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Ethics and Sustainability in Textile supply Chains IT IS JUST A SIMPLE T SHIRT Ethics and Sustainability in Textile supply Chains IT IS JUST A SIMPLE T SHIRT ? www. shirleytech. co. uk

Programme l l Terminology The journey Commercial benefits Eco textile schemes www. shirleytech. co. Programme l l Terminology The journey Commercial benefits Eco textile schemes www. shirleytech. co. uk

Terminology l What does “ethics” mean ? The science of morals, that branch of Terminology l What does “ethics” mean ? The science of morals, that branch of philosophy which is concerned with human character and conduct” English dictionary l What does it mean for textiles ? Ensuring textile workers are treated fairly, given a living wage, working conditions are acceptable on health and safety l What does “sustainability” mean ? “The ability to continue an action without the risk of failure or collapse”. English dictionary l What does it mean for textiles ? Ensuring textiles that we make and use are neither harmful to us and the environment www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey Product : T Shirt Raw cotton Cotton spinning Cotton weaving Cotton Dyeing The journey Product : T Shirt Raw cotton Cotton spinning Cotton weaving Cotton Dyeing and Finishing Start Retailer In use End of life End www. shirleytech. co. uk Garment cut and sew

The journey Raw cotton Su sta ina bil ity ics th E Name : The journey Raw cotton Su sta ina bil ity ics th E Name : Jamal Human : Pesticide Poisoning Location : Southern Punjab Pakistan Environment : local irrigation contaminated with pesticides, entering the food chain. Large amounts of water used for crop, i. e, 1 kg of textile requires 700 litres of water. Age : 7 years old Job : Hand picking cotton Working hrs : 12 Pay : £ 1. 60(230 RSPk) per day Aral sea in Uzbekistan, 4 th largest in the world reduced to 15% of its original size. Health : O. K , father suffers from chronic pesticide poisoning www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey Spinning Su sta ina bil ics th ity E Name : Raja The journey Spinning Su sta ina bil ics th ity E Name : Raja Human : Pesticide poisoning, cotton dust inhalation Location : Punjab Pakistan Environment : Old machinery excessive energy usage, noise pollution. Age : 35 years old Job : cotton spinner Working hrs : 12 Pay : £ 1. 60(230 RSPK) pence/day Health : Bronchial problems due to cotton dust inhalation www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey Weaving Su sta ina ics th bil ity E Human : Excessive The journey Weaving Su sta ina ics th bil ity E Human : Excessive loom noise causing hearing difficulties Name : Saba Location : Village near Dhaka Environment : Noise pollution, high energy consumption, drainage contamination from waste lubricant oil. Age : 30 years old Job : Weaver Working hrs : 12 Pay : £ 1. 60(230 RSPk) pence/day Health : partially deaf in one ear due to noise from loom. www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey Dyeing and finishing Su c thi sta ina bil ity s E The journey Dyeing and finishing Su c thi sta ina bil ity s E Human : Eczema workers and local community, high percentage of cancer. Name : Kamal Location : Dhaka Bangladesh Environment : poor emissions control, effluent discharge contaminating local sewage, hazardous chemicals been used. Age : 28 years old Job : labourer in mixing dept Working hrs : 8 Pay : £ 1. 60(230 RSPk)per day Health : Has eczema from handling chemicals www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey Cut and Sew Su sta ina s bil c thi E ity The journey Cut and Sew Su sta ina s bil c thi E ity Human : Poor health and safety, poor sanitation, poor working standards Name : Anika Location : Dhaka Bangladesh Environment : noise pollution, energy inefficiences, excessive waste Age : 25 years old Job : Sewing machinist Working hrs : 10 Pay : £ 1. 60(230 RSPk)per day Health : RSI www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey In use Sustainability Large energy consumption due to Washing(25), tumble dry and The journey In use Sustainability Large energy consumption due to Washing(25), tumble dry and ironing End of life Sustainability Energy saving fuel produced from incineration can be used again Of 2 million tonnes of clothing waste per annum only 16% is recovered and the rest is sent to landfill that is 1. 6 million tonnes. source : Defra www. shirleytech. co. uk

The journey Retail Location : London U. K Shopper buying the T Shirt that The journey Retail Location : London U. K Shopper buying the T Shirt that was made by Anika, Kamal, Saba, Raja and Jamal Would you buy it ? www. shirleytech. co. uk

How much Energy? Cost of a T shirt ? Primary Energy profile for T How much Energy? Cost of a T shirt ? Primary Energy profile for T shirt Cost of a T Shirt Retail UK: £ 7. 00 Wholesale UK: £ 2. 65 Knitted T-shirt China: £ 1. 96 Knitted fabric China: £ 1. 08 Cotton yarn USA: £ 0. 55 Highest energy “in use”, 25 washes at 60 C including tumble dry and ironing Info courtesy of Cambridge University Report : Well Dressed Lowest Energy disposal as it is incinerated ISBN No : 1 -902546 -52 -0 Creating heat energy www. shirleytech. co. uk

Employment contract l l l No sick pay No maternity leave No salary negotiations Employment contract l l l No sick pay No maternity leave No salary negotiations No health and safety guidance No holiday pay No entitlement to a minimum wage No paid holiday entitlement No anti bullying policy No harassment policy No pension No union No worker co operative www. shirleytech. co. uk

More statistics on ethics l 1 in 6 children in the world aged 5 More statistics on ethics l 1 in 6 children in the world aged 5 -14 yrs work , that is 191 million children. l 126 million children work in dirty, dangerous or demanding conditions. l 5000 people a day die from work related illnesses and accidents. l 12. 3 million people work as slaves. l 9. 5 million people(of the 12. 3 million) are working under forced working conditions of which 20% is government imposed(i. e prison labour). Source : ETI(Ethical trading initiative), ILO, DFID and UN www. shirleytech. co. uk

Not just Asia Factory or Prison? Textile workers exploited kept behind locked gates in Not just Asia Factory or Prison? Textile workers exploited kept behind locked gates in Factory in Romania 9 th Sept 2008 HIGH street clothes giant Primark is employing firms that use SLAVE labour in sweatshops here in BRITAIN, the News of the World can reveal. News of the World Jan 09 www. shirleytech. co. uk

Why sustainability ? Chemical waste management in Indonesia Global warming, rising sea levels Textile Why sustainability ? Chemical waste management in Indonesia Global warming, rising sea levels Textile waste from garment factory www. shirleytech. co. uk

Commercial Benefits Company Reputation Consumer confidence Increase in sales revenue Increase brand reputation www. Commercial Benefits Company Reputation Consumer confidence Increase in sales revenue Increase brand reputation www. shirleytech. co. uk

Commercial Benefits Pension funds and stakeholders Demonstrates legal and regulatory compliance Improved corporate image Commercial Benefits Pension funds and stakeholders Demonstrates legal and regulatory compliance Improved corporate image Demonstrates good management practice Investors rate a company according to its environmental and social criteria. www. shirleytech. co. uk

Commercial Benefits Cost savings Savings in consumption of energy and materials Reduced cost of Commercial Benefits Cost savings Savings in consumption of energy and materials Reduced cost of waste management Fewer rejects Green tax incentives from Government www. shirleytech. co. uk

ECO Textile schemes www. shirleytech. co. uk ECO Textile schemes www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes l Ecology ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ Oeko-Tex® 1000 auditing and certification Shirley ecology schemes l Ecology ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ Oeko-Tex® 1000 auditing and certification made in Green® certification EU Textile Ecolabel approved testing laboratory GOTS (Soil Association) approved testing laboratory Advice on legislative textile ecology requirements REACh SVHC list – compliance certification for textiles and preparations www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes Oeko-Tex® 100 certification scheme l l l Over 8, 000 textile Shirley ecology schemes Oeko-Tex® 100 certification scheme l l l Over 8, 000 textile companies globally have products certified Over 13, 000 certificates have been issued Helped to develop a worldwide chemical safety standard Is applicable to any product in the textile supply chain except chemicals It prohibits or regulates the use of harmful substances in textiles www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes Test Criteria for Oeko-Tex® 100 l l l l Banned MAK Shirley ecology schemes Test Criteria for Oeko-Tex® 100 l l l l Banned MAK amines derived from specific azo dyestuffs Carcinogenic and allergy-inducing dyestuffs Formaldehyde Pesticides Phenolic preservatives Chlorinated aromatic compounds Extractable heavy metals: Ni, Cd, Cr. VI e. t. c. and total Pb, Cd Colour fastness p. H-value Phthalates Organic tin compounds(TBT, DBT and Tph. T) Emission of volatile components Odour Biocides and flame retardant finishes(regulated separately) PFOS www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes Certification classes l Class I – Products for babies and toddlers Shirley ecology schemes Certification classes l Class I – Products for babies and toddlers up to 3 yrs l Class II- Products where a large proportion of the surface comes into direct contact with the skin. eg Blouses, shirts, underwear, bedding and bed linen. l Class III- Products where no part or a small proportion of the surface comes into contact with the skin, e. g jackets, coats and interlinings. l Class IV- Furnishing and household materials, e. g, table linen, curtains, mattresses, textile wall and floor coverings l Certificate is renewable on an annual basis. www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes Oeko-Tex® 1000 certification scheme l A testing, audit and certification system Shirley ecology schemes Oeko-Tex® 1000 certification scheme l A testing, audit and certification system for environmentally friendly production sites l Provides an objective assessment of the effectiveness of a companies actions in minimising the environmental impact of their production site l Offers a competitive advantage to companies in terms of increased production efficiency, minimised waste, improved acceptance of the products in the market place l An environmental scheme which is textile specific www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes Test criteria for Oeko-Tex® 1000 l Provide evidence to show that Shirley ecology schemes Test criteria for Oeko-Tex® 1000 l Provide evidence to show that at least 30% of the products produced are Oeko-Tex 100 certified l Comply with specified criteria to avoid or limit the use of harmful substances in production l Obeserve stringent limit values relating to waste water and exhaust air l Ensure low noise and air pollution l Introduce measures to ensure safety at work l Must operate a social criteria code of conduct l Licence is valid for 3 yrs, however an environmental report must be submitted annually. l ISO 14001 and EMAS are recognised and form an excellent basis for Oeko-Tex 1000 www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes made in Green® certification scheme l Developed to facilitate those companies Shirley ecology schemes made in Green® certification scheme l Developed to facilitate those companies within the EU l Focuses on three elements of ethics and sustainability in terms of human ecology, the environment and the rights of workers in factories l A scheme which audits the production centres and finally test the product in effect closing the loop l Checks the whole textile supply chain for the product being certified l Applicable to textile products only www. shirleytech. co. uk

Shirley ecology schemes PRODUCTION CENTRES SPINNING WEAVING DYEING/FINISHING PRODUCT CUT AND SEW ENVIRONMENTAL CODE Shirley ecology schemes PRODUCTION CENTRES SPINNING WEAVING DYEING/FINISHING PRODUCT CUT AND SEW ENVIRONMENTAL CODE OF CONDUCT ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT EXTERNAL AUDIT HARMFUL SUBSTANCES ON PRODUCT SYSTEM AUDIT www. shirleytech. co. uk

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