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Energy Storage in India October 05, 2016; IIC New Delhi Mr. Rajsekhar Budhavarapu 1 Energy Storage in India October 05, 2016; IIC New Delhi Mr. Rajsekhar Budhavarapu 1

Global Evolution of ES industry & way forward Storage 1. 0 [Phase till 2009] Global Evolution of ES industry & way forward Storage 1. 0 [Phase till 2009] Storage 2. 0 [2009 to 2012] • By late '70 s and early '80 s mark a period where storage became widely recognized as a potential key component of the electrical grid’s generation sector in addition to networks and load • Storage tech such as redox-flow batteries were conceived to spur broad deployment • Lead-acid were still in wide use for backup & offgrid applications • By late '90 s & mid-2000 s, saw an expanding array of companies racing to develop systems in virtually every subclass of storage technology -- including lithium-ion, super-capacitors, redox flow, aqueous sodium, flywheels, compressed air energy storage, liquid air energy storage, and ice • US Do. E’s 2009 ARRA storage demonstration program provided funding by far to demonstrate value propositions for over 530 megawatts of “shovel-ready” systems in large-scale use cases, as well as several new storage technologies with promise to catalyze new use cases. • Market reforms like FERC Order 890, 1000 & 792 & 755 opened markets for energy storage – In California, the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in 2009 put behind-the-meter storage on par with other new distributed generation technologies – Passage of AB 2514 in the state provided a precedent-setting pathway to have the systemwide value of storage defined and embedded into the planning process through its resulting procurement targets’ – FERC Order 755 in 2011, opened up ancillary services to recognize the value that energy storage create • As the markets evolved, lithium-ion emerged as the de facto choice for commercial deployments largely because the combination of technical maturity, product availability, declining cost, and warranty backing by large-balance-sheet entities made project risks manageable for developers

Global Evolution of ES industry & way forward Storage 3. 0 [2012 till 2015 Global Evolution of ES industry & way forward Storage 3. 0 [2012 till 2015 ] Storage 3. 0 [International till 2015 ] § More sophisticated markets quickly grew the stock of deployment both in front of & behind the meter • International markets are at a similar stage. Thousands of behind-the-meter residential units have been deployed in Germany, Australia, Japan & South Korea while largescale, front-of-meter projects are increasingly being deployed for frequency control and energy arbitrage • Energy Storage is increasingly considered important as the most cost-effective option for grid operators to balance renewable generation • Valuable experience gained in designing, developing, financing, building, and operating energy storage power plants. • Commercial structures such as defect warranties and performance guarantees, which reduce project risk to levels that financiers and utility customers find acceptable, are now available. • Successes & shortfalls from Storage 2. 0 will unearth value streams that open markets for systems with other than high energy-topower ratios (e. g. , peaker replacement) while providing concrete differentiation for alternates to LIB § The use cases have, for the most part, been more suited to storage systems with high powerto-energy ratio configurations. § Quick uptick in installations seen in 2015 can largely be attributed to the modification of market rules to comply with FERC Order 755 in late 2012 § Though project deployments are on the rise, the use cases are mostly limited to either frequency regulation and similar grid services or behind-the-meter demand management § Other use cases such as ramping capacity, reserves, solar integration, and T&D deferral have been demonstrated, but tariff structures have had limited commercial viability to this point § In US for 2015, 92 percent of the power capacity and 87 percent of the storage capacity have been installed in PJM (front-of-meter) and California (behind-the-meter, nearly all funded in part by the SGIP)

Energy Storage Way Forward 4. 0 [2016 to 2018] • • Storage 4. 0 Energy Storage Way Forward 4. 0 [2016 to 2018] • • Storage 4. 0 will see wide availability of new technologies and total deployments exceeding many GWhs per year. Number of RFPs and project announcements for long-duration storage systems is increasing & expect to see Industry speed picking up by the end of 2017 Concurrently, we are seeing initial signs that rising levels of RE deployments across the United States, Japan, Australia, South Korea and Europe are leading to export constraints, as neighboring grids within these regions reach their own saturation points. – Will be an important market driver for Storage 5. 0 from 2019 onwards. Markets will emerge that leverage the multiple benefits that long-duration storage provides due to a combination of regulatory changes, evolution of the generation mix, and falling storage costs • • Value propositions for technologies are emerging with high-volume mnf costs by 2019 Will see centralized and aggregated storage systems deployed providing combinations of investment deferral, congestion relief, time shifting of Energy, local capacity, frequency regulation/frequency control, and backup as primary, secondary and tertiary services. A key component in operation of these increasingly complex projects will be the availability of software that controls and manages dispatch of these storage assets to deliver forecasted revenue without compromising their state of health. As we exit Storage 4. 0 in 2019, will see solar- and/or wind-plus-storage projects in the 10 - to 100 -megawatt range, making them commonplace in island weak grids around the world

Energy Storage Industry 5. 0 Phase [2019 onwards] • The Storage 5. 0 phase Energy Storage Industry 5. 0 Phase [2019 onwards] • The Storage 5. 0 phase will begin in the early 2019. During this period, a spectrum of available storage system products, their associated low LCOS, and fully evolved market designs will create an environment where deployments exceed 50 GWh per year. Storage will be ubiquitous. • By this point, storage will have fully matured as an energy technology, making this a prolonged phase compared to the previous two phases. Standalone storage power plants located throughout urban areas will improve infrastructure utilization, maintain stability within the local network, and provide reliable backup. These systems and plants will mostly be aggregated to provide system operators with the capabilities of today’s central thermal generation plants, which they will replace. • As we transition fully into Storage 5. 0, we will see one or more technology product lines that provide LCOS levels below $150 per MWh for a 6 -hour storage system. India needs to capitalize on this ‘game-changing’ industry

Ambitious Wind and Solar Targets of GOI 6 Ambitious Wind and Solar Targets of GOI 6

Key Drivers for Energy Storage In India • Supporting the growth of intermittent renewable Key Drivers for Energy Storage In India • Supporting the growth of intermittent renewable energy sources • • Introduction of ancillary service markets • • CERC working to introduce ancillary markets in India [Hz regulations] Micro grid opportunities for Special Economic Zones (SEZs) • • CERC working to mandate forecasting and scheduling of RE generation High quality grid power required for supporting high-technology manufacturing/industry Power access to all by 2019 • Electrifying an extra 400 million households, many of them off-grid requiring micro grid with energy storage • Telecom Sector • • • With over 300, 000 telecom towers, need back up power using renewables Growing need for backup solutions for data centers National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) • NEMMP putting 6 -7 million electric and hybrid vehicles on the streets by 2020 7

Conceptual Use of Energy Storage Batteries Variable Generation Dispatchable Power 8 8 Conceptual Use of Energy Storage Batteries Variable Generation Dispatchable Power 8 8

Energy Storage Batteries technologies and their potential applications Maturity storage Duration (Hrs) Efficiency (%) Energy Storage Batteries technologies and their potential applications Maturity storage Duration (Hrs) Efficiency (%) Total Cycle in life Total Cost $/k. Wh Leading Manufacturer(s) Commercial 6 75% 4, 500 520 -550 NGK Japan Commercial 4 85 -90% 2, 200 425 -475 Xtreme Power, Ener. G 2 Demo 5 75% >10, 000 360 -380 Demo 5 60% >10, 000 290 -350 R&D 5 75% >10, 000 290 -340 Vanadium Redox Comemrcial 5 65 -75% >10, 000 620 -740 Ener Vault (USA) ZBB energy (USA) , Red flow (Australia) EOS (USA) Uni. Energy Technologies (USA), Prudent Energy (China), Sumitomo (Japan) Sodium Nickel Chloride (NA Nicl 2) Area of Application Commercial 6 90% 4500 NA Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Commercial 0. 25 -1 87 -90% >10, 000 4, 340 -6, 200 Advanced Lead Acid Demo 0. 25 -1 75 -90% >10, 000 2, 770 -3, 800 Commercial 7. 2 75% 4, 500 445 -555 Li-ion Demo 2 -4 90 -94% 4, 500 900 -1700 Vanadium Redox Demo 4 65 -70% >10, 000 750 -830 Zn/Br Flow Advance Lead Acid Zn/Br flow Demo 5 60 -65% >10, 000 340 -1350 BYD (China), LG Chem (USA), NEC (Japan) Uni. Energy Technologies, Prudent Energy , Sumitomo ZBB Energy, Red flow Demo 2 -5 85 -90% 4, 500 400 -950 Xtreme Power, Ener. G 2 Demo 2 60% >10, 000 725 -1950 Lithium Ion Demo 1 -4 80 -93% 5, 000 950 -3600 ZBB Energy, Red flow BYD (China), LG Chem (USA), NEC (Japan) Technology Sodium Sulfur (Na. S) Advanced Lead Acid Fe/Cr Redox Zn/Br Redox Bulk Storage & RE Integration Zn/air Redox Frequency Regulation Sodium Sulfur Utility T&D Grid Support applications Community Scale GE (USA) by the name Durathon , Fiamm (Italy) BYD (China), LG Chem (USA), NEC (Japan) Xtreme Power, Ener. G 2 NGK Japan Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options; EPRI ; December, 2010

Deployment and experience with ESS Global Policy-push Overview California, USA Technology Worldwide installed Capacity Deployment and experience with ESS Global Policy-push Overview California, USA Technology Worldwide installed Capacity Major Projects • 185 MW for load leveling by TEPCO Japan Sodium 304 MW operational • 58 MW for load leveling by other Utilities in Japan Sulfur (Na. S) • 34 MW for 51 MW wind farm integration by JWD, Japan Advanced Lead Acid Fe/Cr Redox Zn/Br Redox • 36 MW for 153 MW WF integration by Duke Energy, 53 MW operational USA • 10 MW for 21 MW Kaheawa WF by First Wind, USA 250 k. W • 250 k. W demonstration Project under U. S. DOE ARRA Storage Demonstration grant 2 00 k. W operational • 500 k. W demonstration project by Sacramento 1. 25 MW under Municipal Utility District in USA construction Zn/air Redox Under R&D phase • 4 MW for 30. 6 MW Tomamae wind farm in Japan • 3 MW in Sumitomo office for peak shaving in Japan 13 MW operational Sodium 3 MW operational Nickel 18 MW under • 1 MW for 10 MW wind farm integration in Canada Chloride (NA construction Ni. Cl 2) Lithium Ion (Li-ion) • 20 MW for Grid support by AES in Chile 130 MW operational • 12 MW for Grid support by AES in Chile 60 MW under • 32 MW for 98 MW wind farm by AES in Virginia, USA construction • 8 MW for Freq Regulation by AES in New York USA Source : http: //www. eenews. net/stories/1059996345 Required the utilities to develop collectively 1. 3 GW of Energy Storage by 2020 New York, USA • Subsidies for storage at $2, 100/k. W for battery storage and $2, 600 for thermal storage Ontario, USA • Published a road map for procuring 50 MW of Energy Storage Puerto Rico, USA • • EOS planning to put up demo project in 2014, expected to be commercially available by 2016 Vanadium Redox • All new utility-scale renewable energy projects add storage equal to 30 percent of their capacity Germany • Total subsidy of € 25 million ($34. 8 million) ; for each house owners, 30% of ES component Japan • 10 billion yen ($98. 3 million) in subsidies for Energy storage. • Subsidy capped at ¥ 1 million (US$9, 846) for individuals and at ¥ 100 million (US$982, 000) for businesses

Example of an Operational Wind – Storage Project in Japan Location Project Status : Example of an Operational Wind – Storage Project in Japan Location Project Status : Commissioned Rated Capacity: Total Wind Battery Storage ES Cycle Efficiency Owner Construction Generation Offtaker Wind Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan Battery Storage 17 X 2 MW NGK Insulators’ Na. S batteries Grid monitoring & Control Yokogawa Electric Corporation systems 2008 85 MW 51 MW 34 MW 89% to 92% Japan Wind Development Company, Ltd. EPC: Kandenko Company, Ltd. Tohoku Electric Power Company…LT PPA 34 nos. of GE 1. 5 MW WTs • The 51 MW Wind Farm with energy storage capacity of 34 MW Sodium-Sulfur (Na. S) batteries • Storage of low cost off-peak wind power for sale during peak demand times • Na. S battery sets to charge primarily at night when demand for power is lower • Stored electricity to be supplied to utility grid, along with power directly generated by the wind turbines, during peak demand times • This system ensures a steady supply of power to the grid even during low wind speed Source: http: //www. eei. org/meetings/Meeting_Documents/Abe. pdf 11

Indian Energy Storage Market Potential ES Market in India by 2020 (25, 980 MW) Indian Energy Storage Market Potential ES Market in India by 2020 (25, 980 MW) Indian Energy Storage market could be segmen as: Wind & Solar PV Integration 6000 23% DG Replacement 17, 780 MW • Utility Scale involving • Distributed bulk generating IPP plants of – Wind & Solar PV Distributed consumer load end generation points like – Solar roof top – Off-grid projects – Diesel consumption abatement at DG operating poin IHS forecasted 40 GW World-wide installation – storage by 2022, of grid-connected energy. Grid Ancillary Services January 2014 – T&D deferral or congestion easing 0 0% Ancillary Services 1000 Hybrid & 4% Electric Vehicles 1200 5% Needs to be verified by detailed market studies • Each segment needs different regulatory & market business model after analyzing the monetizable benefits of Energy Storage Need for a National Energy Storage Mission 12

Way Forward Indian Industry has an unique opportunity to Leap-Frog this technology (the HOLY-GRAIL Way Forward Indian Industry has an unique opportunity to Leap-Frog this technology (the HOLY-GRAIL of the Electricity Sector) by undertaking a proactive role led by the Government, as Globally the Energy Storage industry is at cusp of exploding in the coming 3 to 4 years Demonstration, Innovation and R&D thrust needed • Establish Energy Storage demonstration projects for each of the 3 market segments with defined objective to address • • Regulatory and operational challenges Map and quantify the monitizeable benefits to various stakeholders ( IPPs, Customers, DISCOM, STU, CTU, carbon abatement) Regulatory, Market & Industry Development thrust • Under the India-Japan Energy partnership dialogue initiate a comprehensive Energy Storage market development programme with financial support from Bilateral financial institutions from US, Germany and Japan • The objective of such an exercise is to • • • International Advanced Research Center (ARCI) Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad National Chemical Laboratory, Pune IIT Madras, Dept of. Chemical CECRI, Chennai IIT Delhi IIT Bombay, dept of Earth Science and Engg • Evolve suitable business Models for commercialization • Some of the Indian Research Centers working in ES sector are Estimate the monitizeable benefits of energy storage for each application segments • Start Industry linked R& D in India with funding support for design, development, testing, Evolution of Standards and manufacturing (including Technology transfer, and joint R&D with intellectual rights sharing) Market Assessment: Identify specific applications and combination of applications that are particularly suited for energy storage system Estimate the cost reduction through local manufacturing (Li-ion, Flow Batteries & NAS batteries) Advantages/benefits to Global Industry partnering g with India • ES Industry to have access & market for the large potential Indian market • Allows ES Industry to be globally competitive based 13 on Indian manufacturing base

What is needed in the Electricity Amendment Bill 2014 - from Energy Storage perspective What is needed in the Electricity Amendment Bill 2014 - from Energy Storage perspective ? Section Amendment needed for Energy Storage Section 2 (15 a) • Decentralised distributed generation system definition should also include generation from renewable sources integrated with energy storage systems to supply reliable power Section 2 (57 a) • Renewable energy sources should be segregated into firm and non -firm renewable energy sources • Bio-fuel, cogeneration, geothermal, waste (municipal & solid waste), etc. are firm renewable energy sources, which can be dispatched • Wind and solar PV needs energy storage devices integration to provide firm/dispatchable power • Separate classification would allow the regulatory commissions (at appropriate time) to determine tariff for non-firm renewable energy sources clubbed with appropriate energy storage devices Section 7 • Non-generating capacities like energy storage devices should be included as part of the spinning reserves definition • Non-spinning reserves should be introduced in the Act • With no mention of non-spinning reserves, the provisions/practice of demand response is also seriously curtained Section 79 and 86 • CERC and SERCs should also promote use of distributive energy storage devices 14

Thank You 15 Thank You 15