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Estadísticas de género sobre trabajo remunerado y no remunerado: Los desafíos para la OIT Estadísticas de género sobre trabajo remunerado y no remunerado: Los desafíos para la OIT Sophia Lawrence ILO Department of Statistics [email protected] org

Times have changed… • Pilar P. de Rivera, 1942: – “Las mujeres nunca descubren Times have changed… • Pilar P. de Rivera, 1942: – “Las mujeres nunca descubren nada; les falta, desde luego, el talento creador, reservado por Dios para inteligencias varoniles. . . ” • Beijing Platform for Action 1995: – “Women contribute to development not only through remunerated work but also through a great deal of unremunerated work. ” ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 2

Gender roles change • Sex: BIOLOGICAL differences do not change • Gender: SOCIAL differences Gender roles change • Sex: BIOLOGICAL differences do not change • Gender: SOCIAL differences do change • GENDER ROLES: roles assigned to men and women in a SOCIETY as « male » and « female » – Specificities of different groups – Dominant cultures, minorities, indigenous, racial, etc. ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 3

Meaningful labour statistics • Should reflect current reality • In practice, they simplify it Meaningful labour statistics • Should reflect current reality • In practice, they simplify it – Objectives, measurement methods • They identify core situations, results in: – Partial coverage – Insufficient detail – Incomplete analytical topics ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

 An Indicator only shows partial reality MDG Indicator 3. 2 Share of women’s An Indicator only shows partial reality MDG Indicator 3. 2 Share of women’s wage employment, non -agricultural sector 1990 2007 2015 • • • CIS (Europe) CIS (Asia) Developed Latin America & Caribbean Eastern Asia Oceania South-East Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Southern Asia Western Asia Northern Africa • World 6 ILO Estimates 50. 3 45. 4 43. 4 36. 5 38. 0 32. 8 35. 6 22. 8 13. 4 17. 3 21. 0 51. 2 45. 5 45. 4 40. 7 39. 6 35. 1 37. 4 26. 2 17. 2 19. 6 19. 8 52. 1 46. 2 46. 5 42. 7 41. 3 35. 8 37. 4 28. 9 18. 8 21. 2 20. 4 53. 2 47. 2 48. 1 45. 5 43. 7 36. 8 37. 4 32. 7 21. 0 23. 6 21. 2 35. 3 37. 6 39. 0 40. 8

Status in employment reality Distribution of total employment by status in employment, developing regions Status in employment reality Distribution of total employment by status in employment, developing regions 1997 and 2008, by sex (Percentage) Women 34 2 34 41 Men Women 27 Men 35 0% 3 1 20% 43 29 3 40% Wage and salaried workers Own-account workers 2008 30 13 1997 43 45 60% 17 80% Employers Contributing family workers 100%

Fully “engendered” labour statistics • International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 2003: • Checklist of Fully “engendered” labour statistics • International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 2003: • Checklist of good practices for mainstreaming gender in labour statistics • Aims to address gender concerns, to better understand how men and women contribute to labour market functioning ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 8

Gender analysis for labour statistics WOMEN DIVISION OF LABOUR MEN combine employment with unpaid Gender analysis for labour statistics WOMEN DIVISION OF LABOUR MEN combine employment with unpaid household service work mainly economic activities active in non-market activities and informal sector; carry out multiple activities, seasonal work mostly active in market activities; full-time work, may have a secondary job occupy general occupations with more routine specific tasks in occupations and/or multiple, non-specific tasks with less routine work closer to home: for pay in the house, e. g. , as homeworkers, or family profit in a family enterprise RESOURCES AND BENEFITS NEEDS AND CONSTRAINTS work for pay or profit outside of the house activities are less rewarded or not rewarded at all and have lower status activities are better rewarded and have higher status access to different types of resources and less control over resources and benefits more control over resources and benefits participation in the labour force is constrained by marriage and presence of children and other persons requiring care labour force participation boosted by marriage and presence of children ILO Department of Statistics, tend to be seen as housewives and Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 dependents tend to be seen predominantly as breadwinners

Important gender role of men, boys • Socialization and education process related to: – Important gender role of men, boys • Socialization and education process related to: – The workplace and the economy – Household (domestic) work and work/life balance – Sexuality, health, HIV/AIDS – Gender-based violence – Masculinities • Male attitudes, aspirations, anxieties ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 10

Gender justice Intrinsic and instrumental value Increased gender justice in households, labour markets, society Gender justice Intrinsic and instrumental value Increased gender justice in households, labour markets, society Men co-responsible for household tasks, women have better access to markets Increased women’s labor force participation, productivity and earnings Income / consumption expenditure Current poverty reduction and economic growth Women have better education and health Differential savings rate Mothers’ greater control over decision-making in households, Fathers‘ greater share in family life Improved children’s, elder’s and other dependents’ wellbeing Better family health, educational attainment; greater adult productivity Future poverty reduction and economic growth

18 th ICLS: Important breakthrough for gender and labour statistics* • New international standards 18 th ICLS: Important breakthrough for gender and labour statistics* • New international standards of Working Time and of Child Labour (2008) • Recommends SNA recognize that, to portray the world of work adequately: – All paid and unpaid work activities, and the relationships between them, need to be acknowledged, quantified and understood *International Labour Conference, 98 th Session, 2009 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 12

SNA scope of new standards • PRINCIPLE of “production of all goods and services” SNA scope of new standards • PRINCIPLE of “production of all goods and services” time spent and performed by all, young and old • Within SNA Production boundary • Employment, labour input for national production accounts, GDP measures • Beyond SNA General Production boundary • Enlarged measures, in “unpaid household service + volunteer work” 13

SNA PRODUCTION PERSPECTIVE Things with economic value… Trees when cut down Tobacco, Arms, Missile SNA PRODUCTION PERSPECTIVE Things with economic value… Trees when cut down Tobacco, Arms, Missile industry Crime, Prostitution Illness, clinics, hospitals Death, War Women's bodies for advertising ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS A way of counting money, but not human and environmental cost, not unpaid work, not time, not health or happiness Things without economic value… Rivers, forests (when not harnessed for economic gain) Good health, mother’s milk Protecting the earth Giving birth, Beauty (except art for sale) Doing own dishes, laundry Based on Waring, 1988

Measurement of Working Time Resolution Context: • Where --> location – lab. , office, Measurement of Working Time Resolution Context: • Where --> location – lab. , office, shop, home; fields, street, construction site • With whom --> co-workers, family members, dependents… • For what purpose --> pay, self, family, fun ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 15

Hours actually worked Key Concept: • Time spent on tasks + duties necessary to Hours actually worked Key Concept: • Time spent on tasks + duties necessary to enable, facilitate or enhance productive activity of a job – Waiting, standing-by, transporting goods and household members – Short rest breaks (not lunch) – Work at home, attending meetings, travel for work – Professional training for economic unit 16

Concept also defines § § Hours actually worked in “Unpaid household service and volunteer Concept also defines § § Hours actually worked in “Unpaid household service and volunteer work” Typical productive activities: – Household accounts, management – Prepare meals, Care for household members – Maintain house, grounds, clothes, equipment – Purchase or transport goods or persons – Travelling, waiting for persons in one’s charge – Training for household jobs ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS 17

”Unpaid vs Paid Work” • Clarify the terms • Unpaid work as “contributing family ”Unpaid vs Paid Work” • Clarify the terms • Unpaid work as “contributing family member” in family enterprise (E) • Unpaid subsistence production in rural areas (E or I) • Unpaid care work within the family (I) • Unpaid work with the public health-care sector (I), etc. ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 18

Paid work - optimistic view Procures: • Own resources • Increased autonomy • Bargaining Paid work - optimistic view Procures: • Own resources • Increased autonomy • Bargaining power. . . But most jobs created are not: • Secure – Casual, temporary, contract or precarious work – Seasonal migrants, home workers, etc. ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 19

Allocation of time, not money • In the household as women’s market working time Allocation of time, not money • In the household as women’s market working time increases • Non-market work has not declined commensurately • Participation in paid employment is purchased often at the expense of: – time once devoted to personal care, sleep, leisure • Many women work ‘‘second shift’’ or ‘‘double day’’ ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 20

Challenges go beyond paid/unpaid • Existing gender inequalities repeated, reinforced • Women’s paid jobs Challenges go beyond paid/unpaid • Existing gender inequalities repeated, reinforced • Women’s paid jobs concentrated: – in lower segments of supply chains • Global production systems in current financial downturn • Must demonstrate significance of gender justice for economic + social development ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 21

Future work • Working to identify how to incorporate employment and unpaid household service Future work • Working to identify how to incorporate employment and unpaid household service work and volunteer work in: – Statistical measurements – Indicators – Economic modelling – Impact assessment tools, etc ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 22

ILO decent work concept • Encompasses all forms of work, all who perform work: ILO decent work concept • Encompasses all forms of work, all who perform work: – Young and old, women and men • Work includes unpaid work in the family and in the community • Economic productivity is subsidized by social productivity – Unpaid (mainly) female household service work, done often alongside paid work ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 23

Many dimensions of decent work A. Employment Opportunities B. Adequate Earnings, Productive Work C. Many dimensions of decent work A. Employment Opportunities B. Adequate Earnings, Productive Work C. Decent Working Time » D. Work that should be Abolished » E. Work Stability and Security » F. Equal Opportunity and Treatment in All Work G. Social Security H. Social Dialogue, Worker-Employer Representation I. Economic and social context ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, 28 -30 October 2009 24

New Challenges: work statistics • Measurement of total « WORK » • Need to New Challenges: work statistics • Measurement of total « WORK » • Need to go beyond current concepts applied in labour statistics • Provide a fully engendered perspective • Enable us to fully describe and analyze total social production http: //laborsta. ilo. org Muchas gracias ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS 25