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European regions and cities in globalization Kathy Pain (University of Reading) Gilles Van Hamme European regions and cities in globalization Kathy Pain (University of Reading) Gilles Van Hamme (ULB) TIGER Project Krakow 29 -30 November

2/25 The team Lead partner: IGEAT-ULB Partners: Pp 2 (UK): School of Real Estate 2/25 The team Lead partner: IGEAT-ULB Partners: Pp 2 (UK): School of Real Estate and Planning. University of Reading Pp 3 (France): CNRS (mainly Université de Normandie) Pp 4 (Italy): Dpto Studi Europei e Interculturali, Sapienza Università di Roma Pp 5 (Sweden): Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping AB Pp 6 (Bulgaria): Institute of Geography BAS

3/25 General objective o Objective 1: to assess how Europe, its regions and cities 3/25 General objective o Objective 1: to assess how Europe, its regions and cities participate in global flows and networks and how global processes impact on the territorial structures of Europe. o Concretely: Ø To assess the national/regional/cities position in the international division of labour; Ø To assess the territorial impacts of globalization inside Europe; Ø To inform policy on the territorial potentials of European cities and regions. o In this presentation, we give some results at the regional and city scale

4/25 1. The regional scale Two themes: 1. Trade 2. Migrations 4/25 1. The regional scale Two themes: 1. Trade 2. Migrations

5/25 The geography of trade (1): openness rate of European regions • The map 5/25 The geography of trade (1): openness rate of European regions • The map shows the extra-EU openness (only exports on GDP) of European regions around 2008; • This openness is extremely variable from 0. 2% (Corsica) to 31% (Flanders); • Key explanations: technological level (monopoly position); historical links; ports etc. • Metropolitan areas do not appear because their role in the global economy is related to the service economy (not included on the map) and their central role in global networks. Intensity and nature of embeddedness in the global economy varies very much spatially.

6/25 The geography of trade (2): a typology • • Type 1 Eastern Europe 6/25 The geography of trade (2): a typology • • Type 1 Eastern Europe Type 2 toward Western Europe Type 3 average group Type 4 similar to average but with a trade more oriented toward Eastern European regions, as well as China and Japan. Type 5 importance of US and Asian markets Type 6 Western Europe and the neighbourhood (Africa and Middle East) or Latin America. Type 8 is the least EU-oriented of all types. These regions have specific relations with former USSR, the Middle East and Africa. Type 10 a non European global profile, with mainly specific relations toward Middle-East and Northern Africa.

7/25 European regions in the international division of labour (1): the example of machinery 7/25 European regions in the international division of labour (1): the example of machinery • A core/ periphery pattern. • The importance of Southern Germany + Northern Italy.

8/25 Attractiveness of European regions for qualified labour (2) The share of highly qualified 8/25 Attractiveness of European regions for qualified labour (2) The share of highly qualified labour born outside the EU: London, Paris and some Spanish cities are the most attractive in absolute figures. In some of these cities, non EU born reach around 10% of the qualified workforce.

9/25 2. The city level 1. Focus on the concentration of some gateway functions 9/25 2. The city level 1. Focus on the concentration of some gateway functions in maritime, air flows, advanced producer services, finance. 2. We study in depth, cities’ network dynamics in some of these areas + a London case study.

10/25 2. 1. The concentration of gateway functions: the example of airflows These tables 10/25 2. 1. The concentration of gateway functions: the example of airflows These tables show the share of the main flows: • A growing concentration of gateway functions in airflows on major hubs between 1991 and 2008. • 5 major European hubs responsible for this concentration. • In this case, we observe a lower concentration on the 5 major US hubs than in the ESPON space.

11/25 2. 2. 2008 Mappa Mundi, advanced producer services 11 11/25 2. 2. 2008 Mappa Mundi, advanced producer services 11

12/25 2. 3. London changing top APS city dyads 2000 2004 London city dyad 12/25 2. 3. London changing top APS city dyads 2000 2004 London city dyad connected index to London 2004 Rank city connected to London dyad index 2000 1 New York 100. 00 New York 2 Hong Kong 73. 68 3 Paris 4 2008 city connected to London dyad index 2008 100. 00 New York 100. 00 Hong Kong 75. 46 Hong Kong 80. 30 69. 12 Paris 72. 97 Paris 78. 34 Tokyo 69. 04 Tokyo 70. 39 Singapore 71. 29 5 Singapore 66. 72 Singapore 68. 17 Tokyo 68. 92 6 Chicago 60. 06 Brussels 61. 07 Shanghai 65. 40 7 Los Angeles 57. 43 Milan 60. 24 Beijing 64. 82 8 Frankfurt 56. 97 Madrid 59. 50 Sydney 62. 10 9 Milan 56. 81 Frankfurt 59. 23 Milan 60. 83 10 Brussels 54. 18 Chicago 58. 76 Madrid 58. 46 11 Sydney 54. 10 Amsterdam 57. 01 Brussels 58. 06 12 Amsterdam 54. 02 Toronto 55. 07 Moscow 56. 67 13 Madrid 53. 64 Beijing 51. 66 Frankfurt 12 53. 21

13/25 2. 4. APS Mappa Mundi with EU as state, 2008 13 13/25 2. 4. APS Mappa Mundi with EU as state, 2008 13

14/25 2. 5. EU v US real estate investment inflows EU US 14 14/25 2. 5. EU v US real estate investment inflows EU US 14

15/25 First attempt at synthesis of the position of cities in different types of 15/25 First attempt at synthesis of the position of cities in different types of network - Indicators of extra European connectivity in three different areas: Advanced producer services Air flows Maritime connections In orange, the major gateways

16/25 Conclusion 1. Huge amount of analyses, data and typologies that will allow to 16/25 Conclusion 1. Huge amount of analyses, data and typologies that will allow to better position and understand regions and cities position in the global economy. 2. In addition, analyses try to capture dynamics of cities in global networks. 3. Moreover, some of our analyses explore the complex relationship between the position of cities and regions in the global economy with competitiveness indicator.