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English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages By Don L. F. Nilsen And Alleen Pace English Cognates in Various Indo-European Languages By Don L. F. Nilsen And Alleen Pace Nilsen 58 1

Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages • The English Channel separates England, Scotland, Why English Speakers Don’t Learn Other Languages • The English Channel separates England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland from mainland Europe. • The Atlantic Ocean separates the United States and Canada from Europe. • The Pacific Ocean separates Australia and New Zealand from Europe. 58 2

English as a Global Language • As a result, English speakers tend not to English as a Global Language • As a result, English speakers tend not to learn other languages, but… • The English Language borrows extensively from other languages, and that’s why there are so many English cognates in the other Indo-European languages. 58 3

English’s Linguistic Relatives: A Study in Family Resemblance • Old English is the “mother” English’s Linguistic Relatives: A Study in Family Resemblance • Old English is the “mother” of English. • The Germanic languages are closely related—let’s say “cousins. ” • The Romance languages are less-closely related— let’s say “second cousins. ” • The Celtic languages are more distantly related— let’s say second cousins once removed. ” • The Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages are more distantly related—let’s say “third cousins. ” 58 4

Languages in Contact: Borrowings and Migrations • English has been influenced by French – Languages in Contact: Borrowings and Migrations • English has been influenced by French – During the Middle Ages – During the 100 -year Norman Occupation – From the Parisian French of “haut couture. ” – From the Canadian French of exploration. – From New Orleans French 58 5

 • American English has been influenced by Mexican Spanish in the Southwest and • American English has been influenced by Mexican Spanish in the Southwest and by Puerto Rican, Canadian, and Caribbean Spanish in the Southeast. • American English has been influenced by Dutch in Holland, Michigan and in New Amsterdam and Harlem, New York. • American English has been influenced by German (Pennsylvania Dutch) in Pennsylvania. 58 6

English vs. Celtic Names Anne Brian Catherine Charles Chloe Gerard Ian James Jane John English vs. Celtic Names Anne Brian Catherine Charles Chloe Gerard Ian James Jane John Mary Patrick Peter Ryan Thomas Áine Brion Catriona Cathal Clodagh Gearóid Eóin Seamus Soméad Sean/Ian Máire/Múire Padhraig Peádhar Rian Tomás 58 7

English vs. French Names George Henry Jack John Paul Peter Robert Susan William ----Stephen English vs. French Names George Henry Jack John Paul Peter Robert Susan William ----Stephen Colbert David Cornwell Georges Henri Jacques Jean Paul Pierre, Suzanne Guillaume ----Stephen Colbert John Le Carré 58 8

French Place Names in U. S. Baton Rouge Detroit De Moines Lafayette Louisville Louisiana French Place Names in U. S. Baton Rouge Detroit De Moines Lafayette Louisville Louisiana New Orleans 58 Sault Ste. Marie 9

English vs. German English /sk/ German /šk/ English /sp/ German /šp/ Scaffold Scale Scholar English vs. German English /sk/ German /šk/ English /sp/ German /šp/ Scaffold Scale Scholar School Scotch Scribble Scrub Schafott Schale Schüler Schule Schottish Schreiber Schrubben Spaghetti Spanische Sprechen Spektrum Sprache Spinnen Spinat Spule Sport Spaghetti Spanish Speak Spectrum Speech Spinach Spool Sport 58 10

English vs. German Names John William ----Frederick Austerlitz Bernard Schwartz Gerald Silberman Larry Ziegler English vs. German Names John William ----Frederick Austerlitz Bernard Schwartz Gerald Silberman Larry Ziegler Johann Wilhelm ----Fred Astaire Tony Curtis Gene Wilder Larry King 58 11

English vs. German Verbs Cook, Cooked Drink, Drank, Drunk Love, Loved Swim, Swam, Swum English vs. German Verbs Cook, Cooked Drink, Drank, Drunk Love, Loved Swim, Swam, Swum Write, Wrote, Written Kochte Trink, Trank Getrunken Lieb, Liebt Schwim, Schwam, Geschwommen Schreib, Schrieb, Geschrieben NOTE: In all languages it is the most frequent verbs (NOTE English “scribe, that are irregular. This is scribble, script, etc) because a verb has to occur frequently for it to (Examples provided by maintain its irregularity. If Eric Kolb) it doesn’t occur frequently enough, it will tend to become regularized. 58 12

English vs. Italian English fl- Italian fi- English pl- Italian pi- Flask Flower Florence English vs. Italian English fl- Italian fi- English pl- Italian pi- Flask Flower Florence Flame Flat Fiasco Fiore Firenze Fiamma Piatto Plane Plus Plume Planet Plant place Piano Piuma Pianeto Pianta piazza 58 13

English vs. Italian Names Anthony Catherine Frank James John Joseph Leonard Louis Mary Paul English vs. Italian Names Anthony Catherine Frank James John Joseph Leonard Louis Mary Paul Peter Robert ----Louise Ciccone Daniel Michaeli Dino Crocetti Antonio Catarina Francesco Giacomo Giovanni Giuseppe Leonardo Luigi Maria Paulo Pietro Roberto ----Madonna Danny De. Vito Dean Martin 58 14

English vs. Spanish & French English sc- sp- st. School Space Spain Spanish Special English vs. Spanish & French English sc- sp- st. School Space Spain Spanish Special Spinach Spiral Spirit Stable Stigma State Stake Student Spanish esc- esp- est. Escuela Espacio España Español Especial Espinacas Espiral Espiritu Estable Estigma Estado Estaca Estudiante 58 French éc- é(s)p- étÉtudiant École Espace Épinards Esprit Étable État 15

English vs. Spanish Names English: Alfred Alice Arman Arthur Charles Edward Frances Gerald James English vs. Spanish Names English: Alfred Alice Arman Arthur Charles Edward Frances Gerald James Jesus John Joseph Spanish: Alfredo Alicia Armando Arturo Carlos Eduwado Francesca Geraldo Jaime/Diego/Iago Jesus Juan Jose English: Mark Matthew Michael Paul Peter Robert Rose William ----Carlos Esteves Jerry Rivers 58 Spanish: Marco Mateo Miguel Pablo Pedro Roberto Rosa Guillermo ----Chuck Norris Geraldo Rivero 16

Spanish Place Names in U. S. Alamgordo Amarillo Colorado Corpus Christi El Paso Florida Spanish Place Names in U. S. Alamgordo Amarillo Colorado Corpus Christi El Paso Florida Fresno Laredo Las Cruces Las Vegas Los Alamos Los Angeles Merced Nevada Rio Salado River Sacramento San Angelo San Antonio San Clemente San Diego San Francisco San Juan San Jose San Louis Obispo San Marcos Santa Fe 58 Santa Maria San Paulo San Rafael Santa Monica San Rafael Sierra Madre Sierra Nevada Tijuana 17

English vs. German English /st/ German /št/ Stadium Stamp Standard Stare State Steak Steel English vs. German English /st/ German /št/ Stadium Stamp Standard Stare State Steak Steel Stadion Stampfen Standarte Stern Starren Staat Steak Stahl 58 18

Grimm’s Law: Romance /b/ Germanic /p/ Bursar Bursitis Labial Purse (betting) Purse one’s lips Grimm’s Law: Romance /b/ Germanic /p/ Bursar Bursitis Labial Purse (betting) Purse one’s lips Purse Seine Purse Strings Lip 58 19

Grimm’s Law: Romance /d/ Germanic /t/ Dandelion Dent corn Dented fender Dental Dentated leaves Grimm’s Law: Romance /d/ Germanic /t/ Dandelion Dent corn Dented fender Dental Dentated leaves Dentures Indented paragraph Orthodontist Gear Tooth Law with teeth Saw Tooth Sweet Tooth Teeth Tooth Doubles (tennis) Dozen Dualistic thinking Dual Personality Dubbing Duel Duet Duo Duplex Duplicate 58 Between Twilight Twine Twist Two-faced 20

Grimm’s Law: Romance /g/ Germanic /k/ Agribusines s Agriculture Agronomy Acreage Acrefoot (of water) Grimm’s Law: Romance /g/ Germanic /k/ Agribusines s Agriculture Agronomy Acreage Acrefoot (of water) 58 21

Grimm’s Law: Romance /p/ Germanic /f/ Padres Fatherly (baseball Father team) Paternal Paternity Patternoster Grimm’s Law: Romance /p/ Germanic /f/ Padres Fatherly (baseball Father team) Paternal Paternity Patternoster (patter) Patrilinial Patriotism Patron Pyracantha Pyrex Bowl Pyromania Pyrosis (heart burn) Pyrotechnic s 58 Bonfire Cirfew (cover the fire) Firefighter Firefly Firehouse Fireman Fireworks 22

Grimm’s Law: Romance /p/ Germanic /f/ Pentagon Pentameter Pentecost Fifteen Fifty Five Plateau Platform Grimm’s Law: Romance /p/ Germanic /f/ Pentagon Pentameter Pentecost Fifteen Fifty Five Plateau Platform Plato Platte River Platypus 58 Flat 23

Grimm’s Law: Romance /p/ Germanic /f/ Centipede Expedition Impediment Pawn Pedal Peddler Pedestal Pedestrian Grimm’s Law: Romance /p/ Germanic /f/ Centipede Expedition Impediment Pawn Pedal Peddler Pedestal Pedestrian Pedicab Pedicure Pedigree Piedmont Equal footing Film footage Foot soldier Football Foothills Footlights Footnote Footpath Feet NOTE: /kw/ Headquarte rs Latin Quarter Living Quarters Quad(rangle ) Quadraped Quadraplegi c Quadruplets Quaranteen Quarter 58 Quarterhors e Four-way stop Four poster bed 24

Grimm’s Law: Romance /t/ Germanic /θ/ Triage Triangle Triathlon Tricorn hat Trident Trinity Trio Grimm’s Law: Romance /t/ Germanic /θ/ Triage Triangle Triathlon Tricorn hat Trident Trinity Trio Triplets Triplicate Tripod Threesome 58 25

Grimm’s Law: Romance /k/ Germanic /x/ or /h/ Cardiac arrest Cardiologist Coeur d’Alene, Idaho Grimm’s Law: Romance /k/ Germanic /x/ or /h/ Cardiac arrest Cardiologist Coeur d’Alene, Idaho Cordial Courage Encourage Discourage d Record Heart attack Heart throb Heartburn Heartfelt Hearts (cards) Hearty Disheartene d Learn by heart Purple Heart Sweetheart Canine Hound ----Capricorn Corner Coronet Cornucopia Tricorn hat Unicorn ----Cape Horn Car Horn in on someone Hornet Horne of Plenty Toot your own horn 58 26

Celtic Cardinal Numbers Irish: Aon Dó Tri Ceathair Cúig Sé Seacht Ocht Naoi Deich Celtic Cardinal Numbers Irish: Aon Dó Tri Ceathair Cúig Sé Seacht Ocht Naoi Deich Céad Míle Gaelic: ----Aon Dhà/Dà/Dithis Triùir Ceithir Cùig/Còig Sè/sianar Seichd(nar) Ochd Noa(i)dh/Naoi Deich(near) Ceud/Ciad Mile/Deich. Ceud 58 Welsh: Sero Un Dau/Dwy Tiar/Tri Pedair/Pedwar Pum(p) Chwech Saith Wyth Naw De(n)g Can(tref) Mil 27

Celtic Ordinal Numbers Irish: Triú Gaelic: Ceudamh Cuidich/Cobhair An Treas Ceathramh Cùigeadh Sèathadh Seachdamh Celtic Ordinal Numbers Irish: Triú Gaelic: Ceudamh Cuidich/Cobhair An Treas Ceathramh Cùigeadh Sèathadh Seachdamh Ochdamh An. Naodhamh Deicheamh An Ceudamh ---58 Welsh: Centaf/Unfed Amrantiad/Eiliad Trydydd Pedwaredd Pumed Chweched Seithfed Wythfed Nawfed Degwm/Degfed Canfed ----28

Celtic Days of the Week Irish: Gaelic: Welsh: Dé Luain Dé Máirt Dé Céadaoin Celtic Days of the Week Irish: Gaelic: Welsh: Dé Luain Dé Máirt Dé Céadaoin Déardaoin Dé h. Aoine Dé Sathairn Dé Domhnaigh Di-Laain Di-Màirt Di-Ciadain Diar-Daoin Di-h-Aoine Di-Sathuirne Di-Domhnaich Dydd Llun Dydd Mawrth Dydd Mercher Dydd Iao/Difiao Dydd Gwener (Dydd) Sadwrn (Dydd) Sul 58 29

Celtic Months of the Year Irish: Eanair Feabhra Márta Aibreán Bealtaine Meitheamh Lúil Lúnasa Celtic Months of the Year Irish: Eanair Feabhra Márta Aibreán Bealtaine Meitheamh Lúil Lúnasa Meán Fomhair Deireadh Famhair Samhain Nollaig Scots Gaelic: Ceud Mhìos no bliadhna Ceud Mhìos an earraich Am Màrt An Giblean Am Màigh An Òg Mhìos An Seachd- Mhìos Ceud Mhìos an Fhoghair Welsh: Ionawr/Ionor Chwefror/Mis Bach Mis Mawrth Ebrill Mei Mehefin Gorffennaf Awst Mios Meadhonach an Fhogahair Medi Mios Deareannach an Fhoghair Hydref Ceud- Mhìos a’ Gheamhraidh Tachwedd Mios Meadhonach a’ Gheamhraidh Rhaqfyr 58 30

Celtic Relatives Irish: Gaelic: Welsh: Athair Máthair Deartháir Deirfiúr Seánathair Seánmháthair Uncail Aintin Mac Celtic Relatives Irish: Gaelic: Welsh: Athair Máthair Deartháir Deirfiúr Seánathair Seánmháthair Uncail Aintin Mac dearthár/Deirfiúr Tuisti/Thuismitheoirí (Parents) Athair Màthair Bràthair Piuthar Seanair Seanamhair Brathair-Athair/Màthar Piuthar-Athair/Màthar Mac Peathar/Bràthar ----- Tad Mam Brawd Chwaer Tad-cu/Hendad Mam-qu/Nain Ewythr Bopa/Modryb Cefnder/Cyfyrder Nai 58 31

Celtic Subject Pronouns Irish: Gaelic: Welsh: Mé/Mise Tú(sa) Sé(sean) Sí ---- Mì/Mise Thu(sa) È/Se/Esan Celtic Subject Pronouns Irish: Gaelic: Welsh: Mé/Mise Tú(sa) Sé(sean) Sí ---- Mì/Mise Thu(sa) È/Se/Esan I/Ise/Si ----- I/Mi/Myfi Ti E(f)(e)/Efo Hi/Hyhi ----- Muid(e) Thú(sa) Siad/San Sinn(e) Sibh(se) Iad(san) Ni/Nyni Ch(w)I Hwy(nt) 58 32

Germanic Cardinal Numbers Dutch: Nul Een Twee Drie Vier Vijf Zes Zeven Acht Negen Germanic Cardinal Numbers Dutch: Nul Een Twee Drie Vier Vijf Zes Zeven Acht Negen Tien Honderd Duizend English: Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Hundred Thousand Old English: ----An Twegen ðrie Feower Fif Siex Seofun Eahta Nigun Tien Hund(red) ðusend 58 German: Null Ein(s) Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Hundert Tausend Norwegian: Null En To Tre Fire Fem Seks Syv Åtte Ni Ti Hundre Tusen 33

Germanic Ordinal Numbers Dutch: Eerste Tweede Derde Vierde Vujfde Zesde Zevende Achtste Negende Tiende Germanic Ordinal Numbers Dutch: Eerste Tweede Derde Vierde Vujfde Zesde Zevende Achtste Negende Tiende Honderdste Duizendste English: First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Hundredth Thousandth Old English: Forma/Fyrmesta Æfterrra/Oðer ðridda Feo(we)rða Fifta Siexta Seoffoða Eahta Nigoða ------58 German: Erste Zweite Drittens Vierte Fünfte Sechst Siebent Acht Neunt Zehnt Hundert Tausent Norwegian: Fǿrste Annen Tredje Fjerde Femte Sjette Syvende Åttende Niende Tiende Hundrede Tusende 34

Germanic Days of the Week Dutch: English: Maandag Dinsdag Woensdag Donderdag Vrijdag Zaterdag Zondag Germanic Days of the Week Dutch: English: Maandag Dinsdag Woensdag Donderdag Vrijdag Zaterdag Zondag Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Old English: Monandæg Tiwesdæg Wodnesdæg Thursdæg Frigedæg Sæterndæg Sunnandæg 58 German: Norwegian: Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonntag Mandag Tirsdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag Lǿrdag Sǿndag 35

Germanic Months of the Year Dutch: Januari Februari Maart April Mei Juni Juli Augustus Germanic Months of the Year Dutch: Januari Februari Maart April Mei Juni Juli Augustus September Oktober November December English: January February March April May June July August September October November December Old English: ------------------------58 German: Januar Februar März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember Norwegian: Januar Februar Mars April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Desember 36

Germanic Relatives Dutch: Vader/Pater Moeder Zoon Dochter Broer/Broeder Zuster/Zus Grootvader Grootmoeder Oom Tante Neef/Nicht Germanic Relatives Dutch: Vader/Pater Moeder Zoon Dochter Broer/Broeder Zuster/Zus Grootvader Grootmoeder Oom Tante Neef/Nicht English: Old English: Father Fæder Mother Modor Son Byre Daughter ----Brother Broðor Sister (Ge)Swoestor Grandfather ----Grandmother----Uncle Fædera/Eam Aunt ----Cousin Suhterga Nephew/Niece Nefa 58 German: Vater Mutter Sohn Tochter Bruder Schwester Grossvater Grossmama Onkel Tante Vetter Neffe/Nichte Norwegian: Pater Mor Sønn Datter Bror Sǿster Farfar Farmor Onkel Tante Kuisine Nevø/Niese 37

Germanic Signs of the Zodiac Dutch: ------------------------- English: Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Germanic Signs of the Zodiac Dutch: ------------------------- English: Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces Old English: ------------------------58 German: Widder Stier Zwillinge Krebs Löwe Jungfrau Waage Scorpion Schütze Steinbock Wassermann Fische Norwegian: ------------------------38

Germanic Subject Pronouns Dutch: Ik Jij/U Hij Zij Het Wij Jullie Zij English: OE: Germanic Subject Pronouns Dutch: Ik Jij/U Hij Zij Het Wij Jullie Zij English: OE: I You He She Hēo It Hit We Wē You Ēow They Hie German: Ich Ic Du ðū Er Hē Sie Es/Das Norwegian: Jeg Du Han Hun Den/Det Wir Sie Vi Dere De 58 39

Germanic Object Pronouns Dutch: English: OE: German: Norwegian: Mij Jou/U Hem Haar Het Me Germanic Object Pronouns Dutch: English: OE: German: Norwegian: Mij Jou/U Hem Haar Het Me You Him Her It Mē ðē Him Hiere Hit Mich/Mir Dich/Ihr/Euch Ihn/Im Sie/Ihr Es/Das Meg Deg Ham/Han Henne Den/Det Ons Julie Hen Us You Them Ūs Ēow Hie Uns Sie Ihnen Oss Dere Dem 58 40

Indo-Iranian Cardinal Numbers Hindi: Sunya Ek Do Tin Cār PāNc Chah/Che Sāt Āţh Nau Indo-Iranian Cardinal Numbers Hindi: Sunya Ek Do Tin Cār PāNc Chah/Che Sāt Āţh Nau Das Sau Hazār Pashto: ----Yo/Yak Dwah/Dwe Dre/Dri Tsalor Pīndza Shpag Owah Atah Nuh Las Sal/Sil Zar Persian/Farsi: Sefr Yek Do Se Chahar Panj Shesh Haft Hasht Noh Dah Sad Hezar 58 Urdu: Sifar Ek Do Tin Cār Pāńc Che Sāt Āţh No Das Ek/So Hazār 41

Indo-Iranian Ordinal Numbers Hindi: Pashto: Pehalā Dūsrā Tīsrā Cauthā PāNcvāN Chaţhā SātvāN ĀţhvāN navāN Indo-Iranian Ordinal Numbers Hindi: Pashto: Pehalā Dūsrā Tīsrā Cauthā PāNcvāN Chaţhā SātvāN ĀţhvāN navāN dasvāN Annal Dwayam Driyam Tsaloram Pīndzam Shpagam Owam Atam Nuham Lasam Persian/Far si: Avvalin Dovvom Sevvom Chaharom Panjomi Yekshesho min Haftomin Yek. Hashtom Nohom Sadomin 58 Urdu: Pehlā Dūsrā Tīsrā Cauthā Pāńcvāń Chaţţā Sātvān Āţhvān Navvān Dasvāń 42

Indo-Iranian Days of the Week Hindi: Pashto: Persian/Far si: Somvār Mangalvār Budhvār Guruvār Śukravār Indo-Iranian Days of the Week Hindi: Pashto: Persian/Far si: Somvār Mangalvār Budhvār Guruvār Śukravār Śanivār Ravivār Pir/Gul Sih Shamba Chār Shamba Pān Shamba Jum’a Khāli Shamba Yak Shamba Pir Doshanbe Mangal Seshanbe Budh Chaharshan Jumerāt be Jumā Panjshanbe Hafta Jomee Itvār Shanbe Yekshanbe 58 Urdu: 43

Indo-Iranian Months of the Year Hindi: Janvarī Farvarī Mārc Aprail Maī Jūn Julāī Agast Indo-Iranian Months of the Year Hindi: Janvarī Farvarī Mārc Aprail Maī Jūn Julāī Agast Sitambar Aktūbar Navambar Disambar Pashto: Māh Pāganr Chetar Baisāk Jet Hār Pashakal Bādro Asū Kātak Magar Po(h) Persian/Farsi: Zhanviye Fevriye Mars Avril Meh Zhoan Zhuiye Aot Septambr Oktobr Novambr Desambr 58 Urdu: Janvari Farvari Mārc Aprel Mā’ī Jūn Julā’ī Sitambar Aktūbar Navambar Disambar 44

Indo-Iranian Relatives Hindi: Pashto: Persian/Far si: Pitā Mātā Bhāī Behn Dādā Nānī Phūphā Bua Indo-Iranian Relatives Hindi: Pashto: Persian/Far si: Pitā Mātā Bhāī Behn Dādā Nānī Phūphā Bua Phūpherā Bhāī Bhanja/Bha nji Plār Mor Wror Khor ----Kākā/Māmā Tror/Tandor Tarbūr/Dzoe ----- Abbā Pedar Māń Mador Bhā’ī Baradar Behen Khahar Dādā Pedar Dādī Bozorg Cacā/Māmū Madar ń Bozorg Phūpī/xālā Dayi ----Ameh/Khale -------58 Urdu: 45

Indo-Iranian Subject Pronouns Hindi: Pashto: Mai. N Āp Voh/Yeh ----- Mā Tāsū Haghah/Dā Ham Indo-Iranian Subject Pronouns Hindi: Pashto: Mai. N Āp Voh/Yeh ----- Mā Tāsū Haghah/Dā Ham Voh/Yeh Ve/Ye Mūng/Mū(g) Mo ----- Persian/Far si: Urdu: Maiń Āp Vo Vo Vo Man Shoma U U An Ham Log Vo Ma Shoma Anha 58 46

Romance Cardinal Numbers Latin: Nihil Unus Duo Tres Quattour Quinque Sex Septum Octum Novem Romance Cardinal Numbers Latin: Nihil Unus Duo Tres Quattour Quinque Sex Septum Octum Novem Decem Centum Mille Romanian: Zero Unu/Una Doi/Douǎ Trei Patru Cinci Şase Şapte Opt Nouǎ Zece O sutǎ I mie Italian: Zero Uno Due Tre Quattro Cinque Sei Sette Otto Nove Dieci Cento Mille Spanish: Cero Uno Dos Tres Cuatro Cinco Sies Siete Ocho Nueve Diez Ciento Mil 58 French: Zéro Un/une Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Cent Mille Portuguese: Zero/Cipher Um Dois Tres Quatro Cinco Seis Sete Oito Nove Dez Cento Milhar 47

Romance & Helenic Ordinal Numbers Latin: Primus Secundus Tertius Quartus Quintus Sextus Septimus Octavus Romance & Helenic Ordinal Numbers Latin: Primus Secundus Tertius Quartus Quintus Sextus Septimus Octavus Nonus Decimus Italian: Primo Secondo Terzo Quarto Quinto Sesto Settimo Ottavo Nono Decimo Romanian: Primul Al doilea Al treilea Al patruela Al cincielea Al şaselea Al şaptelea Al Optulea Al Nouǎlea Al zecelea Spanish: Primero Segundo Tercer(ra) Cuarto(ta) Quinto(ta) Sexto(ta) French: Premier Deuxième Troisième Quatrième Cinquième Sixième Septimo(ma) Septième Octavo(va) Huitième Noveno(na) Neuvième Decimo(ma) Dizième 58 Portuguese: Primeiro Segundo Terceiro Quarto Quinto Sexto Setimo Oitavo Nono Decimo 48

Romance Days of the Week Latin: Italian: Romanian: Spanish: French: ------------Dominica Lunedi Martedi Mercoledi Romance Days of the Week Latin: Italian: Romanian: Spanish: French: ------------Dominica Lunedi Martedi Mercoledi Giovedi Venerdi Sabato Domenica Luni Marţi ----Joi Vineri ----Dominicǎ Lundi Mardi Mercredi Jeudi Vendredi Samedi Dimanche Lunes Martes Miercoles Jeuves Viernes Sabado Domingo 58 Portuguese: Segunda-fiera Terça-fiera Quarta-fiera Quinta-fiera Sexta-fiera Sábado Domingo 49

Romance Months of the Year Latin: Ianuarius Februarius Martius Aprilis Maius Iunius Iulius Augustus Romance Months of the Year Latin: Ianuarius Februarius Martius Aprilis Maius Iunius Iulius Augustus September October Novembris December Italian: Gennaio Febbraio Marzo Aprile Maggio Giugno Iuglio Agosto Settembre Ottobre Novembre Dicembre Romanian: Ianuarie Februarie Martie Aprilie ------August Septembrie ------- Spanish: Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre 58 French: Janvier Février Mars Avril Mai Juin Juillet Aôut Septembre Octobre Novembre Décembre Portuguese: Janiero Feveriero Março Abril Maio Junho Julho Agosto Setembro Outubro Noviembro Dezembro 50

Romance Relatives Latin: Italian: Romanian: Spanish: French: Pater Mater Frater Soror Padre Madre Fratello Romance Relatives Latin: Italian: Romanian: Spanish: French: Pater Mater Frater Soror Padre Madre Fratello Sorella Figlio/a Nonno Nipote Zio Zia Cugino/a Tatǎ Mamǎ Frate Sorǎ Bunicǎ Unchi Mǎtuşǎ Verişourǎ Père Mère Frère Soeur Fils/Fille Filiolus/Filiola Avus Nepos Patruus/Avunculus Amita/Matertera Patruelis/Sobrinus Padre Madre Hermano Hermana Hijo/Hija Abuelo/a Nieto Tia Primo/a 58 Grand-père Petit-fils Oncle Tante Cousin(e) Neto/a. Portu guese: Pai Mãi Irmão Freira Filho/a Neto/a Tio Tia Primo/a 51

Romance Signs of the Zodiac Latin: ------------------------- Italian: Ariete Toro Gemelli Cancro Leone Vergine Romance Signs of the Zodiac Latin: ------------------------- Italian: Ariete Toro Gemelli Cancro Leone Vergine Bilancia Scorpione Sagittario Capricorno Acquario Pesci Romanian: ------------------------- Spanish: Aries Tauro Géminis Cáncer Leo Virgo Libra Escorpión Sagitario Capricornio Acuario Piscis 58 French: ------------------------- Portuguese: ------------------------52

Romance Subject Pronouns Latin: Italian: Romanian: Spanish: French: Portuguese: Ego Tu/Te Hic/Ille/Is(te) Illa/Ea/Ista/Haec Hic/Haec/Hoc Romance Subject Pronouns Latin: Italian: Romanian: Spanish: French: Portuguese: Ego Tu/Te Hic/Ille/Is(te) Illa/Ea/Ista/Haec Hic/Haec/Hoc Io Tu Lui Lei -----Tu ----Ea/dínsa ----- Yo Tu Él Ella Él/Ella Je Tu Il Elle Il/Elle Eu Tu/Te/Ti Ele Ela Ele/Ela Nos Vos Is/Ea/Id Noi Vui Lo/La Noi Dumneata Ei/Ele Nosotros Vos Ellos/Ellas Nous Vous Ils/Elles Nós Vos(e)(s) Eles/Elas 58 53

Romance Object Pronouns Latin: Romanian: Italian: Spanish: French: Portuguese: ----Tu/Te Hic/ille/is(te) Eius/Illius/Huis ----Tu ------- Romance Object Pronouns Latin: Romanian: Italian: Spanish: French: Portuguese: ----Tu/Te Hic/ille/is(te) Eius/Illius/Huis ----Tu ------- Mi Ti Lo/Lui La/Lei ----- Me ----Lo/Le La/Elle ----- Me Te Le La Le/La Me/Mim ----Ihe/Ele Ihe/Ela -----Vos Illes/Illas/ ----Dumneata ----- Ce Vi Li/Le Nos ----Los/Las Nous Vous Elles/Leur Nós ----Ihes/Eles 58 54

Slavic Cardinal Numbers Bosnian: Nula Jedan Dva Tri Četiri Pet Šest Sedam Osam Devet Slavic Cardinal Numbers Bosnian: Nula Jedan Dva Tri Četiri Pet Šest Sedam Osam Devet Deset Stotinu Hiljadu Czech: Nula Jeden Dvě/Dva Tři Čtyři Pět Šest Sedm Osm Devět Deset Sto Tisíc Croation: Nula Jedan/Jedna Dva/Dvije Tri/Troje Četiri Pet-ero Šest-ero Sedam Osam Devet Deset Sto(tina) Tisuća Polish: Zero Jeden Dwa/dwie Trzy Cztery Pięć Sześź Siedem Osiem Dziewięć Dziesięć Sto Tysiąc 58 Russian: Nol’ Odin Dva Tri Chyetyrye Pyat’ Shyest’ Syem’ Vosyem’ Dyevyat’ Dyesyat’ Sto Tysyacha Serbian: Nula Jedan Dva/Dve Tri --------------Sto Hiljada 55

Slavic Ordinal Numbers Bosnian: Prvi Drugi Treći Četvrti Peti Šesti Sedmi Osmi Deveti Deseti Slavic Ordinal Numbers Bosnian: Prvi Drugi Treći Četvrti Peti Šesti Sedmi Osmi Deveti Deseti Stoti Hiljaditi Czech: První Druhý --------------------- Croation: Prvi/a/o Drugi/a/o Treći Četvrti Peti Šesti Sedmi Osmi Deveti Deseti Stoti Tisući Polish: Pierwszy Drugi Trzeci Czwarty Piąty Szósty Siodmy Ósmy Dziewiąty Dziesiąty Setny Tysięczny 58 Russian: Pyervyj Vtoroj Tryetij Chyetvyertyj Pyatyj Shyestoj Syed’moj Vos’moj Dyevyatyj Dyesyatyj ----- Serbian: Prvi Drugi Treći ------------------- 56

Slavic Days of the Week Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Ponedeljak Utorak Srijeda Slavic Days of the Week Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Ponedeljak Utorak Srijeda Četvrtak Petak Subota Nedelja Pondělí Úterý Středa Čtvrtek Pátek Sobota Neděle Ponedjeljak Utorak Srijeda Četvrtak Petak Subota Nedjelja Pieniądze Wtorek Środa Czwartek Piątek Sobota Niedziela Ponyedyel’nik Vtornik Sryeda Chyetvyerg Pyatnitsa Subbota Voskryesyen’ye Ponedeljak Utorak Sreda Četvrtak Petak Subota Nedelja 58 57

Slavic Months of the Year Bosnian: Januar Februar Marš April Maj Juni Juli Avgust Slavic Months of the Year Bosnian: Januar Februar Marš April Maj Juni Juli Avgust Septembar Oktobar Novembar Decembar Czech: Leden Únor Březen Duben Máj Červenec Srpen Září Říjen Listopad Prosinec Croation: Sječanj Veljača Ožujak Travanj Svibanj Lipanj Srpanj Kolovoz Rujan Listopad Studeni Prosinac Polish: Styczeń Luty Marzec Kwiecień Maj Czerwiec Lipiec Sierpień Wrzesień Październik Listopad Grudzień 58 Russian: Yanvar’ Fyevral’ Mart Apryel’ Maj Iyun’ Iyul’ Avgust Syentyabr’ Oktyabr’ Noyabr’ Dyekabr’ Serbian: Januar Februar Mart April Maj Jun Jul Avgust Septembar Oktobar Novembar Decembar 58

!Slavic Relatives Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Babo Majka Brat Sestra Djed/Deda Baba/Baka !Slavic Relatives Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Babo Majka Brat Sestra Djed/Deda Baba/Baka Ujak/Dajdja Tetka Rodjak/srodnik Otec Matka Bratr Sestra Grænmadzer Grænfádzer Strýc Teta Synovec/Neteř Mater/Majka Otak Brat Sestra Djed Baka/Baba Stric/Ujak Tet(k)a Rodak/Rodica Ojciec Matka Brat Siostra Dziadek Babcia Wuj(ek) Ciotka Kuzyn(ka) Otyets Mat’ Brat Syestra Dyedushka Babushka Dyadya Tyotya Kuzyen(a) Otac Majka Brat ----Deda Baka/Baba Stric/Teča/Ujak ----- 58 59

!!Slavic Subject Pronouns Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Ja Ti On Ona Ono !!Slavic Subject Pronouns Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Ja Ti On Ona Ono Já Ty On Ona Ono/To Ja Ti On Ona Ono Ja Ty On Ona Ono Ya Ty On On On Ja Ti On Ona Ono Mi Vi Oni My Vy Oni/Ony/Ona Mi Vi Oni My Wy Oni My Vy Oni Mi Vi Oni 58 60

!!!Slavic Object Pronouns Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Mene/Me Ti Njemu/Njega Njen/Njezen Ono !!!Slavic Object Pronouns Bosnian: Czech: Croation: Polish: Russian: Serbian: Mene/Me Ti Njemu/Njega Njen/Njezen Ono Mne/Mě/Mně Ty Ho/Jemu Její Ono/To Meni/Mi Ti On Nju Ono Mnie/mi Ty (Je)mu Jej/Niej Ono Myenya Tyebye (N)Yemu ----Ti ----- Mi Vi Oni Nás/Nám Vy Jim/Je Mi Vi Oni Nas/Nam(i) Wy Ich Nas Vam (N)ikh ---Vi ---- 58 61

Related Power. Points African-American Contrast Cultural Diversity ENG 312 (Slides 108 -116) Ethnic Naming Related Power. Points African-American Contrast Cultural Diversity ENG 312 (Slides 108 -116) Ethnic Naming in Sandra Cisneros’ The House on Mango Street European English (Handout) Foreign Words in English Jewish Ethnicity (Slides 18 -19, 24 -25, 32) Name Variation Onomastic Variation: How Personal Names Become Even More Personal Romance & Germanic Words in English Spanish-American Contrast Spelling (English Morphophonemic Spelling) 58 62