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Evaluation Challenge & Building Blocks Next Step Meeting EU Truck Platooning Challenge Glasgow, 6 Evaluation Challenge & Building Blocks Next Step Meeting EU Truck Platooning Challenge Glasgow, 6 June 2016 Loes Aarts & Tom Alkim Rijkswaterstaat

 • Given the course of the Challenge for the Netherlands we did notice • Given the course of the Challenge for the Netherlands we did notice any obstructions for platooning on our highways (for 2 and 3 truck platoons) • So, green light for long term and large scale initiatives (in NL), but… • Boundary conditions need to be discussed • Current infrastructure is a given

Merging fragment Merging fragment

Expected risks In 19 exemptions • Higher chance on accidents/disturbance of the traffic flow Expected risks In 19 exemptions • Higher chance on accidents/disturbance of the traffic flow because of the behaviour of the truck platoon as one vehicle entity • Increased road/bridge wear and tear because of the truck platoon as one vehicle entity • Limitations of the platooning system in complex traffic situations A truck driver unfamiliar with the platooning system does not know how to deal with the transition of control • • Failure of the system in specific infrastructural situations: tunnels, slopes and curves

Expected risk 1 Higher chance on accidents / disturbance of the traffic flow because Expected risk 1 Higher chance on accidents / disturbance of the traffic flow because of the behaviour of the truck platoon as one vehicle entity Mitigating the expected risks in the exemption and code of practice: • Requirements on the recognisability of the truck platoon • Decoupling at on- and off ramps • Restrictions/advise on specific manoeuvres • Prescribed following distance • Maximum speed

findings Interviews • Driving in a platoon means being part of one entity -> findings Interviews • Driving in a platoon means being part of one entity -> lead truck driver feels responsible for the whole platoon • Drivers are inclined to keep the platoon together • Interaction of platoon with other trucks more complicated than interaction with cars • maximum speed is determining factor for the number of overtaking manoeuvres of single trucks • speed limit tolerance to reform platoon

findings Aerial footage Keeping the platoon together not possible all the time • intended findings Aerial footage Keeping the platoon together not possible all the time • intended decoupling at on- and off ramps to allow other traffic to merge • automated decoupling when other traffic cuts in causing the following trucks to “fall back” • At headways > 1. 0 other traffic (even trucks) is inclined to merge in a platoon and initiate decoupling • Overtaking of platoons seemed to occur more than overtaking normal trucks

Expected risk - 2 Increased road/bridge wear and tear because of the truck platoon Expected risk - 2 Increased road/bridge wear and tear because of the truck platoon as one vehicle entity Mitigating the expected risks in the exemption and code of practice • Restrictions to the maximum weight of the load and the division of the load • Decouple at bridges No findings from interviews and aerial footage

Expected risk - 3 • • Limitations of the platooning system in complex traffic Expected risk - 3 • • Limitations of the platooning system in complex traffic situations A truck driver unfamiliar with the platooning system does not know how to deal with the transition of control Mitigating the expected risks in the exemption and code of practice • Decouple in complex traffic situations: – motorway junctions – traffic density – traffic jams – (mobile) road works – weather conditions, • requirements on the truck driver • prescribed following distance

findings Interviews • Drivers decouple at complex traffic situations on their own initiative, even findings Interviews • Drivers decouple at complex traffic situations on their own initiative, even if not required • The platooning support systems were functioning very well, the driving task does not become easier nor more difficult: the driver task changes and asks for other competences • Effectivity of truck platooning concept decreases with many on- and off ramps • Following distance of 0. 5 s is better to keep truck platoon intact. • Following distance of 0. 8 s and up makes merging and overtaking manoeuvres more frequent. Aerial footage: no complex traffic situations involving traffic jams, road works, or adverse weather conditions were observed

Expected risk - 4 Failure of the system in specific infrastructural situations: tunnels, slopes Expected risk - 4 Failure of the system in specific infrastructural situations: tunnels, slopes and curves Mitigating the expected risks in the exemption and code of practice • Decouple at – tunnels, – x gradient values – x radius values of curves No findings from interviews and aerial footage

Benefits • Traffic safety • Throughput • Fuel savings • Reducing emissions • Labour Benefits • Traffic safety • Throughput • Fuel savings • Reducing emissions • Labour costs In general, the expected benefits of platooning will materialize more, the longer uninterrupted platooning can take place

Building Blocks Elements of truck platooning concept can’t be changed or are difficult to Building Blocks Elements of truck platooning concept can’t be changed or are difficult to change when crossing borders: • Driver • Recognisability features of the truck platoon • Load • (Settings of) the system From a traffic safety perspective priority to deal with these issues in order to facilitate cross border, multi brand platooning

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