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Evidence-Based Education Preventing Reading Failure in America Presentation to the American Psychological Association G. Evidence-Based Education Preventing Reading Failure in America Presentation to the American Psychological Association G. Reid Lyon, Ph. D. President and CEO Synergistic Education Solutions Dallas, Texas learning 4 [email protected] rr. com

Reading Failure An Educational and a Public Health Problem Reading Proficiency is Critical to Reading Failure An Educational and a Public Health Problem Reading Proficiency is Critical to Academic Learning and Success in School (Lyon, 1998; 2002, 2003, 2004; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998) The Ability to Read Proficiently is Significantly Related to Quality of Life and Health Outcomes (Lyon, 1997; Lyon & Chhabra, 2004; Thompson, 2001)

Percent of 4 th Grade Students Performing Below Basic Level - 37% White 27 Percent of 4 th Grade Students Performing Below Basic Level - 37% White 27 Black 63 Hispanic 58 Poor 60 Non-poor 26 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Performing Below the Basic Reading Level National Center for Educational Statistics, 2003

Research Questions • How do children develop language abilities? • How do children develop Research Questions • How do children develop language abilities? • How do children develop social competencies? • How can we foster children’s emotional health? • How do children learn to read? • Why do some children have difficulties learning to read? • How can we prevent reading difficulties? • How can we remediate reading difficulties? 4

The Scientific Investment • Number of Research Sites: 44 • Children and Adults Studied: The Scientific Investment • Number of Research Sites: 44 • Children and Adults Studied: 48, 000 • Proficient Readers: 22, 000 • At-Risk/Struggling Readers 26, 000 • Average Years Studied/Followed: 9 • Max Longitudinal Span to Date: 24 • Current Prevention/Intervention Trials 12 • 266 • Classrooms Currently Participating: 5 Schools Currently Participating: 985 • Classroom Teachers Participating: 1, 012

NIH-NICHD Multidisciplinary Research Program (North America; Lyon, 1985 -2005) Children’s Hospital/ Harvard LDRC Waber NIH-NICHD Multidisciplinary Research Program (North America; Lyon, 1985 -2005) Children’s Hospital/ Harvard LDRC Waber U of Washington Berninger U of Massachusetts Rayner Toronto Lovett Mayo Clinic Kalusic Tufts Wolf Emerson College Aram Beth Israel Galaburda Yale Shaywitz Syracuse U Blachman Stanford Reiss U of Southern California Manis/Seidenberg Univ of California – Irvine Filipek San Francisco Herron U of Michigan SUNY Albany Morrison U of Wisconsin Vellutino Johnson-Glenburg Carnegie-Mellon Northwestern Boy’s Town Rutgers U U Smith Scarboro. Booth ugh Purdue U Colorado Duke U Hynd LDRC Goldston U of Defries Kansas Missouri U of Louisville Shumaker Geary Molfese Colorado Moats U of California – San Diego, Salk Institute Bellugi U of Arkansas – Med Ctr Dykman Yale Methodology Fletcher 6 U of Texas Vaughn Johns Hopkins Denckla D. C. /Houston Forman/Moats Georgetown U Eden Gallaudet U La. Sasso U of Georgia Stahl U of Houston Francis U of Texas – Med Ctr Foorman/Fletcher NICHD Sites Georgia State R. Morris Bowman Gray Wood Haskins Labs Fowler/ Liberman Florida State Torgesen/Wagner Univ of Florida Alexander/Conway

Some Reasons Why Reading Instruction Has Not Been Helpful • Untested Theories and Assumptions Some Reasons Why Reading Instruction Has Not Been Helpful • Untested Theories and Assumptions Regarding Reading Development and Instruction • Romantic Beliefs About Learning and Teaching • Fads • Appeals to “So Called” Authority

Our Youngest Citizens Will Surprise Us • Infants, Toddlers, and preschoolers can learn more Our Youngest Citizens Will Surprise Us • Infants, Toddlers, and preschoolers can learn more than we ever thought possible • From birth to age 3 the brains of children are rapidly forming connections between neural cells • The quality and degree of connections between neural cells are established through the quality of interactions the child has with adults, other children, and the environment • Infants before the age of 6 months can perceive and express all sounds of all languages spoken on the planet 8

P. Kuhl, U. Washington 9 P. Kuhl, U. Washington 9

10 P. Kuhl, U. Washington 10 P. Kuhl, U. Washington

Our Youngest Citizens Will Surprise Us • Depending on the environment, vocabulary development accelerates Our Youngest Citizens Will Surprise Us • Depending on the environment, vocabulary development accelerates rapidly during the second year of life. • Under the right circumstances, most 18 month olds (on average) learn 9 new words a day, every day, throughout the preschool years • By 3 years of age the child can speak in full sentences 11

Learning Begins Early 12 P. Kuhl, U. Washington Learning Begins Early 12 P. Kuhl, U. Washington

The Role of the Environment and Early Experience on Language Development • Language development The Role of the Environment and Early Experience on Language Development • Language development requires an interplay between genes, biology, and environmental factors • Poverty and disadvantage reduce the quantity and quality of interactions with language • Limited language interactions in the home environment place children at severe risk for school failure, particularly in reading • Cultural influences every aspect of human development and must be considered in the design and implementation of any program 13

Environmental Influences • By kindergarten a child from disadvantage typically has twice the vocabulary Environmental Influences • By kindergarten a child from disadvantage typically has twice the vocabulary as a youngster born into poverty • The typical 5 -year-old from an urban environment and disadvantaged home enters kindergarten at the 5 th percentile in vocabulary • By age 16 advantaged children have four times the vocabulary as children born into poverty 14

Major Sources of Reading Failure • Socioeconomic Factors – Poverty • Biological Factors – Major Sources of Reading Failure • Socioeconomic Factors – Poverty • Biological Factors – Genetics and Neurobiology • Instructional Factors – Predominate

What Do Kids Need to Know to Read? A HECK OF A LOT 16 What Do Kids Need to Know to Read? A HECK OF A LOT 16

In 1995, the U. S. Department of Education and the National Institutes of Health In 1995, the U. S. Department of Education and the National Institutes of Health National Academy of Sciences Report from the National Research Council 1998 17

In 1997, United States Congress National Institute of Child Health and Human Development & In 1997, United States Congress National Institute of Child Health and Human Development & U. S. Department of Education Report of the National Reading Panel 18

How Do Children Learn to Read? 19 Hart and Risley, 1995 How Do Children Learn to Read? 19 Hart and Risley, 1995

How Do Children Learn to Read? The Influence of Early Language and Literacy Experiences How Do Children Learn to Read? The Influence of Early Language and Literacy Experiences Differences in exposure to words over one year can predict substantial difficulties in oral language and reading development: • Children in Professional Families – 11 million • Children in Working-class Families – 6 million • Children in Welfare Families – 3 million

Mean Number of Interactions Initiated per Hour 50 Mean Number of Minutes per Interaction Mean Number of Interactions Initiated per Hour 50 Mean Number of Minutes per Interaction per Hour 50 Professional 40 30 40 Welfare 29 20 Working -class 42 Professional 33 Working -class 30 28. 5 20 Welfare 26 18 10 10 0 0 Hart and Risley, 1995

Cumulative Language Experiences Cumulative Words Spoken to Child (in millions) 50 48 Professional 40 Cumulative Language Experiences Cumulative Words Spoken to Child (in millions) 50 48 Professional 40 30 Working-class 30 20 12 10 0 12 Welfare 7. 5 3 0 12 24 Age of Child (in months) 36 48 Hart and Risley, 1995

Reading Age Level The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth 16 Reading Age Level The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth 16 High Oral Language in Kindergarten 15 14 5. 2 years difference 13 12 11 Low Oral Language in Kindergarten 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Chronological Age 13 14 15 16 Hirsch, 1996

How Do Children Learn to Read? Phonological and Phonemic Awareness How Do Children Learn to Read? Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

What is Phonological Awareness? What is Phonological Awareness?

How Do Children Learn to Read? Phonological Awareness • Phonological awareness involves the understanding How Do Children Learn to Read? Phonological Awareness • Phonological awareness involves the understanding that spoken words are composed of segments of sound smaller than a syllable. • It also involves the ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual sounds in words.

How Do Children Learn to Read? 7 7 Reading Grade Level 6 5. 9 How Do Children Learn to Read? 7 7 Reading Grade Level 6 5. 9 6 5 5 4 5. 7 4 3 2. 3 3. 5 3 2 1 K 2 Average Low Average 1 Low K 1 2 3 4 Grade Level Corresponding to Age 5 1 2 3 4 Grade Level Corresponding to Age Growth in “phonics” ability Growth in word reading ability of children who begin 1 st grade in the bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness and Letter Knowledge 5 Knowledge Torgesen & Mathes, 2000

Growth in Reading Comprehension of Children Who Begin 1 st Grade in the Bottom Growth in Reading Comprehension of Children Who Begin 1 st Grade in the Bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness and Letter Knowledge 7 6. 9 Reading Grade Level 6 5 4 3 2 Average 1 Low K 1 2 3 4 5 Grade Level Corresponding to Age Torgesen & Mathes, 2000

How Do Children Learn to Read? PHONICS Oh My Gosh – The F word How Do Children Learn to Read? PHONICS Oh My Gosh – The F word 29

What is “Phonics”? It is a kind of knowledge Which letters are used to What is “Phonics”? It is a kind of knowledge Which letters are used to represent which phonemes It is a kind of skill Pronounce this word… blit fratchet

How Do Children Learn to Read? FLUENCY A common definition of reading fluency: “Fluency How Do Children Learn to Read? FLUENCY A common definition of reading fluency: “Fluency is the ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression” National Reading Panel 31

The Most Common Method of Measuring Reading Fluency in the Early Elementary Grades: Measuring The Most Common Method of Measuring Reading Fluency in the Early Elementary Grades: Measuring the number of words per minute a child can read accurately

Fluency • There is a strong relationship between how fast you read and how Fluency • There is a strong relationship between how fast you read and how well you comprehend • Fluent and automatic reading frees up “cognitive space” so that conscious attention can be devoted to textual meaning • If decoding and word recognition are slow and labored, material will be forgotten before it is understood • The most powerful way to increase reading fluency is through reading and reading (see NRP) 33

Fundamental Discoveries About How Children Learn to Read The challenge of continuing growth in Fundamental Discoveries About How Children Learn to Read The challenge of continuing growth in fluency becomes even greater after 3 rd grade. 4 th, 5 th, and 6 th graders encounter about 10, 000 words they have never seen before in print during a year’s worth of reading. Furthermore, each of these “new” words occurs only about 10 times in a year’s worth of reading. Sadly, its very difficult to correctly guess the identity of these “new words” just from the context of the passage. Torgesen, 2001 -2006

How Do Children Learn To Read? VOCABULARY How Do Children Learn To Read? VOCABULARY

Vocabulary You Can’t Read Without Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary • Relationship between Vocabulary Score Vocabulary You Can’t Read Without Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary • Relationship between Vocabulary Score (PPVT) measures in Kindergarten and later reading comprehension: • Grade 1 - . 45 • Grade 4 -. 62 • 36 Grade 7 -. 69

Vocabulary: You Can’t Read Without It • The “ fourth grade reading slump” reflects Vocabulary: You Can’t Read Without It • The “ fourth grade reading slump” reflects a language gap as much as a reading gap – Why? • Reading tests (e. g. , NAEP) in 4 th grade are primarily measures of reading comprehension • It is impossible to comprehend what is read without the vocabulary relevant to what is being read 37

Vocabulary: You Can’t Read Without It • Reading comprehension, at a minimum, depends on Vocabulary: You Can’t Read Without It • Reading comprehension, at a minimum, depends on decoding/word recognition accuracy and fluency, VOCABULARY, AND BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE • A student must be able to read correctly approximately 95 percent of the words accurately in text to comprehend what is read • MOREOVER, to comprehend, a student must know the meanings of 90 to 95 percent of the words being read • The unknown 5 to 10 percent can be inferred from text 38

What Do Kids Need To Know To Read For Meaning? Accurate and fluent word What Do Kids Need To Know To Read For Meaning? Accurate and fluent word reading skills Oral language skills (vocabulary, linguistic comprehension) Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down. Reasoning and inferential skills Motivation to understand interest in task and materials Torgesen, 2000

Life Experience Content Knowledge Oral Language Skills Activation of Prior Knowledge of Language Structures Life Experience Content Knowledge Oral Language Skills Activation of Prior Knowledge of Language Structures Language Vocabulary Knowledge about Texts Cultural Influences Reading Comprehension Knowledge Fluency Motivation & Engagement Active Reading Strategies Monitoring Strategies Metacognition Prosody Automaticity / Rate Accuracy Fix-Up Strategies Decoding Florida Reading Initiative Phonemic Awareness

Why Do Some Children Have Difficulty? • Deficient Word Level Reading Skills • Deficits Why Do Some Children Have Difficulty? • Deficient Word Level Reading Skills • Deficits in Fluency/Automaticity • Limitations In Vocabulary • Limitations in Background Knowledge • Limited Reading Comprehension Strategy Use 41

Early Intervention is Clearly Effective Prevention studies commonly show that 7090% of at risk Early Intervention is Clearly Effective Prevention studies commonly show that 7090% of at risk children (bottom 20%) in K- 2 can learn to read in average range

Early Intervention is Possible • Risk characteristics present in Preschool, Kindergarten and G 1 Early Intervention is Possible • Risk characteristics present in Preschool, Kindergarten and G 1 • Print awareness, Letter knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language development, vocabulary, background knowledge • Assess all children and INTERVENE 43

Outcomes from 67. 5 Hours of Intensive Li. PSTM Intervention Standard Score 100 96 Outcomes from 67. 5 Hours of Intensive Li. PSTM Intervention Standard Score 100 96 91 89 90 30% 86 83 80 75 74 70 73 68 Word Attack Text Reading Accuracy Reading Comprehension 71 Text Reading Rate Torgesen, 2003

How Can We Prevent and Remediate Reading Failure? Evidence from one school that we How Can We Prevent and Remediate Reading Failure? Evidence from one school that we can do substantially better than ever before: • Elements of Curriculum Change: – Movement to a comprehensive reading curriculum beginning in 1994 -1995 school year (incomplete implementation) for K-2 – Improved implementation in 1995 -1996 • Implementation in Fall of 1996 of screening and more intensive small group instruction for at-risk students

Hartsfield Elementary School Progress Over Five Years 40 Proportion falling below the 25 th Hartsfield Elementary School Progress Over Five Years 40 Proportion falling below the 25 th percentile in word reading ability at the end of 1 st grade 31. 8 30 20. 4 20 Screening at beginning of 1 st grade, with extra instruction for those in bottom 30 -40% 10 1995 1996 Torgesen, Alexander et al. , 2001

Hartsfield Elementary Progress Over Five Years 40 Proportion falling below the 25 th percentile Hartsfield Elementary Progress Over Five Years 40 Proportion falling below the 25 th percentile in word reading ability at the end of first grade 30 Screening at beginning of first grade, with extra instruction for those in bottom 30 -40% 31. 8 20. 4 20 10. 9 10 6. 7 3. 7 1995 Average Percentile for entire grade (n=105) 1996 1997 1998 1999 48. 9 55. 2 61. 4 73. 5 81. 7 King & Torgesen (in press)

Proactive Intervention • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics, with emphasis on fluency. • Integrates Proactive Intervention • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics, with emphasis on fluency. • Integrates decoding, fluency, and comprehension strategies. • 100% decodable text • Carefully constructed scope and sequence designed to prevent possible confusions. • Every activity taught to 100% mastery everyday. 48 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, et al, 2005

Responsive Intervention • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics and in analogy phonics • Teaches Responsive Intervention • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics and in analogy phonics • Teaches decoding, using the alphabetic principle, fluency, and comprehension strategies in the context of reading and writing • No pre-determined scope and sequence • Teachers respond to student needs as they are observed. • 49 Leveled text not phonetically decodable Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al, 2005

50 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, et al, 2005 50 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher, et al, 2005

51 Mathes et a. , 2005 51 Mathes et a. , 2005

52 Mathes et al. , 2005 52 Mathes et al. , 2005

53 Mathes, et al. , 2005 53 Mathes, et al. , 2005

54 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al 54 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al

55 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al 55 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al

56 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al 56 Mathes, Denton, Fletcher et al

Evidence-Based Assessment and Instruction Interventions are more effective when they: • Provide systematic and Evidence-Based Assessment and Instruction Interventions are more effective when they: • Provide systematic and explicit instruction • Provide a significant increase in intensity of instruction • Provide ample opportunities for guided practice of new skills • Provide systematic teaching of appropriate learning strategies • Provide appropriate levels of scaffolding as students learn to apply new skills 57

How Effective Instructional Strategies Improve Student Achievement Strategy Number of Studies Examined Effect Size How Effective Instructional Strategies Improve Student Achievement Strategy Number of Studies Examined Effect Size Percentile Gain Individualization 630 0. 14 16 Application 111 0. 34 13 Computer-assisted instruction 566 0. 31 15 Tutoring 125 0. 50 19 Mastery learning 104 0. 50 19 Instructional media 4421 0. 30 12 Good & Brophy, 1986; Hattie, 1992 ; Lyon, Fletcher, Fuchs, & Chhabra, 2005; Marzanno, 2003; 58

What Science tells us about Effective Instruction 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 What Science tells us about Effective Instruction 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 Percentage Point Gains 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 16% 13% 15% 19% 12% Individualization Mastery Learning Application 59 Computerized Instruction Tutoring Instructional Media Marzano, 2003

Characteristics Of Effective Schools • Evidence-Based Curriculum • Continuous Evaluation and Accountability • Challenging Characteristics Of Effective Schools • Evidence-Based Curriculum • Continuous Evaluation and Accountability • Challenging Goals for Both Students and Teachers • Opportunity to Learn and Sufficient Time for Instruction • Parental Involvement • Safe and Orderly Environment • Collegiality and Collaboration 60

Characteristics of Effective Teachers TEACHERS ARE EXPERTS IN: • Content Knowledge • Planning and Characteristics of Effective Teachers TEACHERS ARE EXPERTS IN: • Content Knowledge • Planning and Setting Goals • Scientifically-Based Curriculum Design and Instruction • Formative and Summative Assessment • Customizing Instruction for Individual Students • Classroom Management and Organization • Motivating and Engaging Students 61

Effects of Student Achievement of School and Teacher Effectiveness with Student Entering School at Effects of Student Achievement of School and Teacher Effectiveness with Student Entering School at 50 th Percentile Avg. School & Avg. Teacher Least Effective School & Least Effective Teacher 100 Most Effective School & Least Effective Teacher 50 Least Effective School & Most Effective Teacher 20 Most Effective School & 10 Avg. Teacher ACE Model: Most Effective School & Most Effective Teacher 50% 37% 63% 78% 96% Achievement Percentile After Two Years Glass, Mc. Gaw & Smith, 1981; Marzano, 2000 a 62 3%

Why Effective Leaders and Teachers are Essential Avg. School & Avg. Teacher 100 90 Why Effective Leaders and Teachers are Essential Avg. School & Avg. Teacher 100 90 Least Effective School & Least Effective 80 Teacher Most Effective School & Least Effective Teacher Least Effective School & Most Effective Teacher Most Effective School & Avg. Teacher 70 60 50 50 th percentile 40 30 20 10 WIU Model: Most Effective School & Most Effective Teacher 63 Glass et al. ; Marzano, 2003 a 50% 3% 37% 63% 78% 96%

Reading stimulates general cognitive growth — particularly verbal skills Simos, et al Reading stimulates general cognitive growth — particularly verbal skills Simos, et al

Using Neuroscience to Guide Teaching and Learning 65 et al Lyon Using Neuroscience to Guide Teaching and Learning 65 et al Lyon

66 66

67 Bookheimer - UCLA 67 Bookheimer - UCLA

Meanwhile, Back in the Brain Meanwhile, Back in the Brain

Why Do Some Children Have Difficulties Learning to Read? Kindergarten Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Why Do Some Children Have Difficulties Learning to Read? Kindergarten Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere S#1: At risk S#31: Not at risk Simos et al 150 -300 300 -1000 ms Time after Stimulus Onset

Kindergarten Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere S#1: At risk S#31: Not at risk Simos et Kindergarten Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere S#1: At risk S#31: Not at risk Simos et al 150 -300 300 -1000 ms Time after Stimulus Onset

71 Fuchs et al 71 Fuchs et al

At Risk Reader Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Kindergarten 1 st Grade Simos et al At Risk Reader Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Kindergarten 1 st Grade Simos et al

73 73

Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And Practices Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And Practices • Development of Consensus Reading Research Reports: NRC/PRD (1998) • Development of Evidence-Based Synthesis of Reading Intervention Research: NRP and the Current National Literacy Panel (2000) • Extension and Continuation of Evidence-Based Research Syntheses to Address Early Childhood Literacy Development, Biliteracy, and Adolescent Literacy (2003) • Development of Federal Legislation to Ensure the Use 74

Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And Practices Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And Practices • Explicitly Base Federal Educational/Reading Legislation on Converging Evidence: • Reading Excellence Act (1998) • No Child Left Behind/Reading First (2001) • NRC Report on Scientific Research in Education (2002) • Education Sciences Reform Act/The Institute OF Educational Sciences (2002) 75

Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And Practices Strategies To Increase The Use of Scientific Evidence To Guide Educational Policies And Practices • The Establishment of The What Works Clearing House (2002) • The Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy (2002) • The Federal Partnership for Reading (2001) • The National Center for Reading First Technical Assistance (2004) • The Establishment of The Review Of Teacher Preparation (2004) 76

Progress and Promise Does Not Mean Its Easy: Why does Resistance Persist? • A Progress and Promise Does Not Mean Its Easy: Why does Resistance Persist? • A Lack of Understanding of Scientific Principles and Practices (“evidence is in the eye of the beholder”) • An Anti-Scientific Culture Within the Traditional Reading Community • Fragmentary Training in Research Design and Methods at Both Preservice and Graduate Levels • A Tendency Among Policy-Makers to Base Policies and Initiatives on Beliefs and Anecdotes Rather Than Scientific Evidence 77

78 78

Applying What We Know from Neuroscience to Improve Education and Student Learning Motivate Teach Applying What We Know from Neuroscience to Improve Education and Student Learning Motivate Teach Apply 79 Evaluate Student Achievement Modify Assess

The ACE/EC CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT MODEL: ENSURING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH RESEARCH AND EVALUATION Public School/ The ACE/EC CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT MODEL: ENSURING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH RESEARCH AND EVALUATION Public School/ Teacher Effectiveness Level Aligned with relevant standards Institutional Level Program Level Faculty Level Based on Scientific Evidence Student Level 12 34 Learning Objectives Content Quality Assurance Instructional Through Methodology Comprehensive Evaluation Clearly Stated Scientifically based Measurable Organized to ensure continuous progress monitoring Linked to continuous assessment Everything learned is applied 80

WIU Multi-Level, Outcomes-Based Assessment A COMMITMENT TO CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT THROUGH ONGOING EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT WIU Multi-Level, Outcomes-Based Assessment A COMMITMENT TO CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT THROUGH ONGOING EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT Evaluation of instructional impact on students in classrooms Analysis of employment and retention of WIU teachers Performance on professional licensure examinations End of course evaluation of content knowledge and application Continuous assessment of ability to apply learning Number of graduates meeting licensure requirements Post-Graduation student evaluations End of course student evaluation Self-evaluation Continuous assessment of learning Initial self-assessment of competency in course objectives STUDENT Observations by colleagues Interim student evaluations FACULTY Continuous assessment of graduate’s impact on student learning in their classroom’s Continuous assessment of student satisfaction Continuous assessment of student learning Continuous assessment of instructional quality Continuous assessment of course relevance UNIVERSITY 81

ACE NON-NEGOTIABLES FOR IMPROVING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Marzano et al, 2001 Walberg, 1999; Walberg & ACE NON-NEGOTIABLES FOR IMPROVING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Marzano et al, 2001 Walberg, 1999; Walberg & 82 Waxman, 1983