end Servers Internet Era u IT Infrastructure (Web-enabled) n Hardware: Low-end PC with Browser, high-end Servers n Software: Web extensions n Database: Distributed Relational n Network: Use IP-based standards n Telecommunications: broadband n IT Personnel: Business analysts, technical specialties

Business use of the Internet: Electronic Commerce u B 2 C: Internet u B Business use of the Internet: Electronic Commerce u B 2 C: Internet u B 2 B: Extranet u B 2 E: Intranet Individual Internet u E-business: n Subset of e-commerce n Transactions between business partners Enterprise Intranet Extranet Supplier/ Customer

Web-based Solutions u Early attempts to incorporate WWW into inter -organizational systems u Static, Web-based Solutions u Early attempts to incorporate WWW into inter -organizational systems u Static, state-less web pages n Complicated navigation n Not “connected” to underlying data l Page not dynamically updated when data changes

Web Services db db db u Standards Hurdles for web services are evolving, not Web Services db db db u Standards Hurdles for web services are evolving, not set u Security u Web services do not 'solve' interoperability between applications n Hence – need ERP