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ESL Short Subject Articles and Connecting Words Intensive Course in Research Writing Texas A&M University July 11 -15, 2011 Susan E. Aiello, DVM, ELS [email protected] net Words. World Consulting www. words-world. net
Articles An article is a special type of modifier called a determiner. § § § a, an indefinite articles the definite article no article indefinite
Guidelines for Article Use Every time you use a common noun or noun phrase (the noun plus its modifiers), you must decide between: § § a an (used before a vowel sound) the no article
Guidelines for Article Use § First determine whether the noun is countable § § § or uncountable. If classifying a countable noun, use “a” or “an. ” If classifying an uncountable or plural noun, do not use an article. To identify a noun, countable or uncountable, singular or plural, use “the. ”
Guidelines for Article Use “the” identifies the noun Example: I ate the apple in my lunch. “a, ” “an, ” or no article does not identify the specific noun but shows to what class or group the noun belongs. Examples: I eat an apple every day. I like police movies.
Guidelines for Article Use If the noun is a singular countable noun, use “a” or “an. ” Example: Last week, I bought ___ chemistry book at the University Book Store. If the noun is uncountable or plural, do not use an article. Note: The determiner “some” can be used with uncountable and plural nouns but only when an amount can be indicated. Example: Many people drink ___ bottled water. Example: Before I go to the office, I had better buy ___ printer paper.
Guidelines for Article Use To identify a common noun, use “the. ” After you have classified a noun with “a, ” use “the” when you use the noun again. Example: I found ___ used car that I liked yesterday and bought it. Now I have to buy insurance for ___ car.
Guidelines for Article Use § In the following circumstances, use “the. ” The noun can be singular or plural, countable or uncountable. – The noun is identified by a ranking adjective that identifies it as one of a kind (the best, the next, the only, etc) – The noun is identifiable to the reader and the writer through shared knowledge. The sun is going to rise at 6: 00 am tomorrow. I left my papers in the break room. cont
Guidelines for Article Use § In the following circumstances, use “the. ” The noun can be singular or plural, countable or uncountable. – The noun phrase is identified by the modification that follows it. Last week I finally read ___ article that Dr. Gastel recommended. – The noun is part of an “of” phrase showing quantity. Susan noticed that half of ___ chicken had been eaten already. Some of ___ horses will be moved to a larger paddock.
Connecting Words A connector is a word or phrase used to link paragraphs, sentences, clauses, or words.
Types of Connectors Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, or independent clauses. – The dog ran out of the house and barked at the car. – Vincent wanted to study philosophy, but his father convinced him to study veterinary medicine. Correlative conjunctions connect similar grammatical structures. – You will have to either get a higher-paying job or cut down on your expenses to pay your bills.
Connecting Words Transitional words and phrases link sentences and paragraphs. I dislike working at night; however, I cannot find a day job. Subordinating conjunctions connect a dependent (or subordinate) clause with an independent clause. When we have finished the training course, we will have a test.
Connecting Words Used to link items together (eg, two sentences) or to lead the reader to a new point Help make writing clear and easy to follow by providing smooth links between ideas Be certain of the meaning of connectors!
Connecting Words Connecting words that add information: and not only…but also both…and also beside moreover furthermore in additionally
Connecting Words Connecting words that give an example or illustrate a point: for example for instance to illustrate specifically in particular
Connecting Words Connecting words that show a contrast: but however in contrast conversely on the contrary on the other hand otherwise still instead
Connecting Words Connecting words that show a similarity: likewise similarly in the same way
Connecting Words Connecting words that show a concession: yet nevertheless even so admittedly
Connecting Words Connecting words that show a result: so accordingly as a result consequently as a consequence therefore thus
Connecting Words Connecting words that give a reason or cause: for because
Connecting Words Connecting words that establish a time relationship or order: first second afterward finally in conclusion meanwhile previously next subsequently
Connecting Words Connecting words that show a condition: or (or else can also be used) whether…or
Connecting Words Connecting words that explain or emphasize: in fact namely that is actually in other words
Connecting Words Connecting words that give a choice or alternative: or either…or
Connecting Words Pets play an important role in societies throughout the world. They are important companions in many households, contributing to the physical, social, and emotional development of children and the well-being of their owners, especially senior citizens. Although pets make important contributions, however, pet ownership may also be associated with potential hazards. For example, more and more exotic animals are being invited into homes as pets. Unfortunately, though, pet owners, and often physicians, do not know as much as they should about the potential of many of these unusual animals to transmit zoonotic diseases.
Connecting Words Remember § Transitional words and phrases lead your reader from one idea to another. § Connectors can introduce an example, indicate the order of ideas, show a contrast, etc.
Preposition Use In a phrase (eg, during the daytime) With a two- or three-word verb (eg, turn in, check up on) After a noun or an adjective (eg, to be happy about) Correct use of prepositions is learned mainly through listening and reading.
Prepositions of Time in: on: in: month, year day of the week, date time of day at: specific time of day in February, in 1999 on Monday, on June 1 in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening (but at night) at 8: 00 am, at 3: 30 pm sharp
Prepositions of Place in: on: at: in: at: city, country street address inside of a place a specific place in Dallas, in Mexico on First Street at 119 Royfield Dr. in the lab, in the library at work, at home, at the store, at the airport, at the movies
Prepositions of Position on: on top of in: inside on the desk, on the chair in my office, in my car, in my desk