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Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems Kevin M. Corker Human Automation Integration Laboratory Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems Kevin M. Corker Human Automation Integration Laboratory (HAIL) San Jose State University 11/15/02

Acknowledgements • Sponsored by – NASA Aviation Safety Program: • Dr. Irving Statler technical Acknowledgements • Sponsored by – NASA Aviation Safety Program: • Dr. Irving Statler technical monitor, – FAA Office of ATM Architecture: • Mr. Steve Bradford, Chief Scientist, technical monitor – FAA Office of Chief Scientist for Human Factors, • Drs. Mark Rodgers and Dr. Paul Krois, technical monitors

Automation Issues • Impact • Introduction of automation changes the role of the operators Automation Issues • Impact • Introduction of automation changes the role of the operators in the system & increases target capability • Workload and sources for error are distributed not eliminated • Common Sources of Error in use of automation – – Decision bias Mistrust & Distrust lead Over & Under-reliance Monitoring errors System authority, autonomy, trust and agent’s role • How is automation used, rather then how was it designed to be used ? • Any number of accidents and incidents determined to be associated with automated systems’ – Lack of feedback – Unidentified interrelations, side effects – Divergent priority and valuation processes

Evolution of an etiquette argument • Evolutionary Psychology: the development of a process of Evolution of an etiquette argument • Evolutionary Psychology: the development of a process of moralistic aggression whose purpose it is to educate individuals to the standards expected (Badcock, 2000) – Breaches in etiquette evoke a response that is disruptive, moralistic and (occasionally)aggressive • Social Psychology: Ability to monitor one’s own and others states of emotion and process to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Salovey and Mayer, 1990) • Cognitive Psychology: Dedicated, functionally specialized interacting mechanisms (Cosmides and Tooby, 1992) – Guide behavior and thought w/to recurrent & adaptive problems posed by the social world

Etiquette and Automation • Human to Computer Courtesy: computer performance assessment experiments (Reeves & Etiquette and Automation • Human to Computer Courtesy: computer performance assessment experiments (Reeves & Nass, 1996) • Theory of mind: Cognitive entities experience mental states like our own (Premack & Woodruff, 1978) • Automated Autism: lack of awareness of mental & emotional embeddedness as symptomatic of autism: “mind-blind” (Baron-Cohen and Howlin, 1989) • Computer to Human Affect (Picard, 1997)

Etiquette In Aerospace • Theses: – One purpose for etiquette is to support secondary Etiquette In Aerospace • Theses: – One purpose for etiquette is to support secondary communication among interactive agents with reference to: • Conflict free access to scarce resources • Present process, goal state & priorities – In capacity constrained air traffic management, access to command & control processes is both necessary and limited – In automation aiding automation response dependence of system-operator state is essential

Joint Cognitive Systems Analysis • Apply cognitive engineering principles to the joint cognitive system Joint Cognitive Systems Analysis • Apply cognitive engineering principles to the joint cognitive system • What role will the system provide the operator in nominal and off-nominal operation? • What behavioral data have we when the human is in that role? • What design augments or offsets that behavior? §What role will the system provide the automation in nominal and off-nominal operation? §What performance data have we when the automation is in that role? §What design augments or offsets that behavior?

Automation Analysis • High: Full Automation information selection analyses decision and implementation – Automation Automation Analysis • High: Full Automation information selection analyses decision and implementation – Automation informs human/organization on the basis of rules – Executes actions automatically then informs human/organization – Allows human/organization override on a limited time schedule • Mid: Executes computer generated plan if human/organization approves – Automation provides best single alternative – Automation narrows the available field of alternatives – Automation provides a complete set of alternatives • Low: All information selection analyses decision and implementation performed by human/organization Parasuraman, Sheridan, and Wickens, 2000

Dimensions of Automation Impact on Aero-transport Information Decision Action Acquisition Analysis Selection Implementation High Dimensions of Automation Impact on Aero-transport Information Decision Action Acquisition Analysis Selection Implementation High Flight Deck ATC Low

Automated Flight Deck Response to Off Nominal Conditions Weiner, 1985 Automated Flight Deck Response to Off Nominal Conditions Weiner, 1985

5 Miles 2000 ft. Separation Standard Required 5 Miles 2000 ft. Separation Standard Required

Data Link Vs. Voice Error % in Standard and Missed Communication Lozito et al. Data Link Vs. Voice Error % in Standard and Missed Communication Lozito et al. , 1999

Data vs. Voice Communication Time In Clarification Lozito et al. , 1999 Data vs. Voice Communication Time In Clarification Lozito et al. , 1999

Automation Aiding System • Present Flight Data in Digital Form • Provide an “exploration” Automation Aiding System • Present Flight Data in Digital Form • Provide an “exploration” capability for alternative flight paths • Provide conflict prediction based on trajectory synthesis (20 min look ahead) – Current flight path as filed and radar track – Planned Flight Path • Flight Deck Aiding System (60 -40 sec look ahead)

Etiquette & Equity • Access can be decomposed into two elements – Internal Delay Etiquette & Equity • Access can be decomposed into two elements – Internal Delay Costs: Cost incurred by user (x) in accessing and using a service – External Delay Costs: Cost incurred by all other users of that service as a function of user (x) occupancy of the resource • Strategy for Demand Management Cost Equity is to shift the external costs to internal costs • E. g. by the imposition of a “congestion fee” (Vickers, 1969, Daniel, 1995)

Etiquette& Equity (adapted from Andreatta & Odoni, 2002) • Behaviors that support “courtesy” impose Etiquette& Equity (adapted from Andreatta & Odoni, 2002) • Behaviors that support “courtesy” impose a cost to the operator that engages in them – Total Cost to user (Xi) = DC + CF • Where DC is the direct cost for access to the command control system (attention, bandwidth, SA, etc. ) • And CF is a courtesy fee which is the added cost to participate through the etiquette of operation • Intended Result: - Distribution of external costs equitably (cooperative queue management)

Pollaczek-Khintchine Expression Direct Cost xi = ci Wqi (x) + {Sj=1 cjlj (xj)}d. Wq(xmean)/dli(xi) Pollaczek-Khintchine Expression Direct Cost xi = ci Wqi (x) + {Sj=1 cjlj (xj)}d. Wq(xmean)/dli(xi) + Ki Access Fee Courtesy Cost

Error Reduction Correlated to Number of Communication Types Mjos, 2001 Error Reduction Correlated to Number of Communication Types Mjos, 2001

Etiquette and Aerospace Systems • Current automated ATM systems do not support “etiquette functions” Etiquette and Aerospace Systems • Current automated ATM systems do not support “etiquette functions” in human interaction – Communication is asynchronous, loop closure is delayed (e. g. digital data link) – Contract State Assurance is missing (“shot clock” and “flash & dash” procedures) – Queue Management Functions are missing – Mechanisms for mediation are “clumsy” (data link “stand-by” message) – Automation is blind to system-operator state • Hypothesized Result: Class of error & Response under load

Etiquette-based Automation Strategies • Shared Cost for Access to Scarce Executive Function • State-sensitive Etiquette-based Automation Strategies • Shared Cost for Access to Scarce Executive Function • State-sensitive Intervention Strategies • Interruptive Signaling and Adaptive Response • Automation and Human Goal States as Scheduling Mechanism