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European Union European Regional Development Fund MP 4 Making Places Profitable: Public & Private European Union European Regional Development Fund MP 4 Making Places Profitable: Public & Private Open Spaces experiences from open space regeneration in Scotland Marilyn Higgins, Alicia Montarzino, Marcia Pereira & Harry Smith Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinbrugh 30 September 2010

Structure • • MP 4 project Theoretical basis Analytical framework Case studies in Scotland: Structure • • MP 4 project Theoretical basis Analytical framework Case studies in Scotland: – Craigmillar – Grassmarket – Hailes Quarry Park • Conclusions Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

MP 4 Project “Making Places Profitable – Public and Private open spaces” AIM: to MP 4 Project “Making Places Profitable – Public and Private open spaces” AIM: to demonstrate how open space improvements offer positive socio-economic benefits, and how the benefits offered to key communities can be maintained in the long run (‘place-keeping’). • supported by Interreg IVB North Sea Region European funding • four local authorities/public bodies (Emmen, Flemish Land Agency, Gothenburg, Sheffield) • one charitable foundation (Lawaetz Foundation DE) • four universities (HCU, HWU, Uo. C, Uo. S) Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

MP 4 Project Objectives • • • Assess existing transnational experiences with place-keeping – MP 4 Project Objectives • • • Assess existing transnational experiences with place-keeping – literature review & case studies Produce model agreements for sustainable partnerships and develop innovations in placekeeping Implement, promote and test place-keeping models transnationally Monitor and evaluate socio-economic impacts Develop place-keeping policies and ‘mainstream’ best practice Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Theoretical Basis shift from government to governance & from a providing state to a Theoretical Basis shift from government to governance & from a providing state to a enabling estate: acknowledgement of wider range of stakeholders in urban management new institutionalism: importance of understanding mental models in order to understand organisational arrangements this helps see urban development as a socio-spatial process rather than simplementation of a “product” open space: growing body of research into qualities, perception & impact on well being, but less on long-term management & maintenance our approach: to understand wider stakeholder involvement processes in long-term management of public space based on institutionalist approaches - using case studies in Scotland as examples. Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Analytical Framework type of urban public space stakeholders involved in “place-making” & “place-keeping” resources Analytical Framework type of urban public space stakeholders involved in “place-making” & “place-keeping” resources available to stakeholders and their deployment ideas & mental models related to urban public space & stakeholders process of physical, organisational & mental “requalification” Urban Studies Seminar Series Istanbul 14 October 2009

UK Context • 19 th Century: private sector provided public space as part of UK Context • 19 th Century: private sector provided public space as part of housing & municipalities provided parks & green spaces • 20 th Century: public sector predominant provider of public space - publicprivate partnership regeneration in latter part of the century • firmly established mental model of local authority having responsibility for “place -keeping” • recent attempts to draw in private sector participation in “place-keeping” • strong civil society & mental model of voluntary participation, expressed in trusts & “friends of “ societies • current experimentation with new models of private sector & civil society’s relationship with public space. Urban Studies Seminar Series Istanbul 14 October 2009

Craigmillar Location: Mostly residential suburban area – mainly social rented housing – South-eastern side Craigmillar Location: Mostly residential suburban area – mainly social rented housing – South-eastern side of Edinburgh History: Decline & regeneration Partnerships: URC model & PARC CEC decentralisation policy – East Neighbourhood Team Local communities organisation – The Neigbourhood Alliance Urban Studies Seminar Series Istanbul 14 October 2009

Craigmillar Place-Keeping Design-stage consideration PARC strategy: capture income from private development to contribute to Craigmillar Place-Keeping Design-stage consideration PARC strategy: capture income from private development to contribute to funding of public and amenity projects & community involvement Still conventional, but new initiatives are being explored mainly due to community involvement. Community Trust Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Craigmillar Evaluation: formal & informal Scottish Government commissioned study of URCs Neighbourhood Alliance – Craigmillar Evaluation: formal & informal Scottish Government commissioned study of URCs Neighbourhood Alliance – informal monitoring Awards for the quality of development, policies & processes. Transferable aspects Policies – decentralisation URC model Community engagement & support Flexibility Sensitiveness to socio-political context Urban Studies Seminar Series Istanbul 14 October 2009

Grassmarket Context In the Old Town of Edinburgh, valley to the South of Edinburgh Grassmarket Context In the Old Town of Edinburgh, valley to the South of Edinburgh Castle. Simple paved area with trees and benches, surrounded by a lively mixture of uses, including housing, shops, pubs, restaurants and hotels. 2007/08: £ 5 million improvement project Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Grassmarket Partnership Funding: local economic development agency & Government’s Cities Growth fund allocation to Grassmarket Partnership Funding: local economic development agency & Government’s Cities Growth fund allocation to the local council. Consultative stakeholder group Community engagement events Place-Keeping From design stage Management & maintenance: Grassmarket Forum & Council officers. Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Grassmarket Evaluation Contentious: good for local business, unhappy residents. Baseline study carried out & Grassmarket Evaluation Contentious: good for local business, unhappy residents. Baseline study carried out & definition of evaluation indicators for later comparison. Transferable Lessons Effective engagement Clarity about remit & aims of a project – expectations management. Consultation, participation & compromising Need for in-built evaluation in place-making & place-keeping Need for a strong and committed client-team – openness to new ideas. Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Hailes Quarry Park Context Location: Large open space in the south west of Edinburgh Hailes Quarry Park Context Location: Large open space in the south west of Edinburgh -15 ha surrounded by low-income residential areas. History: Old quarry & previous use as landfill Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Hailes Quarry Park Partnerships Involvement of public, private and voluntary sectors Greenspace Scotland (GS) Hailes Quarry Park Partnerships Involvement of public, private and voluntary sectors Greenspace Scotland (GS) & Strategic Greenspace Partnerships (SGPs) + Project for Public Spaces (PPS) The Edinburgh & Lothians Greenspace Trust The Scottish Executive + Sustrans + WREN + local associations Community engagement Place-Keeping Implicit place-keeping: five-year plan +10 years partial maintenance agreement Building-up community involvement & ownership Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Hailes Quarry Park Evaluation No formal evaluation Events used as means to steer apathetic Hailes Quarry Park Evaluation No formal evaluation Events used as means to steer apathetic community towards space ownership Small scale infrastructure investments to increase use by pedestrians, cyclists, women & older people. Transferable Lessons Multiple-inter sectorial partnerships Attitudes (problem when prevalent at wider level) Scale (small) Flexibility (tailored interventions with rapid response) Steering Group Aims & expectations – displacement (who does what) Urban Studies Seminar Series Edinburgh, 30 September 2010

Conclusions • wide range of types of stakeholder and forms of organisation, with shift Conclusions • wide range of types of stakeholder and forms of organisation, with shift from government to governance • shift from state-financing of open space regeneration and management to diversification of funding sources • in all cases, central role of more direct relationship between stakeholders and open space through some form of responsibility • potential political & social issues: re-definition of the role of the state & of other stakeholders, ownership of open space, social responsibility. • scope to learn more through wider and more in-depth research on impact of these practices on the wider community, via a longitudinal study. Urban Studies Seminar Series

Thank You MP 4 HWU Team: Dr Harry Smith h. c. smith@sbe. hw. ac. Thank You MP 4 HWU Team: Dr Harry Smith h. c. [email protected] hw. ac. uk - Principal Investigator Dr Marcia Pereira m. [email protected] ac. uk - Research Associate Prof Glen Bramley Dr Caroline Brown Dr Scott Fernie Marilyn Higgins Dr Alicia Montarzino Urban Studies Seminar Series