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ENVIROMENTAL STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS IN THE COASTAL AREA OF NHATRANG BAY Nguyen Tac An Chairman of Vietnam National IOC
Nhatrang – a coastal city of beauty and wealth
Nha Trang (Khanh Hoa province) is a strong marine economic center in Vietnam, with important industries such as marine shipping, port industry, fishery, aquaculture, tourism… Its development objectives focus simultaneously on the balance of three aspects: economic, social and environmental Great attention is paid to the report on sustainable development from World Bank and IMF Main resources are geographical posision, human, cultural and marine resources, beautiful landscape
Nhatrang and some of its resources: Cultural features Beautiful landscape Marine Resources Salangane nest
I. ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT IN NHATRANG Development activities in Nhatrang - Nhatrang area: 251 km², population 400, 000 (2006), estimated to increase to 500, 000 – 600, 000 in 2020. - Annual GDP growth in Nhatrang: 12%, higher than that of the whole country (8%)
- Developments focused largely on 8 groups of products: 1. Tourism and urban-development 2. Ship-building and –repairing, mechanical and electronical products; 3. Seafood & agricultural products processing; 4. Minerals exploitation and processing – production of building materials; 5. Forest products processing-handicraft production 6. Textile-garment products, garment accessories; 7 Soft drink products 8. Infomation technology
- Port, marine shipping and transportation, and industrial activities: + Port and marine shipping in Nhatrang formed early and is now one of its strength + Provincial industrial value in 2007 reached 11, 356 billion VND, increased by 12. 4% compared with 2006
Ports at Nhatrang: 1. Nhatrang port (commercial) 2. Cau Da tourism port 3. Cu Lao fishing port 2 1 3
Some industrial activities in Nha Trang Electronic car for tourism- a products of KHATOCO Machinery Enterprise Ship repairing at Nhatrang shipyard Printing carton parking at Dong A Parking Joint Stock Company Weaving fabrics at Tan Tien Textile Factory
- Tourism, service and urban development activities: + In 2007, Nha Trang attracted more 1, 124, 452 of arrivals, increased by 21. 36% compared with 2006, making a turnover of 850. 6 bilion VND, increased by 30. 6%. + 802 hotels & guest-houses with 8, 945 rooms, 701 bussinesses deal in tourism service in Khanh Hoa.
Hotels in Nhatrang
Cutural and Tourism activities in Nhatrang
Sea Festival 2007 in Nha Trang
- Fisheries and aquaculture: + Fishery production value in 2007: 1, 259 billlion VND, increased by 1. 4% compared with 2006 (70% from aquaculture, 30% from capture). + Fishing yield in 2007: 66, 872 thousand tons, increased by 2. 5% + Salangene nest production: 2. 310 kg, increased 0, 9%. + Aquaculture: Tiger shrimp, lobster, greenmussel, grouper, pearl oyster, seaweeds etc. Tiger shrimp culture area in 2007: 4, 328 ha, increased by 0. 7%. Shrimp production: 5, 476 tons, increased by 6. 4%; shrimp seeds increased by 1. 2%, reached 2, 090 milion individuals, pearl production: 848 kg, decreased 46. 3%.
+ The lobster farming is developing strongest in Khanh Hoa, with 30, 000 cages, of which 8. 472 are in Nha Trang. However, lobster production in 2007 decreased by 51. 4% to 595 tons, because of mass mortality by diseases since July 2007, lost 200 billion VND. + Khanh Hoa target up to year 2010: to incease fishing yield to 100 -110 thousand tons, aquaculture output: 30 -35 thousand tons, aquaculture area: 5000 - 5500 ha, and export turnover to 300 million USD. - Investment–development focus: Nhatrang and its surroundings
Fishing and Aquaculture in Nhatrang bay
Oyster culture Taking salangane nest Green mussel culture
Environmental changes caused by socio -economic activities General feature of Nhatrang bay: Nhatrang bay has a surface area of 40, 341 ha; volume: 6, 798 million m 3, 103 km coastline. Nhatrang’s total runoff is < 5, 000 m 3/head/year, while national’s total runoff is 13, 000 m 3/head/year and that of the world is 12, 000 m 3//head/year. Cai river basin: 2, 000 km 2, total water input 389. 8 x 109 m 3; Cua Be river basin: 83 km 2, total water input 60, 1. 109 m 3. Lessons and experiences of other countries
Impacts of development projects on the coastal area of Nhatrang: 1. Promoting the economic growth, creating jobs, improving the standard of living 2. Impacts on the environment: pollution, eutrophication, disruption of ecological balance… BOD average value in waste water from Khanhhoa fishery processing is 1. 193 mg/l (ranging 773 – 1976), average COD: 1762 mg/l (1176 – 2815). Water quality in Nhatrang Beach: Field data Parameter p. H TSS BOD mg/l Avarage value 7, 91 36, 6 1, 35 Vietnam standard 6, 5 - 50 (5943 -1995) 8, 5 < 20 DO Zn Cu As mg/l HC Coliform mg/l cell/100 ml 6, 25 0, 019 0, 002 0, 379 65775 4 1000 0, 1 0, 02 0, 05 2
Polution at Nhatrang seabed and Cai estuary Eutrophic index in the coastal waters of Khanh Hoa Standard level Average level Eco. threshold Bad
3. Seafood safety: heavy metal accumulation, harmful algal bloom. . . 4. Increasing the conflicts and interests with other sectors Red tide and dead fishes caused by harmful algal bloom
5. Biodiversity changes/loss and exhaustion of marine resources: Habitats degradation: coral coverage declined 31% in last 10 years; Seagrass bed decreased to 1/3 in area; Mangrove forest almost disappeared… Mangrove cut-off for shrimp culture - a fight without victor Dead corals in Nhatrang bay caused by anchorage and destructive fishing Landfill reclaim, Dam Gia, Nhatrang bay, 2005. The seagrass bed is almost completely covered by reclaim area. Photo: Bernard O’Callaghan.
Biodiversity changes: Overdevelopment of Seaweed on live and dead corals in Nhatrang bay, may be due to eutrophication Crown-of thorns seastars outbreak leads to destruction of coral reefs
Exhaustion of marine resources: Dynamite fishing consequense Fishing with undersized meshes Blast fishing
Destructive fishing: Thai fishing net in the coastal waters of Khanh Hoa
6. Impacts on the scenery, aesthetics, cutural and human resources 7. Changes on the coastal litho-dynamic processes, sedimentation, erosion. . 8. Increase of natural disasters and diseases resulted by human activites
Coastline erosion Landfill for coastal reclaim partly burying branching corals, releasing substantial amounts of sediments to coastal waters. It also impacts on the scenic beauty
II. DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION Challenges in environment protection in Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa • Control the pollution from economic activities, prevent oil spills • Waste collection and treatment • Solve environmental issues together with poverty reduction and hunger alleviation, environmental sanitation for coastal community. • Biodiversity degradation • Global climate change
Environment protection goals 1. Reduce pollution and environment degradation, prevent environmental disasters caused by human and nature. Pollution treatment, improve and enhance environment quality. 2. Sustainable use and protection of natural resources. Biodiversity protection, rehabilitation, protection and development of degraded ecosystems. 3. Enhance capacity in environment management for all government levels, sectors, and localities. 4. Raise awareness, encourage the participation of the community. 5. Mitigation of the impact of and adaptation to Climate change and varibility
Environment protection plan 1. Integrated coastal area management + understand the usage process (research) + History, status, scale and size of impacts + The interaction between present and future uses + Sustainable uses of the ecosystems + Management approach for each use 2. To improve awareness of users on environment protection, encourage the participation of the community on environment protection, increase the quality of living environment.
3. Planning for sustainable use based on local conditions 4. Planning for waste treatment area, waste collection and treatment technology 5. Adjust the balance between aquaculture, fisheries and seafood processing to support sustainable resource use 6. Appropriate technology transfer for aquaculture and seafood processing 7. Suitable policies for change in community livelihoods and natural resource management (co-management model) 8. Human capacity building in term of environmental management
III. CONCLUSION Three issues for discussion: 1. Firstly, economic growth should be promoted 2. Secondly, speed up the identification of ownership and right of use of marine resources and sea surface 3. Finally, quickly establish feasible policies for marine economic development and environmental protection
Thank you for your attention !