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English Education in Japan st Century for the 21 Aoyama Gakuin University Mitsue Allen-Tamai (allentamai [AT] cl. aoyama. ac. jp)
Developing a strategic plan to cultivate “Japanese with English abilities” “… We have formulated a strategy to cultivate “Japanese with English abilities” in a concrete action plan with the aim of drastically improving the English education of Japanese people. ” Nine years have passed. Have we changed?
English language abilities demanded of all Japanese nationals On graduation from junior high school Ability to hold simple conversations and a similar level of reading and writing ⇒ The 3 rd level of the STEP English Proficiency of 9 th graders Holders of STEP 3 rd or higher 18. 3% Equivalent 14. 0% Total 32. 4% p
English language abilities demanded of all Japanese nationals On graduation from senior high school Ability to hold normal conversations and similar lever of reading and writing ⇒ The 2 nd or semi-2 nd level of STEP p English Proficiency of the 12 th graders Holders of semi-2 nd or higher 10. 7% Equivalent 19. 6% 30. 3% (Survey in 2007)
Comparing STEP and other Criteria STEP CEFR TOEFL (PBT) TOEFL (IBT) 1 st C 1 600 100 Semi 1 st B 2 550 80 Teacher 2 nd B 1 450 45 Highschool Ss Semi 2 nd A 2 400 32 Highschool Ss
Key policy issues 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Improving educational content Improving the qualifications of English instructors and upgrading the teaching system Increasing opportunities to use English Improving entrance examinations Enhancing English conversation activities in elementary schools Cultivating Japanese language ability for appropriate expression and accurate comprehension
1. Improving educational content Promoting the comprehensive integration of the 4 skills, emphasizing basic practical communication ability. p Promoting small-group teaching and streaming students according to proficiency level. p Promoting progressive English education in high schools p
The current situation 1. How much English is used in class? (Oral Communication class in high school) More than 80% 19. 6% More than 50% 32. 8％ 2. New Course of Study requires that class will be conducted all in English in high school from 2014. 3. 169 high schools were designated as SEL Hi (Super English High School).
2. Improving the qualifications of English instructors and upgrading the teaching system The expected English-language abilities of English teachers are equivalent to STEP semi-1 st level, TOEFL 550, TOEIC 730. p Junior-high and senior-high students will have a class with native speakers more than once a week. p Promoting the utilization of human resources with fluent English-language abilities living in the local community. p
The current situation ☆English Proficiency of English instructors Holders of STEP semi-1 st or higher Junior-high school teachers 24. 2% (in 2009) Senior-high school teachers 48. 9% (in 2010) ☆Utilization of ALT Elementary schools 67. 4% (in 2008) Junior-high schools 24. 9% (in 2008) Senior-high schools 9. 1% (in 2009) (English specialized) 33. 2% (in 2009)
3 Increasing opportunities to use English Expanding opportunities for overseas study for high school students (10, 000 a year) p Increasing opportunities to use English outside a classroom (promotion of English conversation salons and speech contests ) p ⇒ high school students in overseas study 3, 190 (in 2008)
4 Improving entrance examinations p Promoting the use of results of external examinations and listening tests in entrance examinations to high schools and universities ⇒Introduction of listening test into the University Entrance Central Examination in 2006
5 Enhancing English conversation activities in elementary schools In connection with English conversation activities, which are carried out in the Period for Integrated Study, support is to be extended so that teaching can be conducted by foreign instructors, fluent English speakers, or junior high school teachers in one third of such sessions. ⇒ Introduction of “Foreign Language Activities” to public elementary schools p
Overall Objectives of Foreign Language Activities To form the foundation of pupils’ communication abilities through foreign languages while developing the understanding of languages and cultures through various experiences fostering a positive attitude toward communication , and familiarizing pupils with the sounds and basic expressions of foreign languages.
Overall Objectives of Foreign Language at lower high schools To develop students’ basic communication abilities, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture and fostering a positive attitude toward communication through foreign languages.
Overall Objectives of Foreign Language at junior-high schools To develop students’ communication abilities such as accurately understanding and appropriately conveying information, ideas, etc. , deepening their understanding of language and culture, and fostering a positive attitude toward communication through foreign languages.
The new Course of Study Implementation of “Foreign Language Activities” to 5 th and 6 th graders p Increase of class times per week from three to four for 7 th to 9 th graders p Restructure and rename subjects in upper high schools (no reading, no writing) p Teachers use English as a language of instruction. p
New names for high school classes Aural/Oral Communication I & II English I & II Reading Writing Communication English (Basics) Communication English I, II, & III English Expression I & II English Conversation
Foreign Language Activities English will be taught from 2011. (1) to 5 th and 6 th graders (2) once a week (35 times/year) (3) as a “compulsory” subject (4) but not as a “regular” subject (5) by TT (HRT & ALT) (6) English Notes (Sub-textbook)
Not English Education But English Activities The Primary purposes of English classes 1992~2010 International Understanding Cross-cultural Communication NOT Developing English language skills 2011~ Communication Skills NOT Developing English language skills Focus on spoken language Consequently, at the elementary school stage, it is important to separate spoken and written English and focus instruction only on spoken English. Lessons should develop both oral and written language. Adequate literacy education to school-aged children is necessary.
i. BT TOEFL (2009)-Asia 国名 得 点 1 Singapo re 99 7 Banglade sh 82 13 Indones ia 79 17 Mongolia 75 24 Macao 70 2 India 90 8 韓国 81 14 Nepal 77 20 Azerbaij an 74 24 Myanm ar 70 3 Malaysi a 88 8 Kyrgyzsta n 81 15 China 76 20 Taiwan 74 24 Cambo dia 68 3 Pakista n 88 8 Hong Kong 81 15 Uzbekis tan 76 20 Thailand 74 25 Tajikist an 67 3 Philippi nes 88 8 Sri Lanka 81 17 Mongoli a 75 23 Afghanis tan 71 25 Japan 67 6 Bhutan 85 12 Turkmeni stan 80 17 北朝鮮 75 24 Vietnam 70 30 Lao, PDR 60 国名 国名 得 点
Teaching English at elementary schools Country Y/I S/G Singapore ELI G 1 China 2001 G 3 The Philippines ELI G 1 Taiwan 2005 G 3 Malaysia ELI G 1 Korea 1997 G 3 Brunei EMI G 1 France 2007 G 2 Indonesia 1994 G 4 Germany 2003 G 1 Thailand 1996 G 1 Japan G 5 Vietnam 1996 2011 G 5 G 3 2011 ELI= English as a language of Instruction, Y/I = Year of Implementation, S/G = Starting Grade