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ENGLAND JANAR TODESK VILJANDI C. R. JAKOBSON GYMNASIUM 11 C SUPERVISORS: MARJE MAASEN, TIIA ENGLAND JANAR TODESK VILJANDI C. R. JAKOBSON GYMNASIUM 11 C SUPERVISORS: MARJE MAASEN, TIIA PUKK

KEY FACTS w Capital: London w Population: 47, 000 w Geographic size: 130, 423 KEY FACTS w Capital: London w Population: 47, 000 w Geographic size: 130, 423 sq km w It is an island off the west coast of the European mainland. w Much of England is rolling hills with occasional small fields or flatland

w Scafell Pike, the highest point of England is located in the northwest with w Scafell Pike, the highest point of England is located in the northwest with an elevation of 978 metres w Most southerly point: Lizard Point

MAJOR CITIES w Greater London 6, 933, 000 w Birmingham 1, 012, 000 w MAJOR CITIES w Greater London 6, 933, 000 w Birmingham 1, 012, 000 w Leeds 725, 000 w Liverpool 477, 000 w Manchester 433, 000 w Bristol 398, 000

THE CLIMATE w England has a mild and temperate climate w It is influenced THE CLIMATE w England has a mild and temperate climate w It is influenced by the North Atlantic Drift and the southwesterly winds w Average temperature ranges in London are from 2 to 6 degrees Celsius in January to 13 to 22 degrees Celsius in July w Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year with March to June the driest period and September to January the wettest

TIMELINES OF ENGLISH HISTORY w w w 5000 BC- 100 BC: prehistoric period 55 TIMELINES OF ENGLISH HISTORY w w w 5000 BC- 100 BC: prehistoric period 55 BC- 410 AD: Roman Britain 410 - 937: early British kingdoms 597 - 1066: Anglo-Saxon England 1066 - 1487: the Medieval Britain 1486 - 1689: the Reformation and the Restoration period w 1689 - 1901: The Age of Empire

THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT w Parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy w Queen Elizabeth II THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT w Parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy w Queen Elizabeth II as a head of the state w The continuity of the monarchy has been interrupted only once (the republic of 1649 -60) in over a thousand years w Parliament is made up of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role

RELIGIONS w 59% of the population Protestant w 9% are Roman Catholic w Other RELIGIONS w 59% of the population Protestant w 9% are Roman Catholic w Other religious minorities include Muslims which account for 3% of the population w There also Jewish, Hindu and Sikh minorities.

DEMOGRAPHIC/ VITAL STATISTICS w 238 people per sq km w Urban-rural: 91. 5% urban, DEMOGRAPHIC/ VITAL STATISTICS w 238 people per sq km w Urban-rural: 91. 5% urban, 8. 5% rural w Sex distribution: 48. 8% male, 51. 2% female w Life expectancy: 72. 2 years male, 77. 9 years female

PEOPLE DISTRIBUTION w 94. 2% the Whites w 9. 6% Scottish w 2. 4% PEOPLE DISTRIBUTION w 94. 2% the Whites w 9. 6% Scottish w 2. 4% Irish w 1. 9% Welsh w 2% West Indian, Asian or African

AGE BREAKDOWN AGE BREAKDOWN

EDUCATION (among people aged 25 or over) EDUCATION (among people aged 25 or over)

w Some of the oldest universities in the world (Oxford and Cambridge) Hertford College w Some of the oldest universities in the world (Oxford and Cambridge) Hertford College of the Oxford University

THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD w It consists of 39 official colleges and the six THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD w It consists of 39 official colleges and the six Permanent Private Halls w There are five academic divisions in the university w Humanities Division, Life and Environmental Sciences Division, Mathematical and Physical Sciences Division, Medical Sciences Division and Social Sciences Division

THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE w It consists of 31 colleges (three of them are THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE w It consists of 31 colleges (three of them are only for women) w There are more than 100 departments, faculties and schools plus a central administration w Each college is an independent institution with its own property and income

MAIN POINTS OF INTEREST FOR THE TOURISTS w The Queen and the Royal Family. MAIN POINTS OF INTEREST FOR THE TOURISTS w The Queen and the Royal Family. w The Buckingham Palace and the changing of guards w Other attractions include the London Bridge, Big Ben, the St. Pauls Cathedral and the Tower Bridge

The Tower Bridge A view of English lowland The changing of guards A part The Tower Bridge A view of English lowland The changing of guards A part of the Royal Family

‘TYPICALLY ENGLISH’ w Terraced housing is a very common form of housing in England ‘TYPICALLY ENGLISH’ w Terraced housing is a very common form of housing in England w Double decker buses are common site in London. w Many foreigners have trouble driving in England because the steering wheel is on the right hand side of the car, and you drive on the left hand side of the road

Terraced housing A double-decker Terraced housing A double-decker