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Ethernet LANs Chapter 4 Panko’s Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 6 th edition Copyright Ethernet LANs Chapter 4 Panko’s Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 6 th edition Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall May only be used by adopters of the book

Orientation • Chapters 2 and 3 Looked at Standards – Chapter 2: Layered standards Orientation • Chapters 2 and 3 Looked at Standards – Chapter 2: Layered standards (data link to application) – Chapter 3: Physical layer standards • Chapters 4 -7 Deal With Single Networks – Chapter 4: Ethernet LANs • Chapter 4 a deals with obsolete Token-Ring Networks – Chapter 5: Wireless LANs – Chapters 6 and 7: WANs – Flow is from LANs to WANs 2

Figure 4 -1: A Short History of Ethernet Standards • Ethernet – The dominant Figure 4 -1: A Short History of Ethernet Standards • Ethernet – The dominant wired LAN technology today – Only “competitor” is wireless LANs (which actually are supplementary) • The IEEE 802 Committee – LAN standards development is done primarily by the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) – IEEE created the 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee for LAN standards (the 802 Committee) 3

Figure 4 -1: A Short History of Ethernet Standards • The 802 Committee creates Figure 4 -1: A Short History of Ethernet Standards • The 802 Committee creates working groups for specific types of standards – 802. 1 for general standards – 802. 3 for Ethernet standards • The terms 802. 3 and Ethernet are interchangeable – 802. 11 for wireless LAN standards – 802. 16 for Wi. Max wireless metropolitan area network standards 4

IEEE 802 Standards IEEE 802. 1 Higher layer LAN protocols IEEE 802. 12 demand IEEE 802 Standards IEEE 802. 1 Higher layer LAN protocols IEEE 802. 12 demand priority IEEE 802. 2 Logical link control IEEE 802. 14 Cable modems IEEE 802. 3 Ethernet IEEE 802. 15 Wireless PAN IEEE 802. 4 Token bus IEEE 802. 5 Token Ring IEEE 802. 6 Metropolitan Area Networks IEEE 802. 7 Broadband LAN using Coaxial Cable IEEE 802. 8 Fiber Optic TAG IEEE 802. 9 Integrated Services LAN IEEE 802. 10 Interoperable LAN Security IEEE 802. 11 Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi certification) IEEE 802. 15. 1 (Bluetooth certification) IEEE 802. 16 Broadband Wireless Access (Wi. MAX certification) IEEE 802. 16 e (Mobile) Broadband Wireless Access IEEE 802. 17 Resilient packet ring IEEE 802. 18 Radio Regulatory TAG IEEE 802. 19 Coexistence TAG IEEE 802. 20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access IEEE 802. 21 Media Independent Handoff IEEE 802. 22 Wireless Regional Area Network 5

Figure 4 -1: A Short History of Ethernet Standards • Ethernet Standards are OSI Figure 4 -1: A Short History of Ethernet Standards • Ethernet Standards are OSI Standards – Single networks, including LANs, are governed by physical and data link layer standards – Layer 1 and Layer 2 standards are almost universally OSI standards – Ethernet is no exception – The IEEE makes 802. 3 standards; ISO ratifies them – In practice, when 802. 3 finishes standards, vendors begin building compliant products 6

Ethernet Physical Layer Standards Ethernet Physical Layer Standards

Figure 4 -3: Baseband Versus Broadband Transmission Baseband Transmission Signal Source Transmitted Signal (Same) Figure 4 -3: Baseband Versus Broadband Transmission Baseband Transmission Signal Source Transmitted Signal (Same) Transmission Medium Signal is injected directly into the transmission medium (wire, optical fiber) Inexpensive, so dominates wired LAN transmission technology BASE in standard names means baseband 8

Figure 4 -3: Baseband Versus Broadband Transmission, Continued Broadband Transmission Modulated Signal Source Radio Figure 4 -3: Baseband Versus Broadband Transmission, Continued Broadband Transmission Modulated Signal Source Radio Tuner Radio Channel The radio tuner modulates the signal to a higher frequency. The transceiver then sends the signal in a radio channel. Expensive but needed for radio-based networks. Not used in Ethernet, but is used in wireless LANs (discussed in Chapter 5). 9

Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards Physical Layer Standard Speed Maximum Medium Run Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards Physical Layer Standard Speed Maximum Medium Run Required Length UTP 10 BASE-T 100 BASE-TX 1000 BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet) 10 Mbps 100 meters 4 -pair Category 3 or higher 100 Mbps 100 meters 4 -pair Category 5 or higher 1, 000 Mbps 100 meters 4 -pair Category 5 or higher UTP dominates the Ethernet access line market T: twisted-pair wire X: 2 pair (transmit, receive) 10

Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard Speed Maximum Medium Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard Speed Maximum Medium Run 850 nm light (inexpensive) Length Multimode fiber 1000 BASE-SX 1 Gbps 220 m 62. 5 microns 160 MHz-km 1000 BASE-SX 1 Gbps 275 m 62. 5 200 1000 BASE-SX 1 Gbps 500 m 50 400 1000 BASE-SX 1 Gbps 550 m 50 500 Gigabit Ethernet, 850 nm, various core sizes and modal bandwidths Dominates switch-to-switch trunk lines for gigabit Ethernet S: 850 nm (short wavelength) 11

Perspective • Access links to client stations today are dominated by 100 BASE-TX – Perspective • Access links to client stations today are dominated by 100 BASE-TX – But 1000 BASE-T usage is growing • Trunk links today are dominated by 1000 BASE-SX – Sufficient for most LAN trunk line distances and speeds – Short trunk links, however, use UTP – Longer and faster trunk links use other fiber standards 12

Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard 10 GBASE-SR/SW Speed Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard 10 GBASE-SR/SW Speed 10 Gbps Ethernet, multimode S = 850 nm R=LAN (10 Gbps) W=WAN (9. 95328 Gbps) Maximum Medium Run Length 65 m 62. 5/125 micron multimode, 850 nm. 10 GBASE-SR is used primarily for trunk lines within equipment rooms 13

Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard Speed Maximum Medium Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard Speed Maximum Medium Run Length 10 GBASE-LR/LW 10 Gbps 10 km 8. 3/125 micron single mode, 1, 310 nm. 10 GBASE-ER/EW 10 Gbps 40 km 8. 3/125 micron single mode, 1, 550 nm. 10 Gbps Ethernet, for wide area networks L = 1, 310 nm, E = 1, 550 nm R = LAN (10 Gbps) W = WAN (9. 95328 Gbps) for SONET/SDH 14

Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard 40 Gbps Ethernet Figure 4 -2: Ethernet Physical Layer Standards, Continued Physical Layer Standard 40 Gbps Ethernet Speed 40 Gbps Maximum Medium Run Length Under 8. 3/125 micron Development single mode. 15

Figure 4 -4: Link Aggregation (Trunking or Bonding) 1000 BASE-SX Switch Two links double Figure 4 -4: Link Aggregation (Trunking or Bonding) 1000 BASE-SX Switch Two links double trunk capacity between the switches (1 Gbps to 2 Gbps) Fiber Cord No need to buy a more expensive 10 Gbps Ethernet port or switch Switch must support link aggregation (also called trunking or bonding) 1000 BASE-SX Switch 16

Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches Original Signal Received Regenerated Signal Switches Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches Original Signal Received Regenerated Signal Switches regenerate signals before sending them out; this removes propagation effects. It therefore allows signals to travel farther. 17

Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches, Continued Received Original Received Regenerated Signal Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches, Continued Received Original Received Regenerated Signal Signal Thanks to regeneration, signals can travel far across a series of switches 18

Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches, Continued Received Original Received Regenerated Signal Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches, Continued Received Original Received Regenerated Signal Signal UTP 62. 5/125 Multimode Fiber 100 BASE-TX (100 m maximum) Physical Link 1000 BASE-SX (220 m maximum) Physical Link UTP 100 BASE-TX (100 m maximum) Physical Link Each trunk line along the way has a distance limit 19

Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches, Continued Received Original Received Regenerated Signal Figure 4 -5: Data Link Using Multiple Switches, Continued Received Original Received Regenerated Signal Received Signal Regenerated Signal UTP 100 BASE-TX (100 m maximum) Physical Link 62. 5/125 Multimode Fiber UTP 1000 BASE-SX (220 m maximum) Physical Link 100 BASE-TX (100 m maximum) Physical Link Station-to-station data link does not have a maximum distance (420 m distance spanned in this example) 20

Ethernet Data Link (MAC) Layer Standards 802 Layering Frame Syntax Switch Operation Ethernet Data Link (MAC) Layer Standards 802 Layering Frame Syntax Switch Operation

Figure 4 -6: Layering in 802 Networks, Continued Internet Layer Data Link Layer Logical Figure 4 -6: Layering in 802 Networks, Continued Internet Layer Data Link Layer Logical Link Control Layer Media Access Control Layer Physical Layer TCP/IP Internet Other Internet Layer Standards The ARP, etc. ) (IP, 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IPX, etc. ) subdivided the data link layer 802. 2 The media access control (MAC) layer handles details specific to a particular technology (Ethernet 802. 3, 802. 11 for wireless LANs, Non-Ethernet etc. ) Ethernet 802. 3 MAC Layer MAC Standards Standard (802. 5, The logical link control layer 802. 11, handles some general functions: etc. ) Connection to the internet layer, etc. ; Non-Ethernet important to corporate. Physical 100 BASE- Not 1000 networking professionals Layer TX Base… SX Standards (802. 11, etc. ) 22

Figure 4 -6: Layering in 802 Networks, Continued TCP/IP Internet Other Internet Layer a Figure 4 -6: Layering in 802 Networks, Continued TCP/IP Internet Other Internet Layer a single MAC standard Standards Layer Ethernet only has Standards (IP, ARP, etc. ) (The 802. 3 MAC Layer Standard) (IPX, etc. ) Logical Link Ethernet has many physical layer standards (Fig. 4 -2) 802. 2 Control Layer Data Link Non-Ethernet Media Layer Ethernet 802. 3 MAC Layer MAC Standards Access Control Standard (802. 5, Layer 802. 11, etc. ) Physical Layer 100 BASETX 1000 BASESX … Non-Ethernet Physical Layer Standards (802. 11, etc. ) 23

Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame Field Preamble (7 Octets) 1010 … Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame Field Preamble (7 Octets) 1010 … Start of Frame Delimiter (1 Octet) 10101011 Destination MAC Address (48 bits) Source MAC Address (48 bits) Preamble and Start of Frame Delimiter Strong repeating 10… pattern. Synchronizes receiver’s clock with sender’s clock Like quarterback calling out “Hut 1, Hut 2, Hut 3 …” to synchronize the team 24

Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC-Layer Frame, Continued Field Preamble (7 Octets) 1010 … Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC-Layer Frame, Continued Field Preamble (7 Octets) 1010 … Start of Frame Delimiter (1 Octet) 10101011 Destination MAC Address (48 bits) Source MAC Address (48 bits) Computers use raw 48 -bit MAC addresses; Humans use Hexadecimal notation (A 1 -23 -9 C-AB-33 -53), which is discussed next. 25

Figure 4 -8: Hexadecimal Notation 4 Bits (Base 2)* Decimal (Base 10) Hexadecimal (Base Figure 4 -8: Hexadecimal Notation 4 Bits (Base 2)* Decimal (Base 10) Hexadecimal (Base 16) Symbol 0000 0001 0010 0 1 2 0 hex 1 hex 2 hex 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 3 4 5 6 7 3 hex 4 hex 5 hex 6 hex 7 hex Begin Counting at Zero • With 4 bits, there are 24=16 possible symbols. • For example, 01 -34 -CD-7 B-DF hex begins with 00000001 for 01. 26

Figure 4 -8: Hexadecimal Notation, Continued 4 Bits (Base 2) Decimal (Base 10) Hexadecimal Figure 4 -8: Hexadecimal Notation, Continued 4 Bits (Base 2) Decimal (Base 10) Hexadecimal (Base 16) Symbol 1000 1001 8 9 8 hex 9 hex 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10 11 12 13 14 15 A hex B hex C hex D hex E hex F hex After 9, Count A Through F 27

Figure 4 -8: Hexadecimal Notation, Continued • Converting 48 -Bit MAC Addresses to Hex Figure 4 -8: Hexadecimal Notation, Continued • Converting 48 -Bit MAC Addresses to Hex – Start with the 48 -bit MAC Address • 101000011011 … – Break the MAC address into twelve 4 -bit “nibbles” • 1010 0001 1101 … – Convert each nibble to a hex symbol • A 1 D D – Write the hex symbols in pairs (each pair is an octet) and put a dash between each pair • A 1 -DD-3 C-D 7 -23 -FF 28

Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame, Continued Field Length (2 Octets) Data Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame, Continued Field Length (2 Octets) Data Field (Variable Length) LLC Subheader (Usually 8 Octets) Packet (Variable Length) PAD Frame Check Sequence (4 Octets) Length field gives the length of the data field in octets Data field contains A packet of variable length Packet is preceded in the data field by an LLC subheader that describes the type of packet (IP, IPX, etc. ) 29

Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame, Continued Field Length (2 Octets) Data Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame, Continued Field Length (2 Octets) Data Field (Variable Length) LLC Subheader (Usually 8 Octets) Packet (Variable Length) PAD A PAD is added if the data field is less than 46 octets; length is set to make the data field plus PAD field 46 octets; A PAD field is not added if data field is greater than 46 octets long. Frame Check Sequence (4 Octets) 30

Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame, Continued Field Length (2 Octets) Data Figure 4 -7: The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame, Continued Field Length (2 Octets) Data Field (Variable Length) LLC Subheader (Usually 8 Octets) Packet (Variable Length) PAD Frame Check Sequence (4 Octets) Sender computes the frame check sequence field value based on the bits in the other fields. The receiver redoes the computation. If it gets a different results, the frame must have a transmission error. The receiver discards the frame. There is no error correction. Ethernet is not reliable. 31

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Ethernet II • Ethernet II frame – also called DIX frame, named after DEC, Ethernet II • Ethernet II frame – also called DIX frame, named after DEC, Intel, and Xerox • Ether. Type 0 x 0800 0 x 0806 0 x 8100 Protocol IPv 4 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) IEEE 802. 1 Q-tagged frame source: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ethernet 34

Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN Switch 2 Port 7 on Switch 2 to Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN Switch 2 Port 7 on Switch 2 to Port 4 on Switch 3 Port 5 on Switch 1 to Port 3 on Switch 2 Switch 1 The Situation: A 1… Sends to E 5… Frame must go through 3 switches along the way (1, 2, and then 3) Switch 3 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 Switch 1, Port 7 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C Switch 1, Port 2 D 5 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F Switch 3, Port 2 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 Switch 3, Port 6 35

Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN, Continued On Switch 1 Switch 2 Port 5 Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN, Continued On Switch 1 Switch 2 Port 5 on Switch 1 to Port 3 on Switch 2 Switching Table Switch 1 Port Station 2 A 1 -45 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C 7 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 5 D 5 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F 5 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 Switch 1, Port 7 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C Switch 1, Port 2 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 Switch 3, Port 6 36

Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN, Continued Switch 2 Port 5 on Switch 1 Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN, Continued Switch 2 Port 5 on Switch 1 to Port 3 on Switch 2 Switch 1 On Switch 2 Port 7 on Switch 2 to Port 4 on Switch 3 Switching Table Switch 2 Port Station 3 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C 4 3 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 7 D 5 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F 8 7 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 Switch 3, Port 6 37

Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN, Continued Switch 2 Switching Table Switch 3 Port Figure 4 -9: Multiswitch Ethernet LAN, Continued Switch 2 Switching Table Switch 3 Port Station 4 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C 4 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 2 D 5 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F 6 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C Switch 1, Port 2 Port 7 on Switch 2 to Port 4 on Switch 3 On Switch 3 D 5 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F Switch 3, Port 2 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 Switch 3, Port 6 38

Figure 4 -10: Hierarchical Ethernet LAN Single Possible Path Between Client PC 1 and Figure 4 -10: Hierarchical Ethernet LAN Single Possible Path Between Client PC 1 and Server Y Ethernet Switch A Ethernet Switch C Ethernet Switch B Ethernet Switch D Ethernet Switch F Ethernet Switch E Server X Client PC 1 Server Y 39

Figure 4 -10: Hierarchical Ethernet LAN, Continued • With only one possible path between Figure 4 -10: Hierarchical Ethernet LAN, Continued • With only one possible path between stations… – Therefore there is only one possible port on a switch to send the frame back out – Therefore only one row per MAC address in switching table – Switch can find the one row quickly – This makes Ethernet switches inexpensive per frame – Low cost has led to Ethernet’s LAN dominance Port 2 7 5 Station A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 40

Figure 4 -10: Hierarchical Ethernet LAN, Continued Core Switches Workgroup Ethernet Switch D Core Figure 4 -10: Hierarchical Ethernet LAN, Continued Core Switches Workgroup Ethernet Switch D Core Ethernet Switch A Core Ethernet Switch B Core Ethernet Switch C Workgroup Ethernet Switch F Workgroup Ethernet Switch E Workgroup Switch As noted in Chapter 3, there are workgroup and core switches. Core switches need more capacity. 41

Figure 4 -11: Single Point of Failure in a Switch Hierarchy Switch Fails No Figure 4 -11: Single Point of Failure in a Switch Hierarchy Switch Fails No Communication Switch 1 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C Switch 2 No Communication Switch 3 D 4 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 42

Figure 4 -12: 802. 1 D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Loop, but Spanning Tree Figure 4 -12: 802. 1 D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Loop, but Spanning Tree Protocol Deactivates One Link Normal Operation Switch 2 Activated Deactivated Switch 1 B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C Switch 3 D 4 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 43

Figure 4 -12: 802. 1 D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Continued Switch 2 Fails Figure 4 -12: 802. 1 D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Continued Switch 2 Fails Deactivated Switch 2 Deactivated Reactivated Switch 1 C 3 -2 D-55 -3 B-A 9 -4 F B 2 -CD-13 -5 B-E 4 -65 A 1 -44 -D 5 -1 F-AA-4 C Switch 3 D 4 -47 -55 -C 4 -B 6 -9 F E 5 -BB-47 -21 -D 3 -56 44

Figure 4 -12: 802. 1 D (STP), Continued • Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) – Figure 4 -12: 802. 1 D (STP), Continued • Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) – Works but when there is a break in the hierarchy, the network converges to a new hierarchy too slowly • Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) – Newer algorithm that converges very quickly 45

Figure 4 -13: Virtual LAN (VLAN) with Ethernet Switches Destination MAC address: FF-FF-FF-FF Server Figure 4 -13: Virtual LAN (VLAN) with Ethernet Switches Destination MAC address: FF-FF-FF-FF Server Broadcasting without VLANS Servers Sometimes Broadcast; Goes To All Stations; Latency Results Server Broadcast Client C Client B Client A Server D Server E 46

Figure 4 -13: Virtual LAN (VLAN) with Ethernet Switches, Continued With VLANs, Broadcasts Only Figure 4 -13: Virtual LAN (VLAN) with Ethernet Switches, Continued With VLANs, Broadcasts Only Go To a Server’s VLAN Clients; Less Latency Server Broadcasting with VLANS Server Broadcast No No Client C on VLAN 1 Client A on VLAN 1 Client B on VLAN 2 Server D on VLAN 2 Server E on VLAN 1 47

Figure 4 -14: Tagged Ethernet Frame (Governed By 802. 1 Q) By looking Tagged Figure 4 -14: Tagged Ethernet Frame (Governed By 802. 1 Q) By looking Tagged 802. 3 MAC Frame at the value in the 2 Preamble (7 octets) octets after Start-of-Frame Delimiter the (1 Octet) addresses, the switch Destination Address can tell if (6 Octets) this frame Source Address (6 Octets) is a basic Source Address (6 Octets) frame (value less Tag Protocol ID (2 Octets) Length (2 Octets) than 1, 500) 100000000 Length of Data Field in or a tagged 81 -00 hex; 33, 024 decimal. Octets (value is Larger than 1, 500, So not 1, 500 (Decimal) Maximum 33, 024). a Length Field Basic 802. 3 MAC Frame 48

Figure 4 -14: Tagged Ethernet Frame (Governed By 802. 1 Q), Continued Basic 802. Figure 4 -14: Tagged Ethernet Frame (Governed By 802. 1 Q), Continued Basic 802. 3 MAC Frame Tagged 802. 3 MAC Frame Data Field (variable) Tag Control Information (2 Octets) Priority Level (0 -7) (3 bits); VLAN ID (12 bits) 1 other bit PAD (If Needed) Length (2 Octets) Frame Check Sequence (4 Octets) Data Field (variable) PAD (If Needed) Frame Check Sequence (4 Octets) 49

Figure 4 -15: Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks with Overprovisioning and Priority Traffic Network Capacity Figure 4 -15: Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks with Overprovisioning and Priority Traffic Network Capacity Momentary Traffic Peak: Congestion and Latency Momentary traffic peaks usually last only a fraction of a second; They occasionally exceed the network’s capacity. When they do, frames will be delayed, even dropped. Time 50

Figure 4 -15: Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks with Overprovisioning and Priority, Continued Overprovisioned Traffic Figure 4 -15: Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks with Overprovisioning and Priority, Continued Overprovisioned Traffic Capacity in Ethernet Traffic Overprovisioned Network Capacity Momentary Peak: No Congestion Overprovisioning: Build high capacity than will rarely if ever be exceeded. This wastes capacity. But cheaper than using priority (next) Time 51

Figure 4 -15: Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks with Overprovisioning and Priority, Continued Traffic Network Figure 4 -15: Handling Momentary Traffic Peaks with Overprovisioning and Priority, Continued Traffic Network Capacity Priority in Ethernet Momentary Peak High-Priority Traffic Goes Low-Priority Waits Priority: During momentary peaks, give priority to traffic that is intolerant of latency (delay), such as voice. No need to overprovision, but expensive to implement. Ongoing management is very expensive. Time 52

IEEE 802. 1 • 802. 1 D MAC Bridges • 802. 1 p Traffic IEEE 802. 1 • 802. 1 D MAC Bridges • 802. 1 p Traffic Class Expediting and Dynamic Multicast Filtering • 802. 1 Q Virtual LANs • 802. 1 X Port Based Network Access Control • 802. 1 AE MAC Security For a complete list, please visit http: //www. ieee 802. org/1/ 53

Figure 4 -16: Hub Versus Switch Operation, Continued Ethernet Switch Sends Frame Out One Figure 4 -16: Hub Versus Switch Operation, Continued Ethernet Switch Sends Frame Out One Port If A Is Transmitting to C, B Can Transmit to D Simultaneously A B C D 54

Figure 4 -16: Hub Versus Switch Operation Hub Broadcasts Each Bit Out All Other Figure 4 -16: Hub Versus Switch Operation Hub Broadcasts Each Bit Out All Other Ports --If A Is Transmitting, B Must Wait to Transmit Ethernet Hub X A B C D 55

Figure 4 -16: Hub Versus Switch Operation, Continued • Hubs Need Media Access Control Figure 4 -16: Hub Versus Switch Operation, Continued • Hubs Need Media Access Control – This limits when a station may transmit – Ethernet hubs use CSMA/CD • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) – Only transmit if no other station is transmitting – Otherwise, wait • Collision Detection (CD) – If two NICs transmit at the same time, this is a collision – Both will stop, wait a random amount of time, and the go back to CSMA to send again 56

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection • With CSMA, collision occupies medium for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection • With CSMA, collision occupies medium for duration of transmission • Stations listen whilst transmitting 1. If medium idle, transmit, otherwise, step 2 2. If busy, listen for idle, then transmit 3. If collision detected, send a jamming signal and then cease transmission 4. After jam, wait random time (backoff) then start from step 1 • Binary exponential backoff – – Random delay is doubled (the first 10 retransmission) After 16 unsuccessful attempts, give up 57

Purchasing Switches Purchasing Switches

Figure 4 -17: Switch Purchasing Considerations • Number and Speeds of Ports – Buyers Figure 4 -17: Switch Purchasing Considerations • Number and Speeds of Ports – Buyers must decide on the number of ports needed and the speed of each – Buyers often can buy a prebuilt switch with this configuration 59

Figure 4 -18: Switching Matrix 100 Mbps 1 2 3 4 100 BASE-TX Input Figure 4 -18: Switching Matrix 100 Mbps 1 2 3 4 100 BASE-TX Input Ports Queue(s) Port 1 to Port 3 400 Mbps Aggregate Capacity to Be Nonblocking 1 2 3 4 Any-to-Any Switching Matrix 100 BASE-TX Output Ports Note: Input Port 1 and Output Port 1 are the same port. Aggregate switching matrix capacity is its total switching speed. Maximum input for this switch is 400 Mbps (4 x 100 Mbps). 400 Mbps aggregate capacity is needed for switch to be nonblocking 60

Figure 4 -17: Switch Purchasing Considerations, Continued • Store-and-Forward Versus Cut-Through Switching (see Figure Figure 4 -17: Switch Purchasing Considerations, Continued • Store-and-Forward Versus Cut-Through Switching (see Figure 4 -19) – Store-and-forward Ethernet switches read whole frame before passing the frame on – Cut-through Ethernet switches read only some fields before starting to pass the frame back out – Cut-through switches have less latency, but this is rarely important 61

Figure 4 -19: Store-and-Forward Versus Cut. Through Switching Preamble Start-of-Frame Delimiter 2. Cut-Through Based Figure 4 -19: Store-and-Forward Versus Cut. Through Switching Preamble Start-of-Frame Delimiter 2. Cut-Through Based On MAC Destination Address (14 Octets) Destination Address 1. Store-and. Forward Processing Ends Here (Often Hundreds Of Bytes) Source Address Tag Fields if Present Length Data (and Perhaps PAD) Cyclical Redundancy Check 3. . Cut-Through for Priority or VLANs (24 Octets) 4. Cut-Through at 64 Bytes (Not a Runt) 62

Figure 4 -20: Managed Switches Manager can manage all switches remotely Get Data Managed Figure 4 -20: Managed Switches Manager can manage all switches remotely Get Data Managed switches cost much more than unmanaged switcheds Data Requested Manager Managed Switch Command to Change Configuration (can fix many problems remotely) Managed Switch 63

Ethernet Security • Port-Based Access Control (802. 1 X) – Attackers on site can Ethernet Security • Port-Based Access Control (802. 1 X) – Attackers on site can walk up to any Ethernet port and plug in a computer, bypassing the firewall – 802. 1 X standard • Computer attaching to a port must first authenticate itself. (Details in Chapter 5) No Access Without Authentication 64

Ethernet Security • MAC Security (MACsec) 802. 1 AE – Switches must talk to Ethernet Security • MAC Security (MACsec) 802. 1 AE – Switches must talk to one another for STP, VLANs, and other supervisory protocols – An attacker on a PC can pretend to be a switch and send false supervisory messages – 802. 1 AE MACsec protects supervisory communication, preventing many types of attacks False Supervisory Message PC impersonating a switch Stops Fake Message 65

Box Box: Advanced Switch Purchase Considerations Physical and Electrical Features Box Box: Advanced Switch Purchase Considerations Physical and Electrical Features

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features Box • Physical Size – Switches fit Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features Box • Physical Size – Switches fit into standard 19 -in (48 -cm) wide equipment racks – Switch heights usually are multiples of 1 U (1. 75 in or 4. 4 cm) KVM device (Keyboard Video Mouse) 19 inches (48 cm) 67

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Fixed-port Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Fixed-port switches • No flexibility: the number of ports is fixed • 1 or 2 U tall • Most workgroup switches are fixed-port switches 68

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Stackable Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Stackable Switches • Fixed number of ports • 1 or 2 U tall • High-speed interconnect bus connects stacked switches • When demand increases, firm can simply add a new stackable switch 69

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Modular Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Modular Switches • 1 or 2 U tall • Contain one or a few slots for modules • Each module usually contains 1 to 4 ports Module 70

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Chassis Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Port Flexibility – Chassis switches • Several U tall • Contain several expansion slots • Each expansion board contains several slots • Most core switches are chassis switches 71

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Switch and NIC Ports Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Switch and NIC Ports – Normal Ethernet RJ-45 switch ports transmit on Pins 3 and 6 and listen on Pins 1 and 2 – NICs transmit on Pins 1 and 2 and listen on Ports 3 and 6 Normal PC NIC Port Pins 1&2 Pins 3&6 Normal Switch Port 72

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Switch and NIC Ports Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Switch and NIC Ports – If you connect two normal ports on different switches via UTP cords, BOTH will send on Pins 3 & 6 and neither will listen on Pins 3 & 6 • Communication will be impossible Normal Switch Port Pins 3&6 Normal Switch Port On Parent Switch 73

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Switch Uplink Ports – Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Switch Uplink Ports – On a growing number of switches, normal ports change automatically to uplink ports if used that way Normal Switch Port 2. Changes automatically to Pins 1 & 2 1. Normally transmits on Pins 3 & 6 Pins 3&6 Normal Switch Port On Parent Switch 74

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued • Crossover Cables Box / New Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued • Crossover Cables Box / New – Designed to connect ordinary ports on two switches – Internally, connect Pins 1 & 2 on one machine to Pins 3 & 6 on the other switch – Do NOT use to connect NICs to switches or a switch uplink port to another switch! Normal Switch Port Pins 1&2 Crossover Cable Pins 3&6 Normal Switch Port On Parent Switch 75

Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Electrical Power – Under Figure 4 -21: Physical and Electrical Features, Continued Box • Electrical Power – Under the 802. 3 af standard, switches can provide electrical power to devices over the UTP cord – Currently limited to 12. 95 watts; sufficient for most wireless access points (Chapter 5) and voice over IP telephones (Chapter 6) but not sufficient for computers – New slightly higher-power version of the standard is being developed to be able to serve sophisticated access points; still not good enough for computers. 76

Topics Covered Topics Covered

Topics Covered • Ethernet Standards Setting – 802. 3 Working Group – Physical and Topics Covered • Ethernet Standards Setting – 802. 3 Working Group – Physical and data link layer standards – OSI standards • Physical Layer Standards – – – BASE means baseband 100 BASE-TX dominates for access lines 10 GBASE-SX dominates for trunk lines Link aggregation for small capacity increases Regeneration to carry signals across multiple switches 78

Topics Covered • Ethernet MAC Layer Standards – Data link layer subdivided into the Topics Covered • Ethernet MAC Layer Standards – Data link layer subdivided into the LLC and MAC layers – The Ethernet MAC Layer Frame • Preamble and Start of Frame Delimiter fields • Destination and Source MAC addresses fields – Hexadecimal notation • Length field • Data field – LLC subheader – Packet – PAD if needed • Frame Check Sequence field 79

Topics Covered • Ethernet MAC Layer Standards – Switch operation • Operation of a Topics Covered • Ethernet MAC Layer Standards – Switch operation • Operation of a hierarchy of switches – Single possible path between any two computers – Hierarchy gives low price per frame transmitted – Single points of failure and the Spanning Tree Protocol • VLANs and frame tagging to reduce broadcasting • Momentary traffic peaks: addressed by overprovisioning and priority • Hubs and CSMA/CD 80

Topics Covered • Switch Purchasing Considerations – Number and speed of ports – Switching Topics Covered • Switch Purchasing Considerations – Number and speed of ports – Switching matrix (nonblocking) – Store-and-forward versus cut-through switches – Managed switches – Ethernet security • 802. 1 X Port-Based Access Control • 802. 1 AE MACsec 81

Topics Covered Box • Advanced Switch Purchasing Considerations – Physical size – Fixed-Port-Speeches – Topics Covered Box • Advanced Switch Purchasing Considerations – Physical size – Fixed-Port-Speeches – Stackable Switches – Modular Switches – Chassis Switches – Pins in Switch Ports and Uplink Ports – Electrical Power (802. 3 af) 82