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Energy Storage Technology and its Application in Power System Xuehao Hu Deputy Chief Engineer Energy Storage Technology and its Application in Power System Xuehao Hu Deputy Chief Engineer of China Electric Power Research Institute Nov. 29, 2006 1

Resume • • • Born in Shanghai, China in 1946 Graduated in E. E. Resume • • • Born in Shanghai, China in 1946 Graduated in E. E. Dept. of Tsinghua University in 1968 Graduated in Graduate School of China EPRI, in 1982, M. S. degree Visiting Scholar in ESRC of University of Texas, at Arlington, Texas, USA, from 1986 to 1988 Deputy Chief Engineer, Tutor of Ph. D candidate in China EPRI Member of IEEE An Expert with Outstanding Contribution nominated by the State Ministry of Personnel of China in 1999 Research field: power system planning, operation and automation Recent research work: distributed generation and renewable energy Won the first prize award of the State Science and Technology Advance (in 1985 , PSASP) Publication: about 30 papers 2

Contents • (1) Introduction • (2) Present status and future prospects of renewable energy Contents • (1) Introduction • (2) Present status and future prospects of renewable energy (wind, biomass, solar) and Distributed Generation (DG) in China • (3) Requirement of electric power system for energy storage • (4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system • (5) Conclusion 3

(1) Introduction • Since 1978, electric power industry grew rapidly owing to the reform (1) Introduction • Since 1978, electric power industry grew rapidly owing to the reform and opening to the outside world policy, with the fast development of national economy of China • In 24 years between 1978 to 2002, the increase rate for average annual installed power generation capacity and production is around 8% 4

 • The total installed power generation capacity reached 100 GW, 200 GW, 300 • The total installed power generation capacity reached 100 GW, 200 GW, 300 GW, 400 GW and 500 GW in 1987, 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2005 respectively, (for every additional 100 GW, it took 8, 5, 4, 2 and 1. 5 years) • New added installed capacity in 2005 is about 70 GW • Ranked the second in the world (after USA) since 1996 (total installed power generation capacity and power generation production ) 5

 • Since 2002, the energy consumption grew especially fast (12%-15%) Table 1 -1: • Since 2002, the energy consumption grew especially fast (12%-15%) Table 1 -1: Growth Rates of Power Consumption for the Whole Country in Recent Years year Increase rate of Operation hours energy consumption for thermal (%) power Power supply and demand balance status 2001 +9% 4900 Basically normal 2002 +11. 8% 5272 Totally balanced, shortage in some areas 2003 +15. 2% 5760 Totally intensive, shortage for most areas 2004 +14. 8% 5988 Shortage in whole country, starting to shed load in some provinces 2005 +13. 5% 5876 Shortage situation alleviated 6

Table 1 -2: Total installed power generation capacity and generation production in 2005 in Table 1 -2: Total installed power generation capacity and generation production in 2005 in China Total installed generation capacity Generation type Capacity (GW) thermal hydro Power generation production in 2004 Percentage( %) Production (TWh) 384. 13 ( +16. 6%) 75. 6 2018. 0 (+11. 5) 81. 5 116. 52 (+10. 7%) 22. 9 395. 2 (+ 19. 4%) 16. 0 percentage( %) nuclear 6. 84 (+0. 0%) 1. 3 52. 3 (+3. 7%) 2. 1 total 508. 4 (+14. 9%) 100. 0 2474. 7 (+12. 8) 100. 0 • note: (1)The data in bracket is the percentage increase rate over the previous year. (2)In thermal generation, 12 GW(2. 4%) is for gas-fired and 372 GW(73. 2%) for coal -fired. (3)The power generation structure is mainly based on thermal and hydro power. 7

installed Capacity Electricity Generation • The ratio for nuclear power is very small. Renewable installed Capacity Electricity Generation • The ratio for nuclear power is very small. Renewable energy(installed capacity) possesses only very small part(0. 25%). • Wind power(1260 MW) and PV power(70 MW) are not included in the above table. • The structure of power generation is not good for the environment protection • Too much coal-burned power causes serious emission (NOx, 8 SOx, CO 2 etc. )

Policy to develop future power generation • Give priority to the development of renewable Policy to develop future power generation • Give priority to the development of renewable energy • Actively develop nuclear power generation and hydro power generation • Using clean coal technology and high efficiency super-critical thermal units 9

(2) Present status and future prospects of renewable energy (wind, biomass, solar) and Distributed (2) Present status and future prospects of renewable energy (wind, biomass, solar) and Distributed Generation (DG) in China • The priority order for developing renewable energy is as follows: – Wind power generation (mature technology, cheap price and feasible policy) – Biomass power generation (cheap, easy to realize, large quantity, close to load center) – Solar energy (Photovoltaic power generation and solar thermal power generation) 10

Wind power generation • Dabancheng No. 1 and No. 2 wind farm in Xinjiang Wind power generation • Dabancheng No. 1 and No. 2 wind farm in Xinjiang autonomous regionis is the largest wind farm in China with 227 wind generators and 119 MW installed capacity, 11

Wind power generation Yearly new installed wind power generation (1992~ 2004) 500 450 400 Wind power generation Yearly new installed wind power generation (1992~ 2004) 500 450 400 350 300 Installed capacity (MW) 250 200 150 100 50 0 1992 1994 1996 1998 year 2000 2002 20042005 12

Wind power cumulative installed capacity (MW) 1400 Installed capacity (MW) 1200 • China ranks Wind power cumulative installed capacity (MW) 1400 Installed capacity (MW) 1200 • China ranks the 8 th in the world (1260 MW) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 20042005 Table 2 -1: Statistic data of wind power generation for last two years year 2004 2005 Wind farms 43 59 Generator unit number 1292 1854 Total installed capacity (MW) 764 1260 13

Rich: 2400 -2800 h/year Quite rich: 2000 -2400 h/year Available: 1500 -2000 h/year Poor: Rich: 2400 -2800 h/year Quite rich: 2000 -2400 h/year Available: 1500 -2000 h/year Poor: Below 1500 h/year Wind energy reserve in China (at 10 m high above sea level) 253 GW in land 750 GW off-shore 14

Table: 2 -2 The wind power development target proposed by NDRC year 2005 2010 Table: 2 -2 The wind power development target proposed by NDRC year 2005 2010 2015 2020 Installed capacity(cumulative) GW 1. 26 5 15 30 • The predictive data is set by NDRC n Planning of 1 GW level Wind Power Farms n Xinjiang Autonomous Region n Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region n Jiangsu Province n Jilin Province n Gansu Province n Hebei Province, etc. 15

Biomass energy and power generation • There are totally about 13 million rural families Biomass energy and power generation • There are totally about 13 million rural families using marsh gas for home usage (cooking etc. ) by the end of 2003 • As to using marsh gas for power generation, the total installed capacity is very small (biomass energy power generation is estimated at 2. 0 GW, among which 1. 9 GW from straw of sugarcane ) • Due to the small energy density of biomass energy, most power generation from biomass is DG mode 16

Allocation of biomass resources in China 17 Allocation of biomass resources in China 17

 • Gasified biomass energy (marsh gas) power generation can use domestic made gas • Gasified biomass energy (marsh gas) power generation can use domestic made gas turbine as follows 1200 k. W 500 k. W 40 k. W 120 k. W 24 k. W 18

Example: 10* 500 k. W gas engines used in a citric acid producing factory Example: 10* 500 k. W gas engines used in a citric acid producing factory 19

Marsh gas collecting tank in citric acid producing factory 20 Marsh gas collecting tank in citric acid producing factory 20

Table 2 -3: The biomass energy power generation development target proposed by NDRC year Table 2 -3: The biomass energy power generation development target proposed by NDRC year Cumulative installed capacity of biomass power production (estimated) (GW) 2005 2010 2020 2. 0 5. 5 30 • The predictive data is set by NDRC 21

Solar energy power generation 22 Solar energy power generation 22

 • 100 k. W PV station in An-Duo county in Tibet, built in • 100 k. W PV station in An-Duo county in Tibet, built in 1998 (largest PV station in that time) Pilot PV project in Ke-ke-li county in Qinghai province 30 k. W wind power and PV power complementary generation station in Qiang-Ma county in Tibet 23

 • roof-top and grid connected PV power generation project was built in Beijing • roof-top and grid connected PV power generation project was built in Beijing (as DG) 24

1 MWp Grid connected PV power generation in Shenzhen International Flower Expo was put 1 MWp Grid connected PV power generation in Shenzhen International Flower Expo was put in operation in 2004 25

The first solar thermal power generation station (for demon. )was put into operation in The first solar thermal power generation station (for demon. )was put into operation in Oct. , 2005, in Nanjing city, Jiangsu province • It’s a tower structure • 32 × 20 m 2 mirrors were installed, angle of mirror could be adjusted • Total installed capacity is 70 k. W 26

Table 2 -4: Cumulative installed capacity of PV power generation from 2004 to 2020 Table 2 -4: Cumulative installed capacity of PV power generation from 2004 to 2020 year Cumulative installed capacity (PV) (MW) 2004 2005 2010 2020 60 70 300 1800 • The predictive data is set by NDRC • In 2020, solar thermal energy production is around 200 MW(including in 1800 MW) • In 2020, 1000 MW of PV will be building integrated (roof top or on outside wall), most of them are DG mode 27

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Power generating equipments Exhaust heat recovery equipment Gas turbine Exhaust heat boiler Gas engine Power generating equipments Exhaust heat recovery equipment Gas turbine Exhaust heat boiler Gas engine Micro turbine Exhaust heat directly fired Absorb Chiller 29

Example 1: Beijing Ciqu gas pump station (put into operation in 2003) One 80 Example 1: Beijing Ciqu gas pump station (put into operation in 2003) One 80 k. W Bowman Micro-turbine + BZ 20 DFA 30

Example 2: Beijing gas dispatching and control center (put into operation in 2004, not Example 2: Beijing gas dispatching and control center (put into operation in 2004, not connected with grid yet) For power generation– Caterpillar gas engine: G 3508(480 k. W)*1 G 3512(725 k. W)*1 31

Example 3: Shanghai Pudong airport Gas turbine: 4. 0 MW Steam boiler: 9. 7 Example 3: Shanghai Pudong airport Gas turbine: 4. 0 MW Steam boiler: 9. 7 t/h Steam: 0. 9 Mpa Total efficiency=77% 32

 • The total amount of DG installed capacity is estimated around 4 GW • The total amount of DG installed capacity is estimated around 4 GW by the end of 2005 in China • The main type of DG is gas-fired engine (or turbine) • In large (or medium size) cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai etc. , the fuel type of DG is mainly natural gas • But for counties and rural areas, biomass marsh gas (or methane) etc. will be used as fuel • The gas engine (or internal combustion engine) is most widely used, using different gases, such as natural gas, coke furnace gas, methane, coal bed gas and gasified straw gas etc. The main reason is the gas engine can be domestically made with low cost 33

Future development of electric power (from now to 2020) • The average annual growth Future development of electric power (from now to 2020) • The average annual growth rate for GDP is about 7. 2% (~7. 5%) • The average annual increase rate of electricity consumption is within 5. 8%-7. 2% • It is predicted that the electricity consumption will be over 3000 TWh and 5000 TWh for 2010 and 2020 respectively. (end of 2005: 2469 TWh) 34

Table 2 -5 : Forecasting of the structure of total installed power generation capacity Table 2 -5 : Forecasting of the structure of total installed power generation capacity in 2010 and 2020 year 2010 total production (TWh) 3140. 7 2311. 3 472. 5 27 72 704 462. 7 135 15 100% 65. 7% 19. 2% 5077 3440 1153 100% Installed Generation Capacity (GW) production (TWh) 2020 renewable TWh/ GW Installed Generation Capacity (GW) coal hydro Pump storage gas nuclear Small hydro wind Biomass PV 75 150 10. 5 22 0. 45 18 12. 5 50 5 5. 5 0. 3 2. 1% 2. 6% 1. 8% 7. 1% 0. 78% 0. 04% 770 45 220 240 225 62 120 2. 7 676. 2 220 25 55 40 75 30 30 1. 8 58. 65% 19. 08% 2. 17% 4. 77% 3. 47% 6. 50% 2. 60% 35 0. 16%

 • The percentage of renewable energy power generation is still small in 2010 • The percentage of renewable energy power generation is still small in 2010 (8. 63%) and 2020 (11. 86%) • NDRC is adjusting the goal of renewable energy power generation to 15%~16% by the end of 2020 36

(3) Requirement of electric power system for energy storage • 1) load leveling (or (3) Requirement of electric power system for energy storage • 1) load leveling (or peak load shaving) – The air condition load (especially in large cities such as Beijing and Shanghai) increases fast in recent years to 30%~40% and it is temperature sensitive – The difference between peak and valley load is getting larger and larger – This will make power system operator hard to dispatch, usually they use hydro power, centralized pump storage power or install more peak-load regulating unit ( fast starting gas turbine) to cope with 37

– Power shortage usually happens only in the day time in summer season, if – Power shortage usually happens only in the day time in summer season, if using energy storage technology to solve this problem, construction of new power generators, transmission lines and related facilities could be postponed – In Japan, Utilities, such as TEPCO etc. , use NAS battery (Sodium Sulfur Battery) as power energy storage means at the substations side or at load side, totally with more than 100 sets (over 100 MW) , among which 2/3 is used for load leveling 38

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 • 2) Improve power quality – There are more electronic load , they • 2) Improve power quality – There are more electronic load , they are voltage sensitive, especially, to voltage dip (sag) or power supply temporary interruption – If energy storage facilities (such as battery, fly wheel) is used and combined with other reactive power compensation equipment, the power supply quality could be improved 40

 • 3) to assist renewable energy power generation to provide stable power output • 3) to assist renewable energy power generation to provide stable power output – Renewable energy such as wind power and photovoltaic (PV) power are more and more integrated in power system as mentioned above – Power system operators generally adjust the power from generator to meet the load variation, but if power from generators (such as from wind and PV) is intermittent and not adjusted, how should they do? ---Energy storage is the right answer 41

– When the percentage of wind energy in a power system is small, usually – When the percentage of wind energy in a power system is small, usually using other conventional power generation (coal-fired power generation) to complement wind power generation output and hot reserve from conventional power generation should be increase – Wind farms is now getting larger and large (largest ~300 MW), and usually integrated with power system through HVAC above 110 k. V or HVDC transmission lines, it needs large capacity energy storage means 42

 • In Germany, the wind power generation forecasting technology is used, but error • In Germany, the wind power generation forecasting technology is used, but error exists, the precision is depending on the forecasting time , the shorter, the better 43

 • The forecasted wind power generation is treated as negative load, the power • The forecasted wind power generation is treated as negative load, the power system operators dispatch power system according to the new load curve, the credit of wind power generation (or available wind power generation) is low, 20%~30% or even lower to less than 10%, thus the installed capacity of conventional power generation is nearly the same as usual, only save some mineral fuel • If energy storage technology is used, the credit of wind power generation will increase dramatically 44

In Japan, NAS battery is tested to stable the wind power generation, the effect In Japan, NAS battery is tested to stable the wind power generation, the effect is obvious, but the disadvantage is that it needs high investment 45

 • For PV power generation, especially for standalone PV system in remote area • For PV power generation, especially for standalone PV system in remote area and not integrated with large power grid, energy storage facilities (lead-acid battery is often used for its cheap cost) are usually used • For roof-top and grid connected PV power generation, energy storage may be or may not be used 46

New Prediction of JRC of Europe • Solar energy will be used in large New Prediction of JRC of Europe • Solar energy will be used in large scale after 2030 and possess a large amount of fraction in energy source composition by 2050 47

There are totally 0. 85 million km² desert and wasteland in the north and There are totally 0. 85 million km² desert and wasteland in the north and northwest China, construction of large-scale photo-voltaic power generation base is now on study. 48

Very Large Scale (VLS) - PV power generation would be installed in desert area Very Large Scale (VLS) - PV power generation would be installed in desert area • If this is the case, a lot of large pump storage generation stations should be developed, at the same time decentralized or distributed energy storage (such as various kinds of small size batteries) should be installed close to the customer side 49

4) Improve power system stability, increase reliability and to be used as emergency backup 4) Improve power system stability, increase reliability and to be used as emergency backup power supply (battery, fly wheel, SMES and supercapacitors) • Distributed Energy (DE) = Distributed Generation (DG) +Energy Storage (ES) • In DE system, especially not grid connected, ES must be installed 50

In USA, 6 potable D-SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, made by AMSC, installed in In USA, 6 potable D-SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, made by AMSC, installed in Wisconsin power grid) were used to supply real power and reactive power in large disturbance to stable the frequency and voltage, increase system damping • for per magnet, 3 MJ real power, 3 MW for 1 s, 8 Mvar continuous reactive power supply • Has temporary overload capability of 2 time real power and 2. 3 times reactive power, the most output is 6 MW and 18. 4 Mvar 51

(4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system (4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system • 1) Main energy storage technologies 52

– ①Pump storage power generation: • Large scale , centralized energy storage, need upper – ①Pump storage power generation: • Large scale , centralized energy storage, need upper reservoir and lower reservoir, need long distant transmission, technical mature • About 65%~70% efficiency • Fast response for load in seconds (10% load variation need 10 seconds) • Has day regulating capability, suitable to assist the operation of nuclear power, large wind farms and VLS-PV power in future (after 2020) • Total pump storage stations (by the end of 2005): 13 (5. 85 GW, 1. 15%), under construction: 11 stations (11. 3 GW), year 2010~2020(2%~2. 5%) • In Japan, 24. 3 GW, over 10% (for nuclear power ) • In China, planning data(2020, 25 GW) is too small, 30~45 GW is needed to cope with nuclear power (4%, in 2020), wind power and PV power( in long term) 53

– ②Fly wheel energy storage: 54 – ②Fly wheel energy storage: 54

– Fly wheel energy storage: • using inertia energy of a large disc • – Fly wheel energy storage: • using inertia energy of a large disc • Depend on three breakthroughs: magnetic suspended bearing, high intensive material for disc, and power electronic technology • Has high efficiency (80%), long lifetime(15~30 year), fast response time (in millisecond), suitable to assist the operation of distribution power system to benefit the frequency regulation, using as an UPS without battery and improve the power quality (power supply interruption, voltage fluctuation and voltage surge) 55

– Fly wheel energy storage: • Capacity is still small, need to lower the – Fly wheel energy storage: • Capacity is still small, need to lower the losses • In China, it is just starting to be installed in distribution power system (such as in Beijing, second installation: 250 k. VA, magnetic suspended bearing, planning to installed in a hospital before the end of 2006, first one is already installed in a factory with 500 k. VA for special load) • Superconducting magnetic suspended bearing technology is now developing by Boeing Phantom works in USA (50 k. W/5 k. Wh, for demo. ) 56

– ③Compressed air energy storage: 57 – ③Compressed air energy storage: 57

– Compressed air energy storage: • Up to now, only Germany (Hundorf station, 1978, – Compressed air energy storage: • Up to now, only Germany (Hundorf station, 1978, 290 MW, 2 hours continued operation), USA (Mcintosh, Alabama, 1991, 110 MW, continuous output 100 MW for 26 hours), Japan (Sunagawa station, Hokkaido power company, 1997, 35 MW, 6 hours continuous power output), and Israel have constructed such project, but for demo. No such project in China • It needs large storage cave to store compressed air and geographic condition dependent and limited • It should be combined with gas turbine and need gas as its fuel, suitable for load leveling and peak load shaving • The development of this kind of energy storage is slow 58

– ④Super-conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Photo courtesy of AMSC 59 – ④Super-conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Photo courtesy of AMSC 59

– Super-conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES): • Due to directly storage energy in the – Super-conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES): • Due to directly storage energy in the magnetic field and no energy type transfer, charge and discharge of energy is very fast, power density is very high • Suitable to be used to improve power quality, increase system damping and improve power system stability especially for low frequency power oscillation • The application of SMES in power system depends on the development of Super-conducting technology (special material and its low cost, cryogenics, power electronic etc. ) 60

– ⑤Super Capacitor Energy Storage : 61 – ⑤Super Capacitor Energy Storage : 61

– Super Capacitor Energy Storage : • Due to directly storage energy in the – Super Capacitor Energy Storage : • Due to directly storage energy in the electric field and no energy type transfer, charge and discharge of energy is very fast, energy density is very high • Suitable to be used to improve power quality • Because its capacity is still small, it is suitable to be combined with other energy storage means (such as batteries) • It may be widely used in transportation 62

– ⑥Battery Energy Storage : VRB-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 63 – ⑥Battery Energy Storage : VRB-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 63

– Battery Energy Storage : Zn. Br-Zinc Bromine Flow Battery 64 – Battery Energy Storage : Zn. Br-Zinc Bromine Flow Battery 64

– Battery Energy Storage : Na. S-Soldium Sulfur Battery 65 – Battery Energy Storage : Na. S-Soldium Sulfur Battery 65

– Battery Energy Storage : Li-ion-Lithium Ion Battery 66 – Battery Energy Storage : Li-ion-Lithium Ion Battery 66

– Battery Energy Storage : Lead-Acid Battery 67 – Battery Energy Storage : Lead-Acid Battery 67

– Battery Energy Storage : • There a lot of different kinds of battery – Battery Energy Storage : • There a lot of different kinds of battery energy storage with different features and cost • Suitable to be used to load leveling, improve power quality, assist renewable energy power generation to provide stable power output • It is usually made in module and easy to be installed by stages • Because it has energy transfer in charge and discharge process, power density is small, it is suitable to be combined with other energy storage means (such as super-capacitors, fly wheel, SMES) • It should be also combined with power electronic technology when applying in power system 68

(4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system (4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system • 2) Main characteristic index (should be considered in selection of different energy storage means) – – Energy density (k. Wh or MWh) Power density (k. W or MW) Response time(-ms, -minute) Energy storage efficiency (charging and discharging efficiency) – Lifetime of facility (hours or years), cycling times – Economic factors (cost of investment, operation and maintenance fee) – Safety and environment concerns 69

(4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system (4) Basic features, adaptability and comparison of main energy storage technologies in power system • 3) Comparison of different energy storage technologies 70

 • Comparison of main features of different storage technologies 71 • Comparison of main features of different storage technologies 71

Main application fields (three categories) • (1)power quality & UPS & system stability (-ms, Main application fields (three categories) • (1)power quality & UPS & system stability (-ms, -s to guarantee power quality, system stable and power supply uninterrupted ) • (2)Bridging power (-in seconds to minutes to guarantee power supply uninterrupted when power supply transferring) • (3)Energy management (from minutes to hours, meet the need of load, such as load leveling 72

 • Other comparison ---according to weight and volume 73 • Other comparison ---according to weight and volume 73

 • Other comparison ---according to cost 74 • Other comparison ---according to cost 74

 • Other comparison ---according to efficiency (in lifetime) 75 • Other comparison ---according to efficiency (in lifetime) 75

 • Other comparison ---according to charging cost 76 • Other comparison ---according to charging cost 76

(5) conclusion • The following demands in power system make energy storage with faster (5) conclusion • The following demands in power system make energy storage with faster developing trend and good prospect: – ① peak load shaving and load leveling, – ② improving power quality, – ③to assist renewable energy power generation and DG to provide stable power output, – ④improve power system stability, increase reliability and to be used as emergency backup power supply 77

(5) conclusion • There a lot of different energy storage technologies to be selected (5) conclusion • There a lot of different energy storage technologies to be selected for using in power system (pump storage, fly wheel, compressed air, SMES, super-capacitor, battery etc. ) • The selection of them must consider their characteristic indexes and their application field three main categories : • ① Power quality & UPS & system stability, • ② Bridging power, • ③ Energy management 78

Thanks for your attention ! 谢谢! 79 Thanks for your attention ! 谢谢! 79