Скачать презентацию Evolution of contemporary diplomacy A brief evolution Скачать презентацию Evolution of contemporary diplomacy A brief evolution

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Evolution of contemporary diplomacy Evolution of contemporary diplomacy

A brief evolution of CD Permanent residents, 15 -17 cnt. Diplomatic structure (embassies, MFA), A brief evolution of CD Permanent residents, 15 -17 cnt. Diplomatic structure (embassies, MFA), 17 -18 cnt. Old diplomacy and its congress system, 19 cnt. Global Diplomacy, 20 cnt. Open Multilateral Diplomacy, 20 -21 cnt

The beginnings of the Contemporary Diplomacy are to send a permanent ambassador during the The beginnings of the Contemporary Diplomacy are to send a permanent ambassador during the peaceful times. I) 15 -17 th centuries: The contemporary diplomacy was started in Northern Italy during the fifteenth century and spread to the rest of northern and western Europe in the following hundred years. >> WHY? The system of cities as independent states – Venice, Milan, Florence, Naples; The strongest trade ties; Сultural development was higher than in the rest European states; The threat of war from France

The Sources of the Contemporary Diplomacy. I) 15 -17 th centuries: Italians introduced one The Sources of the Contemporary Diplomacy. I) 15 -17 th centuries: Italians introduced one of the modern methods of diplomacy is the resident (permanent) ambassador: representative of a man sent him>> fragmentation phenomenon secretary was available; Salary was absent >> rich + elite family roots Embassies were not available Security was not provided till 18 th century Three types of ambassadors: Special envoy, ad hoc, resident

I) 15 -17 th Some specific characteristics of the 15 -18 th diplomacy transferred I) 15 -17 th Some specific characteristics of the 15 -18 th diplomacy transferred to today’s diplomacy: The duties of ambassadors – to get domestic info. and transfer it to the native state through diplomatic reports; Secrecy Central and provincial diplomacies (Europe is center, Poland (Rzeczpospolita), Russia, Turkey and Muslims were defined as a province) Idea of the symbolism – to demonstrate something (influence, money)>> Ceremony (a mode of behavior) became today’s protocol: is to demonstrate the definite intentions of a boss (a city, church, state) >>

I) 15 -17 th Precedence in diplomatic protocol was and is a priority smb. I) 15 -17 th Precedence in diplomatic protocol was and is a priority smb. over smb. for ambassadors in a country, precedence is determined by the order in which they presented their credentials to the host government. who is more influential in diplomatic corps? A Russian diplomat or English diplomat? ? ? >> doyen, dean A struggle between diplomats >> an idea of equality was likely to be articulated at the end of 30 years war, 1648

The Sources of the Contemporary Diplomacy II) 17 -18 th centuries Permanent diplomatic embassies The Sources of the Contemporary Diplomacy II) 17 -18 th centuries Permanent diplomatic embassies New development of the diplomatic net: Europe, Poland, Russia and Ottoman Empire >> The development of Ministries (Department, Offices and etc) of Foreign Affairs in Europe: France – in the 17 th: State secretary; archives; regional departments; Russia – College of Foreign Ministry from 1620 es: regional divisions, domestic issues

II) 17 -18 th centuries Development of diplomatic theory: France – the source of II) 17 -18 th centuries Development of diplomatic theory: France – the source of negotiations by Testament Politique by Richelieu, 1638 + “How to negotiate with kings…” by F. Callier, 1740 s Idea of negotiations as a basis for diplomacy Training of diplomats: practice as attaches; 1712 -Political Academy

The Sources of the Contemporary Diplomacy III) Old diplomacy and its congress system, 1815 The Sources of the Contemporary Diplomacy III) Old diplomacy and its congress system, 1815 -1914 Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, France, Russia. Admitted equality instead of precedence among themselves after wars – 1757 -1763, 1801 -1815 Vienna congress, Oct. 1814 -June 1815 Meetings (planned, private) to prevent the wars, revolutions and so on in the peacetime. The central powers singed an agreement that “. . they was going to live and act in Europe in accord or harmony. . . ” European concert – a planned summits, conference to implement international relations in Europe Holly Alliance as a mechanism of army interventions to prevent revolutions = UN peacekeeping operations? ? ? Congress system is private ties among kings and officials: Alexander I, Metternich, Castlereagh

Alexander I and Metternich Holly Alliance Alexander I and Metternich Holly Alliance

III) congress system It produced: 1) New development of diplomatic structures: -1802 - Ministry III) congress system It produced: 1) New development of diplomatic structures: -1802 - Ministry of Foreign Affairs with career diplomats -1819 – German foreign service on Wilhemstrasse with career diplomats 1853 – French Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Quai d’Orsay building with strong patronage system 1854 – British Foreign Service with strong patronage system 2) First diplomatic law (Vienna convention, 1815) -rank of diplomats (ambassador, envoy, minister, agents and chargers d’affairs)

III) congress system • 3) functions of diplomats will be transferred in Diplomatic Law, III) congress system • 3) functions of diplomats will be transferred in Diplomatic Law, 1961, 1963 to cultivate friendly relations to negotiate on daily questions; to clear the intentions of powers to accumulate information to give policy advise

Old diplomacy and beginnings of the global diplomacy IV) 19 -20 th centuries Global Old diplomacy and beginnings of the global diplomacy IV) 19 -20 th centuries Global diplomacy: Japan (1867, 1905) and US (1898) became engaged in European relations + European states arranged diplomatic missions in Africa and Asia and clash of cultures Commercial consuls are to promote the trade interests: 1880 – Great Britain; Otto Von Bismarck and tariffs’ war with Russia 1880 es; Military attaches are to provide a native government with data concerning the developments in arms The number of military attaches is an index of prewar situation and tension

IV) 19 -20 th centuries: circulation of Mass-media and the “end” of the Old IV) 19 -20 th centuries: circulation of Mass-media and the “end” of the Old Diplomacy • Public opinion was defined by diplomats as the influential tool of politics • Press-services + analyzing public opinion abroad within the MFA: – French MFA created the first Press-service in 1886; – Russian MFA analyzed much more than others foreign mass media – Bribes for journalists – The first published diplomatic documents – The first interview of diplomats by journalists only in the end of 19 th cnt.

IV) how the traditional diplomacy was undermined: Soviet Russia, Germany, United States 1) Lenin IV) how the traditional diplomacy was undermined: Soviet Russia, Germany, United States 1) Lenin opened for public all MFA archives Compilation of Secret Documents from the Archive of the former Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (Editor -Nikolai Markin) 2) Germany: Berliner Tageblatter, since January 1918. Grosse Politik - contained diplomatic correspondence between the German and other European states relative to the beginning of the First World War. These actions can be compared with the doings of Wikileaks The public saw its absence in high politics

IV) how the traditional diplomacy was undermined: Soviet Russia, Germany, United States 3) W. IV) how the traditional diplomacy was undermined: Soviet Russia, Germany, United States 3) W. Wilson’s the 14 Points articulated by him on the Paris Peace Conference: “Open conferences, after which there shall no private international understanding of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view” These ideas were determined not only by Wilson’s idealism and by new aims of American global diplomacy but also by the disclosures happened in Europe

NEW diplomacy came as an Open Diplomacy (International Organizations implied participation a public) • NEW diplomacy came as an Open Diplomacy (International Organizations implied participation a public) • League of Nations (1919 -1946): – The aim of creation was to solve the conflicts by peaceful tools – The main misfortune was “. . To solve conflicts by peacefully, if conflicting sides submit jointly a request for resolving a conflict. . . ”

NEW diplomacy • Efficiency of League of Nation on diplomacy: – A precedent of NEW diplomacy • Efficiency of League of Nation on diplomacy: – A precedent of multilateral diplomacy >> UN – Openness of diplomacy – International Arbitration, Tribunal and Mediation are the tools of diplomacy – Frequent Conferences, summits became a diplomatic tools to react rapidly on a conflicts >> – Preventive diplomacy and collective security diplomacy – a system of alliances to prevent the aggressive intentions of actors – However >> • League of Nations created a deviant diplomacy as a tool not implement agreements and promises: – Hitler and European countries before the 2 WW

United Nations: new diplomacy? 1945 – establishment based on the ideas of necessity to United Nations: new diplomacy? 1945 – establishment based on the ideas of necessity to apply a super power by the combined forces to keep the peace. Cooperation (that means “common interests) through collective actions Force of powerful states (UN Security Council) and diplomacy will lead to peace >> Charter VI – “Pacific settlement of disputes” and Charter VII – “Actions with respects of Threats…” implies the application of armed force for self-defense and international enforcement action

New diplomacy: what kinds of methods were created for today – Mediation – is New diplomacy: what kinds of methods were created for today – Mediation – is a methods to stop a conflict on the different stages (US as a mediator in Israel-Palestine conflict) through pressure, talks, sanctions – Preventive diplomacy is to find a compromise in the period of pre-conflict situation – Collective security diplomacy – a system of alliances to prevent the aggressive intentions of actors (Hitler and Europe, Iran and world) >> – Peacekeeping operations as the next step in today diplomacy

 • Opinion (often) – MD and UN are destabilizing the world, because – • Opinion (often) – MD and UN are destabilizing the world, because – 1) the states do not try to resolve a conflict themselves – 2)UN is used by powerful states to promote their resolutions – 3) Mediators, observation missions are only harmful, because they contribute to maintain the rival positions by the conflicting sides

Old and NEW diplomacy: what kind of diplomatic methods did they create? -permanent resident Old and NEW diplomacy: what kind of diplomatic methods did they create? -permanent resident (ambassador) as a bilateral diplomacy -negotiations, system of congresses - multilateral diplomacy as a tool to prevent, to mediate - Idea about collective security became the main strategy of contemporary alliances

Reading materials: how to find • http: //ushistory. ru/diplomacy. zip • Download the files Reading materials: how to find • http: //ushistory. ru/diplomacy. zip • Download the files

homework • Read files # 1, 2, 3, 4 (the only big load for homework • Read files # 1, 2, 3, 4 (the only big load for you) • These files are chapters from: Hamilton K. , and Langhorne Richard. The Practice of Diplomacy. London, N. Y. , 1995 • Test (four questions) will be 2 of October