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Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play 1 Evolution A Short Biography of Life a play 1

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Age of the universe: 13. 72 ± 0. 12 billion years Age of solar Age of the universe: 13. 72 ± 0. 12 billion years Age of solar system: 4. 54 ± 0. 45 billion years Age of earth: ~4 billion years Age of life: ~3. 5 billion years Age of eukaryotes: ~1. 8 billion years Age of multicellulars: ~1. 2 billion years Age of chordates: 500 -550 million years Age of mammals: ~240 million years Age of placentals: ~130 million years Age of primates: ~60 million years Age of apes: ~30 million years Age of genus Homo: ~2. 5 million years Age of Homo sapiens: ~150, 000 years Written history: ~5, 000 years 4

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Antonio Snider-Pellegrini. 1858. La Création et ses mystères dévoilés ( Antonio Snider-Pellegrini. 1858. La Création et ses mystères dévoilés ("Creation and its Mysteries Unveiled") 8

Bullard’s fit (by computer) Edward Bullard E, Everett JE, Smith AG. 1965. The fit Bullard’s fit (by computer) Edward Bullard E, Everett JE, Smith AG. 1965. The fit of the continents 9 around the Atlantic. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 258 A: 41 -51.

Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880 -1930) Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane [The origin of Alfred Lothar Wegener (1880 -1930) Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane [The origin of continents and oceans], 1915. 10

Continental drift 11 Continental drift 11

Paleontological Evidence 12 Paleontological Evidence 12

plants don’t swim! 13 plants don’t swim! 13

slow process 14 slow process 14

separartions 15 separartions 15

collisions 16 collisions 16

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94 million years ago to present 29 94 million years ago to present 29

Present to 250 million years into the future 30 Present to 250 million years into the future 30

Do not buy waterfront real estate in Texas! 31 Do not buy waterfront real estate in Texas! 31

Magnetic north pole 32 Magnetic north pole 32

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Estimated Numbers of Described Extant Species (Lecointre and Guyader 2001)* ______________________________________________ Taxon Common Name Estimated Numbers of Described Extant Species (Lecointre and Guyader 2001)* ______________________________________________ Taxon Common Name Number of described species Percentage of total (%) ______________________________________________ Bacteria true bacteria 9021 0. 5 Archaea archaebacteria 259 0. 01 Bryophyta mosses 15000 0. 9 Lycopodiophyta clubmosses 1275 0. 07 Filicophyta ferns 9500 0. 5 Coniferophyta conifers 601 0. 03 Magnoliophyta flowering plants 233885 13. 4 Fungi fungi 100800 5. 8 "Porifera" sponges 10000 0. 6 Cnidaria cnidarians 9000 0. 5 Rotifera rotifers 1800 0. 1 Platyhelminthes flatworms 13780 0. 8 Mollusca mollusks 117495 6. 7 Annelida annelid worms 14360 0. 8 Nematoda nematodes 20000 1. 1 Arachnida arachnids 74445 4. 3 Crustacea crustaceans 38839 2. 2 Insecta insects 827875 47. 4 Echinodermata echinoderms 6000 0. 3 Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes 846 0. 05 Actinopterygii ray-finned bony fishes 23712 1. 4 Lissamphibians 4975 0. 3 Mammalia mammals 4496 0. 3 Chelonia turtles 290 0. 02 Squamata lizards and snakes 6850 0. 4 34 Aves birds 9672 0. 6 Other 193075 11. 0

About right… Vertebrates 50, 841 Flowering Plants 233, 885 35 About right… Vertebrates 50, 841 Flowering Plants 233, 885 35

Slight underestimates… Arthropods 941, 159 Fungi 100, 800 ~3, 000 -30, 000 species 36 Slight underestimates… Arthropods 941, 159 Fungi 100, 800 ~3, 000 -30, 000 species 36

Huge underestimates… Bacteria Archaea 9, 021 259 ? 37 Huge underestimates… Bacteria Archaea 9, 021 259 ? 37

Total number of described species: 1, 747, 851 Estimated range of total number of Total number of described species: 1, 747, 851 Estimated range of total number of species in the world: Erwin TL. 1982. Tropical forests: Their 117, 700, 000 3, 600, 000 to richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. The Coleopterist Bulletin 36(1): 74 -75. Lecointre G & Le Guyader H. 2001. Classification phylogenetique du vivant. Belin: Paris. Cracraft C. 2002. The seven great questions of systematic biology: an essential foundation for conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 127 -144. 38

“There are knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known “There are knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there also unknowns. There are things we don't know. ” Donald Rumsfeld 39

~30% of all animals are beetles There is a story, possibly apocryphal, of the ~30% of all animals are beetles There is a story, possibly apocryphal, of the distinguished British biologist, J. B. S. Haldane, who found himself in the company of a group of theologians. On being asked what one could conclude as to the nature of the Creator from a study of his creation, Haldane is said to have answered, “An inordinate fondness for beetles. ” Hutchinson, G. E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia or Why are there so many kinds of animals? Am. Nat. 93: 145 -159. 40

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Allocation of money and scientific effort in the study of eukaryotes 42 Allocation of money and scientific effort in the study of eukaryotes 42

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Background Extinctions 44 Background Extinctions 44

Mass Extinctions 45 Mass Extinctions 45

K/T event 46 K/T event 46

K/T event 47 K/T event 47

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iodicity? Per 50 iodicity? Per 50

Controversy: Do mass extinctions exhibit a periodicity of 25 -32 million years? 51 Controversy: Do mass extinctions exhibit a periodicity of 25 -32 million years? 51

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GPC-3 = name of a sample sediment core 53 GPC-3 = name of a sample sediment core 53

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Controversy: Is the cause of mass extinctions always extraterrestrial? 55 Controversy: Is the cause of mass extinctions always extraterrestrial? 55

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Acceleration of extinction rates? Unit = extinctions per million species per year (E/MSY) 1500 Acceleration of extinction rates? Unit = extinctions per million species per year (E/MSY) 1500 -1900 25 E/MSY 1900 -2000 50 -150 E/MSY 2000 -2006 1500 E/MSY Pimm S, Raven P, Peterson A, Sekercioglu ÇH & Ehrlich PR. 2006. Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 10941 -10946. 57